# YEAR 10- Physics Term 1 plan

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1 YEAR 10- Physics Term 1 plan Week Topic 1 Length and time Learning outcomes Use and describe the use of rules and measuring cylinders to find a length or a volume Use and describe the use of clocks and devices, both analogue and digital, for measuring an interval of time Obtain an average value for a small distance and for a short interval of time by measuring multiples (including the period of a pendulum)

2 2 Density Recall and use the equation Vm=ρ Describe an experiment to determine the density of a liquid and of a regularly shaped solid and make the necessary calculation Describe the determination of the density of an irregularly shaped solid by the method of displacement Predict whether an object will float based on density data Motion Define speed and calculate average speed from time and distance Plot and interpret a speed-time graph or a distance-time graph Recognise from the shape of a speed-time graph when a body is o at rest o moving with constant speed o moving with changing speed Calculate the area under a speed-time graph to work out the distance travelled for motion with constant acceleration Demonstrate understanding that acceleration and deceleration are related to changing speed including qualitative analysis of the gradient of a speed-time graph

3 3 Motion State that the acceleration of free fall for a body near to the Earth is constant Distinguish between speed and velocity Define and calculate acceleration using change of velocity/time taken Calculate speed from the gradient of a distance-time graph Calculate acceleration from the gradient of a speed-time graph Recognise linear motion for which the acceleration is constant Recognise motion for which the acceleration is not constant Understand deceleration as a negative acceleration Describe qualitatively the motion of bodies falling in a uniform gravitational field with and without air resistance (including reference to terminal velocity) 4 Mass and Weight Show familiarity with the idea of the mass of a body State that weight is a gravitational force Distinguish between mass and weight Recall and use the equation W = mg Demonstrate understanding that weights (and hence masses) may be compared using a balance Demonstrate an understanding that mass is a property that resists change in motion Describe, and use the concept of, weight as the effect of a gravitational field on a mass Test

4 5 Reflection of light Describe the formation of an optical image by a plane mirror, and give its characteristics Recall and use the law angle of incidence = angle of reflection Recall that the image in a plane mirror is virtual Perform simple constructions, measurements and calculations for reflection by plane mirrors Refraction of light Describe an experimental demonstration of the refraction of light Use the terminology for the angle of incidence i and angle of refraction r and describe the passage of light through parallel-sided transparent material Give the meaning of critical angle Describe internal and total internal reflection Recall and use the definition of refractive index n in terms of speed Recall and use the equation sin isin r = n Recall and use n = 1sin c Describe and explain the action of optical fibres particularly in medicine and communications technology

5 6 Thin converging lens Describe the action of a thin converging lens on a beam of light Use the terms principal focus and focal length Draw ray diagrams for the formation of a real image by a single lens Describe the nature of an image using the terms enlarged/same size/diminished and upright/inverted Draw and use ray diagrams for the formation of a virtual image by a single lens Use and describe the use of a single lens as a magnifying glass Show understanding of the terms real image and virtual image 7 Dispersion of light Give a qualitative account of the dispersion of light as shown by the action on light of a glass prism including the seven colours of the spectrum in their correct order Recall that light of a single frequency is described as monochromatic Test

6 8 Current State that current is related to the flow of charge Use and describe the use of an ammeter, both analogue and digital State that current in metals is due to a flow of electrons Show understanding that a current is a rate of flow of charge and recall and use the equation I = Q/t Distinguish between the direction of flow of electrons and conventional current Electro-motive force State that the e.m.f. of an electrical source of energy is measured in volts Show understanding that e.m.f. is defined in terms of energy supplied by a source in driving charge round a complete circuit

7 9 Potential difference State that the potential difference (p.d.) across a circuit component is measured in volts Use and describe the use of a voltmeter, both analogue and digital Recall that 1 V is equivalent to 1 J/C Understand that electric circuits transfer energy from the battery or power source to the circuit components then into the surroundings Recall and use the equations P = IV and E = IVt Resistance State that resistance = p.d./current and understand qualitatively how changes in p.d. or resistance affect current Recall and use the equation R = V / I Describe an experiment to determine resistance using a voltmeter and an ammeter Relate (without calculation) the resistance of a wire to its length and to its diameter Sketch and explain the current-voltage characteristic of an ohmic resistor and a filament lamp Recall and use quantitatively the proportionality between resistance and length, and the inverse proportionality between resistance and cross-sectional area of a wire 10 Revision Revise all of term 1 in preparation for the Term 1 exam 11 Revision/Exam Further revision and exam 12 Review and improve Critically reflect on performance Identify improvements to be made for next term Identify weaknesses to be addressed

