# HASTINGS HIGH SCHOOL

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1 Subject HASTINGS HIGH SCHOOL YEAR 11 EXAMINATION GUIDE COMBINED SCIENCE TRILOGY Physics Course code AQA GCSE COMBINED SCIENCE TRILOGY 8464 Website address Provisional examination dates Paper 1: s 18-21: Energy, Electricity, Particle model of matter, Atomic structure: 22 nd May 2019 Paper 2: s 22-24: Forces, Waves, Magnetism and Electromagnetism. 14 th June 2019 GCSE grade type awarded Coursework Paper 1 Paper (New 2016 Specification) There is no coursework but students are tested on 8 key practical investigations completed during the course in both examination papers. Paper 1: Written exam: 1 hour 15 minutes Foundation and Higher Tiers 70 marks 16.7% of GCSE Paper 2: Written exam: 1 hour 15 minutes Foundation and Higher Tier 70 marks 16.7% of GCSE Multiple choice, structured, closed short answer and open response style questions will be given in the examinations. 40% of the Physics examinations as a minimum will be Mathematically based questions. Extra Support The class will use past papers extensively throughout the course. We will focus on the extended style questions and the mathematical requirements of the course. Students have also been provided with a Required Practical Handbook. Revision book Higher Revision Guide ISBN: Higher Revision Guide ISBN: Useful websites

2 KNOWLEDGE GAPS ANALYSIS Unit 18 Energy (H) P (F) P P6.1.1 Energy changes in a System Define a system as an object or group of objects and state examples of changes in the way energy is stored in a system Describe how all the energy changes involved in an energy transfer and calculate relative changes in energy when the heat, work done or flow of charge in a system changes 167/ / 168 Use calculations to show on a common scale how energy in a system is redistributed Calculate the kinetic energy of an object by recalling and applying the equation: [ E k = ½mv 2 ] Calculate the amount of elastic potential energy stored in a stretched spring by applying, but not recalling, the equation: [ E e= ½ke 2 ] Calculate the amount of gravitational potential energy gained by an object raised above ground level by recalling and applying, the equation: [ E e = mgh ] Calculate the amount of energy stored in or released from a system as its temperature changes by applying, but not recalling, the equation: [ ΔE = mcδθ ] Define the term 'specific heat capacity' Define power as the rate at which energy is transferred or the rate at which work is done and the watt as an energy transfer of 1 joule per second

3 Calculate power by recalling and applying the equations: [ P = E/t & P = W/t ] Explain, using examples, how two systems transferring the same amount of energy can differ in power output due to the time taken (H) (F) P6.1.2 Conservation and dissipation of Energy State that energy can be transferred usefully, stored or dissipated, but cannot be created or destroyed and so the total energy in a system does not change Explain that only some of the energy in a system is usefully transferred, with the rest wasted, giving examples of how this wasted energy can be reduced Explain ways of reducing unwanted energy transfers and the relationship between thermal conductivity and energy transferred Describe how the rate of cooling of a building is affected by the thickness and thermal conductivity of its walls Calculate efficiency by recalling and applying the equation: [ efficiency = useful power output / total power input ] HT ONLY: Suggest and explain ways to increase the efficiency of an intended energy transfer P6.1.3 National and Global Energy Resources List the main renewable and nonrenewable energy resources and define what a renewable energy resource is Compare ways that different energy resources are used, including uses in transport, electricity generation and heating Explain why some energy resources are more reliable than

4 others, explaining patterns and trends in their use (H) (F) Evaluate the use of different energy resources, taking into account any ethical and environmental issues which may arise Justify the use of energy resources, with reference to both environmental issues and the limitations imposed by political, social, ethical or economic considerations

5

6 (H) (F) Unit 2 Electricity P6.2.1 Current, potential difference and resistance Draw and interpret circuit diagrams, including all common circuit symbols Define electric current as the rate of flow of electrical charge around a closed circuit Calculate charge and current by recalling and applying the formula: [ Q = It ] Explain that current is caused by a source of potential difference and it has the same value at any point in a single closed loop of a circuit Describe and apply the idea that the greater the resistance of a component, the smaller the current for a given potential difference (p.d.) across the component Calculate current, potential difference or resistance by recalling and applying the equation: [ V = IR ] Define an ohmic conductor Explain the resistance of components such as lamps, diodes, thermistors and LDRs and sketch/interpret IV graphs of their characteristic electrical behaviour Explain how to measure the resistance of a component by drawing an appropriate circuit diagram using correct circuit symbols Show by calculation and explanation that components in series have the same current passing through them Show by calculation and explanation that components connected in parallel have the same the potential difference across each of them / 181/ P Series and Parallel circuits