8 YEAR 10- Physics Term 2 plan Week Topic 1 Energy Learning outcomes Identify changes in kinetic, gravitational potential, chemical, elastic (strain), nuclear and internal energy that have occurred as a result of an event or process Recognise that energy is transferred during events and processes, including examples of transfer by forces (mechanical working), by electrical currents (electrical working), by heating and by waves Apply the principle of conservation of energy to simple examples Recall and use the expressions kinetic energy = ½mv2 and change in gravitational potential energy = mgδh Apply the principle of conservation of energy to examples involving multiple stages Explain that in any event or process the energy tends to become more spread out among the objects and surroundings (dissipated)

9 2 Energy resources Describe how electricity or other useful forms of energy may be obtained from: o chemical energy stored in fuel o water, including the energy stored in waves, in tides, and in water behind hydroelectric dams o geothermal resources o nuclear fission o heat and light from the Sun (solar cells and panels) o wind Give advantages and disadvantages of each method in terms of renewability, cost, reliability, scale and environmental impact Show a qualitative understanding of efficiency Understand that the Sun is the source of energy for all our energy resources except geothermal, nuclear and tidal Show an understanding that energy is released by nuclear fusion in the Sun Recall and use the equations: efficiency = useful energy output/energy input 100 efficiency = useful power output/power input Conduction and convection Describe experiments to demonstrate the properties of good and bad thermal conductors Give a simple molecular account of conduction in solids including lattice vibration and transfer by electrons Recognise convection as an important method of thermal transfer in fluids Relate convection in fluids to density changes and describe experiments to illustrate convection

10 4 Radiation Identify infra-red radiation as part of the electromagnetic spectrum Recognise that thermal energy transfer by radiation does not require a medium Describe the effect of surface colour (black or white) and texture (dull or shiny) on the emission, absorption and reflection of radiation Describe experiments to show the properties of good and bad emitters and good and bad absorbers of infra-red radiation Show understanding that the amount of radiation emitted also depends on the surface temperature and surface area of a body Identify and explain some of the everyday applications and consequences of conduction, convection and radiation 5 Revision/test/review

11 6-7 Electric charge State that there are positive and negative charges State that unlike charges attract and that like charges repel Describe simple experiments to show the production and detection of electrostatic charges State that charging a body involves the addition or removal of electrons Distinguish between electrical conductors and insulators and give typical examples State that charge is measured in coulombs State that the direction of an electric field at a point is the direction of the force on a positive charge at that point Describe an electric field as a region in which an electric charge experiences a force Describe simple field patterns, including the field around a point charge, the field around a charged conducting sphere and the field between two parallel plates (not including end effects) Give an account of charging by induction Recall and use a simple electron model to distinguish between conductors and insulators 8 Circuit diagrams Draw and interpret circuit diagrams containing sources, switches, resistors (fixed and variable), heaters, thermistors, light-dependent resistors, lamps, ammeters, voltmeters, galvanometers, magnetising coils, transformers, bells, fuses and relays Draw and interpret circuit diagrams containing diodes

12 9 Series and parallel circuits Understand that the current at every point in a series circuit is the same Give the combined resistance of two or more resistors in series State that, for a parallel circuit, the current from the source is larger than the current in each branch State that the combined resistance of two resistors in parallel is less than that of either resistor by itself State the advantages of connecting lamps in parallel in a lighting circuit Calculate the combined e.m.f. of several sources in series Recall and use the fact that the sum of the p.d.s across the components in a series circuit is equal to the total p.d. across the supply Recall and use the fact that the current from the source is the sum of the currents in the separate branches of a parallel circuit Calculate the effective resistance of two resistors in parallel 10 Dangers of electricity State the hazards of: o damaged insulation o overheating of cables o damp conditions State that a fuse protects a circuit Explain the use of fuses and circuit breakers and choose appropriate fuse ratings and circuit-breaker settings Explain the benefits of earthing metal cases