7 Calculate the total resistance of two components in series as the sum of the resistance of each component using the equation: [ R total = R 1 + R 2 ] Explain qualitatively why adding resistors in series increases the total resistance whilst adding resistors in parallel decreases the total resistance Solve problems for circuits which include resistors in series using the concept of equivalent resistance (H) (F) P6.2.3 Domestic uses and safety Explain the difference between direct and alternating voltage and current, stating what UK mains is Identify and describe the function of each wire in a three-core cable connected to the mains State that the potential difference between the live wire and earth (0 V) is about 230 V and that both neutral wires and our bodies are at, or close to, earth potential (0 V) Explain that a live wire may be dangerous even when a switch in the mains circuit is open by explaining the danger of providing any connection between the live wire and earth Explain how the power transfer in any circuit device is related to the potential difference across it and the current through it Calculate power by recalling and applying the equations: [ P = VI ] and [ P = I 2 R ] Describe how appliances transfer energy to the kinetic energy of motors or the thermal energy of heating devices Calculate and explain the amount of energy transferred by electrical work by recalling and applying the equations: [ E = Pt ] and [ E = QV ] P6.2.4 Energy Transfers / / / / 190

8 Explain how the power of a circuit device is related to the potential difference across it, the current through it and the energy transferred over a given time. Describe, with examples, the relationship between the power ratings for domestic electrical appliances and the changes in stored energy when they are in use Identify the National Grid as a system of cables and transformers linking power stations to consumers Explain why the National Grid system is an efficient way to transfer energy, with reference to change in potential difference reducing current (H) (F) / /

9 (H) (F) Unit 3 Particle model of matter P6.3.1 Changes of state and particle model Calculate the density of a material by recalling and applying the equation: [ ρ = m/v ] Recognise/draw simple diagrams to model the difference between solids, liquids and gases Use the particle model to explain the properties of different states of matter and differences in the density of materials Recall and describe the names of the processes by which substances change state Use the particle model to explain why a change of state is reversible and affects the properties of a substance, but not its mass P6.3.2 Internal energy and energy transfers State that the internal energy of a system is stored in the atoms and molecules that make up the system Explain that internal energy is the total kinetic energy and potential energy of all the particles in a system Calculate the change in thermal energy by applying but not recalling the equation [ E =m c θ ] Calculate the specific latent heat of fusion/vaporisation by applying, but not recalling, the equation: [ E = ml ] Interpret and draw heating and cooling graphs that include changes of state Distinguish between specific heat capacity and specific latent heat 169/ / 196 P6.3.3 Particle model and pressure Explain why the molecules of a gas are in constant random motion and that the higher the temperature of a gas, the greater the particles average kinetic energy

10 Explain, with reference to the particle model, the effect of changing the temperature of a gas held at constant volume on its pressure Calculate the change in the pressure of a gas or the volume of a gas (a fixed mass held at constant temperature) when either the pressure or volume is increased or decreased (H) (F)

11 Unit 4 Atomic structure Describe the basic structure of an atom and how the distance of the charged particles vary with the absorption or emission of electromagnetic radiation Define electrons, neutrons, protons, isotopes and ions Relate differences between isotopes to differences in conventional representations of their identities, charges and masses Describe how the atomic model has changed over time due to new experimental evidence, inc discovery of the atom and scattering experiments (inc the work of James Chadwick) Describe and apply the idea that the activity of a radioactive source is the rate at which its unstable nuclei decay, measured in Becquerel (Bq) by a Geiger-Muller tube Describe the penetration through materials, the range in air and the ionising power for alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays Apply knowledge of the uses of radiation to evaluate the best sources of radiation to use in a given situation Use the names and symbols of common nuclei and particles to complete balanced nuclear equations, by balancing the atomic numbers and mass numbers Define half-life of a radioactive isotope HT ONLY: Determine the half-life of a radioactive isotope from given information and calculate the net decline, expressed as a ratio, in a radioactive emission after a given number of half-lives (H) (F) P6.4.1 Atoms and isotopes / 197/ P6.4.2 Atoms and nuclear radiation

12 Compare the hazards associated with contamination and irradiation and outline suitable precautions taken to protect against any hazard the radioactive sources may present Discuss the importance of publishing the findings of studies into the effects of radiation on humans and sharing findings with other scientists so that they can be checked by peer review (H) (F) / 2/ 6 1/ 2/ 6

13 (H) (F) Unit 5 Forces P6.5.1 Forces and their interactions Identify and describe scalar quantities and vector quantities 201/ / 208 Identify and give examples of forces as contact or non-contact forces Describe the interaction between two objects and the force produced on each as a vector Describe weight and explain that its magnitude at a point depends on the gravitational field strength Calculate weight by recalling and using the equation: [ W = mg ] Represent the weight of an object as acting at a single point which is referred to as the object's centre of mass Calculate the resultant of two forces that act in a straight line HT ONLY: describe examples of the forces acting on an isolated object 203/ 204 or system HT ONLY: Use free body diagrams 204 to qualitatively describe examples where several forces act on an object and explain how that leads to a single resultant force or no force HT ONLY: Use free body diagrams 204 and accurate vector diagrams to scale, to resolve multiple forces and show magnitude and direction of the resultant HT ONLY: Use vector diagrams to illustrate resolution of forces, equilibrium situations and determine the resultant of two forces, to include both magnitude and direction 204 Describe energy transfers involved when work is done and calculate the work done by recalling and using the equation: [ W = Fs ] Describe what a joule is and state what the joule is derived from P6.4.2 Work done and energy transfer

14 Convert between newton-metres and joules. Explain why work done against the frictional forces acting on an object causes a rise in the temperature of the object Describe examples of the forces involved in stretching, bending or compressing an object Explain why, to change the shape of an object (by stretching, bending or compressing), more than one force has to be applied this is limited to stationary objects only Describe the difference between elastic deformation and inelastic deformation caused by stretching forces Describe the extension of an elastic object below the limit of proportionality and calculate it by recalling and applying the equation: [ F = ke ] Explain why a change in the shape of an object only happens when more than one force is applied Describe and interpret data from an investigation to explain possible causes of a linear and non-linear relationship between force and extension Calculate work done in stretching (or compressing) a spring (up to the limit of proportionality) by applying, but not recalling, the equation: [ E e= ½ke 2 ] Define distance and displacement and explain why they are scalar or vector quantities Express a displacement in terms of both the magnitude and direction Explain that the speed at which a person can walk, run or cycle depends on a number of factors and recall some typical speeds for walking, running, cycling (H) (F) P6.5.3 Forces and elasticity / / P4.5.4 Forces and motion

15 Make measurements of distance and time and then calculate speeds of objects in calculating average speed for non-uniform motion Explain why the speed of wind and of sound through air varies and calculate speed by recalling and applying the equation: [ s = v t ] Explain the vector scalar distinction as it applies to displacement, distance, velocity and speed HT ONLY: Explain qualitatively, with examples, that motion in a circle involves constant speed but changing velocity Represent an object moving along a straight line using a distance-time graph, describing its motion and calculating its speed from the graph's gradient Draw distance time graphs from measurements and extract and interpret lines and slopes of distance time graphs, Describe an object which is slowing down as having a negative acceleration and estimate the magnitude of everyday accelerations Calculate the average acceleration of an object by recalling and applying the equation: [ a = Δv/t ] Represent motion using velocity time graphs, finding the acceleration from its gradient and distance travelled from the area underneath HT ONLY: Interpret enclosed areas in velocity time graphs to determine distance travelled (or displacement) HT ONLY: Measure, when appropriate, the area under a velocity time graph by counting square Apply, but not recall, the equation: [ v 2 u 2 = 2as ] (H) (F)