13 11 Revision week 12 End of term test/review YEAR 10- Physics Term 3 plan

14 Week Topic 1 States of matter The molecular model Learning outcomes State the distinguishing properties of solids, liquids and gases Describe qualitatively the molecular structure of solids, liquids and gases in terms of the arrangement, separation and motion of the molecules Interpret the temperature of a gas in terms of the motion of its molecules Describe qualitatively the pressure of a gas in terms of the motion of its molecules Show an understanding of the random motion of particles in a suspension as evidence for the kinetic molecular model of matter Describe this motion (sometimes known as Brownian motion) in terms of random molecular bombardment Relate the properties of solids, liquids and gases to the forces and distances between molecules and to the motion of the molecules Explain pressure in terms of the change of momentum of the particles striking the walls creating a force Show an appreciation that massive particles may be moved by light, fast-moving molecules

15 2 Evaporation Pressure Describe evaporation in terms of the escape of more-energetic molecules from the surface of a liquid Relate evaporation to the consequent cooling of the liquid Demonstrate an understanding of how temperature, surface area and draught over a surface influence evaporation Explain the cooling of a body in contact with an evaporating liquid Describe qualitatively, in terms of molecules, the effect on the pressure of a gas of: o a change of temperature at constant volume o a change of volume at constant temperature Recall and use the equation pv = constant for a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature 3 Thermal expansion Describe qualitatively the thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases at constant pressure Identify and explain some of the everyday applications and consequences of thermal expansion Explain, in terms of the motion and arrangement of molecules, the relative order of the magnitude of the expansion of solids, liquids and gases

16 4 Measurement of temperature Appreciate how a physical property that varies with temperature may be used for the measurement of temperature, and state examples of such properties Recognise the need for and identify fixed points Describe and explain the structure and action of liquid-in-glass thermometers Demonstrate understanding of sensitivity, range and linearity Describe the structure of a thermocouple and show understanding of its use as a thermometer for measuring high temperatures and those that vary rapidly Describe and explain how the structure of a liquid-in-glass thermometer relates to its sensitivity, range and linearity

17 5 Thermal capacity, melting point and boiling point Relate a rise in the temperature of a body to an increase in its internal energy Show an understanding of what is meant by the thermal capacity of a body Give a simple molecular account of an increase in internal energy Recall and use the equation thermal capacity = mc Define specific heat capacity Describe an experiment to measure the specific heat capacity of a substance Recall and use the equation change in energy = mcδt Describe melting and boiling in terms of energy input without a change in temperature State the meaning of melting point and boiling point Describe condensation and solidification in terms of molecules Distinguish between boiling and evaporation Use the terms latent heat of vaporisation and latent heat of fusion and give a molecular interpretation of latent heat Define specific latent heat Describe an experiment to measure specific latent heats for steam and for ice Recall and use the equation energy = ml

18 6 General wave properties Demonstrate understanding that waves transfer energy without transferring matter Describe what is meant by wave motion as illustrated by vibration in ropes and springs and by experiments using water waves Use the term wavefront Give the meaning of speed, frequency, wavelength and amplitude Distinguish between transverse and longitudinal waves and give suitable examples Describe how waves can undergo: o reflection at a plane surface o refraction due to a change of speed o diffraction through a narrow gap Describe the use of water waves to demonstrate reflection, refraction and diffraction Recall and use the equation v = f λ Describe how wavelength and gap size affects diffraction through a gap Describe how wavelength affects diffraction at an edge

19 7 Electromagnetic spectrum Describe the main features of the electromagnetic spectrum in order of wavelength State that all e.m. waves travel with the same high speed in a vacuum Describe typical properties and uses of radiations in all the different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum including: o radio and television communications (radio waves) o satellite television and telephones (microwaves) o electrical appliances, remote controllers for televisions and intruder alarms (infra-red) o medicine and security (X-rays) Demonstrate an awareness of safety issues regarding the use of microwaves and X-rays State that the speed of electromagnetic waves in a vacuum is m/s and is approximately the same in air

20 8-9 Sound Describe the production of sound by vibrating sources Describe the longitudinal nature of sound waves State that the approximate range of audible frequencies for a healthy human ear is 20 Hz to Hz Show an understanding of the term ultrasound Show an understanding that a medium is needed to transmit sound waves Describe an experiment to determine the speed of sound in air Relate the loudness and pitch of sound waves to amplitude and frequency Describe how the reflection of sound may produce an echo Describe compression and rarefaction State typical values of the speed of sound in gases, liquids and solids 10 Revision and exams 11 Revision and exams 12 Revision and exams

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