16 Explain the motion of an object moving with a uniform velocity and identify that forces must be in effect if its velocity is changing, by stating and applying Newton s First Law Define and apply Newton's second law relating to the acceleration of an object Recall and apply the equation: [ F = ma ] HT ONLY: Describe what inertia is and give a definition Estimate the speed, accelerations and forces of large vehicles involved in everyday road transport Apply Newton s Third Law to examples of equilibrium situations Describe factors that can effect a driver s reactions time Explain methods used to measure human reaction times and recall typical results Interpret and evaluate measurements from simple methods to measure the different reaction times of students Evaluate the effect of various factors on thinking distance based on given data State typical reaction times and describe how reaction time (and therefore stopping distance) can be affected by different factors Explain methods used to measure human reaction times and take, interpret and evaluate measurements of the reaction times of students Explain how the braking distance of a vehicle can be affected by different factors, including implications for road safety Explain how a braking force applied to the wheel does work to reduce the vehicle's kinetic energy and increases the temperature of the brakes Explain and apply the idea that a greater braking force causes a larger deceleration and explain (H) (F) / / /

17 how this might be dangerous for drivers HT ONLY: Estimate the forces involved in the deceleration of road vehicles (H) 214/ 216 (F) HT ONLY: Calculate momentum by recalling and applying the equation: [ p = mv ] HT ONLY: Explain and apply the idea that, in a closed system, the total momentum before an event is equal to the total momentum after the event HT ONLY: Describe examples of momentum in a collision P6.5.5 Momentum

18 (H) (F) Unit 6 Waves P6.6.1 Waves in air, fluids and solids Describe waves as either transverse or longitudinal, defining these waves in terms of the direction of their oscillation and energy transfer and giving examples of each Define waves as transfers of energy from one place to another, carrying information Define amplitude, wavelength, frequency, period and wave speed / 220 and Identify them where appropriate on diagrams State examples of methods of measuring wave speeds in different media and Identify the suitability of apparatus of measuring frequency and wavelength Calculate wave speed, frequency or wavelength by applying, but not recalling, the equation: [ v = f λ ]and calculate wave period by recalling and applying the equation: [ T = 1/f ] Identify amplitude and wavelength from given diagrams Describe a method to measure the speed of sound waves in air Describe a method to measure the speed of ripples on a water surface P6.6.2 Electromagnetic waves Describe what electromagnetic waves are and explain how they are grouped List the groups of electromagnetic waves in order of wavelength Explain that because our eyes only detect a limited range of electromagnetic waves, they can only detect visible light HT ONLY: Explain how different wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation are reflected, refracted, absorbed or transmitted differently by different substances and types of surface / 225/

19 Illustrate the refraction of a wave at the boundary between two different media by constructing ray diagrams HT ONLY: Describe what refraction is due to and illustrate this using wave front diagrams HT ONLY: Explain how radio waves can be produced by oscillations in electrical circuits, or absorbed by electrical circuits Explain that changes in atoms and the nuclei of atoms can result in electromagnetic waves being generated or absorbed over a wide frequency range State examples of the dangers of each group of electromagnetic radiation and discuss the effects of radiation as depending on the type of radiation and the size of the dose State examples of the uses of each group of electromagnetic radiation, explaining why each type of electromagnetic wave is suitable for its applications (H) (F) / / 223/ / 225

20 (H) (F) Unit 7 Magnetism and electromagnetism P6.7.1 Permanent and induced magnetism, magnetic forces Describe the attraction and repulsion between unlike and like poles of permanent magnets and explain the difference between permanent and induced magnets Draw the magnetic field pattern of a bar magnet, showing how field strength and direction are indicated and change from one point to another Explain how the behaviour of a magnetic compass is related to evidence that the core of the Earth must be magnetic Describe how to plot the magnetic field pattern of a magnet using a compass P6.7.2 The motor effect State examples of how the magnetic effect of a current can be demonstrated and explain how a solenoid arrangement can increase the magnetic effect of the current Draw the magnetic field pattern for a straight wire carrying a current and for a solenoid (showing the direction of the field) HT ONLY: State and use Fleming's 230 left-hand rule and explain what the size of the induced force depends on HT ONLY: Calculate the force on a 229 conductor carrying a current at right angles to a magnetic field by applying, but not recalling, the equation: [ F = BIL ] HT ONLY: Explain how rotation is caused in an electric motor 229/ 230

21 1. OVERVIEW OF THE COURSE Unit s Brief summary

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