# Personalised Learning Checklists AQA Physics Paper 2

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1 4.5.1 Forces and their interactions Work done and energy AQA Physics (8463) from 2016 Topics P4.5. Forces Topic Student Checklist R A G Identify and describe scalar quantities and vector quantities Identify and give examples of forces as contact or non-contact forces Describe the interaction between two objects and the force produced on each as a vector Describe weight and explain that its magnitude at a point depends on the gravitational field strength Calculate weight by recalling and using the equation: [ W = mg ] Represent the weight of an object as acting at a single point which is referred to as the object's centre of mass Calculate the resultant of two forces that act in a straight line HT ONLY: describe examples of the forces acting on an isolated object or system HT ONLY: Use free body diagrams to qualitatively describe examples where several forces act on an object and explain how that leads to a single resultant force or no force HT ONLY: Use free body diagrams and accurate vector diagrams to scale, to resolve multiple forces and show magnitude and direction of the resultant HT ONLY: Use vector diagrams to illustrate resolution of forces, equilibrium situations and determine the resultant of two forces, to include both magnitude and direction Describe energy transfers involved when work is done and calculate the work done by recalling and using the equation: [ W = Fs ] Describe what a joule is and state what the joule is derived from Convert between newton-metres and joules. Explain why work done against the frictional forces acting on an object causes a rise in the temperature of the object Forces and elasticity Moments, levers and gears Describe examples of the forces involved in stretching, bending or compressing an object Explain why, to change the shape of an object (by stretching, bending or compressing), more than one force has to be applied this is limited to stationary objects only Describe the difference between elastic deformation and inelastic deformation caused by stretching forces Describe the extension of an elastic object below the limit of proportionality and calculate it by recalling and applying the equation: [ F = ke ] Explain why a change in the shape of an object only happens when more than one force is applied Describe and interpret data from an investigation to explain possible causes of a linear and non-linear relationship between force and extension Calculate work done in stretching (or compressing) a spring (up to the limit of proportionality) by applying, but not recalling, the equation: [ Ee= ½ke 2 ] Required practical 6: investigate the relationship between force and extension for a spring. PHY ONLY: State that a body in equilibrium must experience equal sums of clockwise and anticlockwise moments, recall and apply the equation: [ M = Fd ] PHY ONLY: Apply the idea that a body in equilibrium experiences an equal total of clockwise and anti-clockwise moments about any pivot PHY ONLY: Explain why the distance, d, must be taken as the perpendicular distance from the line of action of the force to the pivot PHY ONLY: Explain how levers and gears transmit the rotational effects of forces Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd,

2 4.5.5 Pressure and pressure differences in fluid Forces and motion PHY ONLY: Describe a fluid as either a liquid or a gas and explain that the pressure in a fluid causes a force to act at right angles (normal) to the surface of its container PHY ONLY: Recall and apply the equation: [ p = F/A ] PHY & HT ONLY: Explain why the pressure at a point in a fluid increases with the height of the column of fluid above and calculate differences in pressure in a liquid by applying [ p = h ρ g ] PHY & HT ONLY: Describe up thrust an object and explain why the density of the fluid has an effect on the up thrust experienced by an object submerged in it PHY & HT ONLY: Explain why an object floats or sinks, with reference to its weight, volume and the up thrust it experiences PHY ONLY: Describe a simple model of the Earth's atmosphere and of atmospheric pressure, explaining why atmospheric pressure varies with height above a surface Define distance and displacement and explain why they are scalar or vector quantities Express a displacement in terms of both the magnitude and direction Explain that the speed at which a person can walk, run or cycle depends on a number of factors and recall some typical speeds for walking, running, cycling Make measurements of distance and time and then calculate speeds of objects in calculating average speed for non-uniform motion Explain why the speed of wind and of sound through air varies and calculate speed by recalling and applying the equation: [ s = v t ] Explain the vector scalar distinction as it applies to displacement, distance, velocity and speed HT ONLY: Explain qualitatively, with examples, that motion in a circle involves constant speed but changing velocity Represent an object moving along a straight line using a distance-time graph, describing its motion and calculating its speed from the graph's gradient Draw distance time graphs from measurements and extract and interpret lines and slopes of distance time graphs, Describe an object which is slowing down as having a negative acceleration and estimate the magnitude of everyday accelerations Calculate the average acceleration of an object by recalling and applying the equation: [ a = Δv/t ] Represent motion using velocity time graphs, finding the acceleration from its gradient and distance travelled from the area underneath HT ONLY: Interpret enclosed areas in velocity time graphs to determine distance travelled (or displacement) HT ONLY: Measure, when appropriate, the area under a velocity time graph by counting square Apply, but not recall, the equation: [ v 2 u 2 = 2as ] PHY ONLY: Draw and interpret velocity-time graphs for objects that reach terminal velocity PHY ONLY: Interpret and explain the changing motion of an object in terms of the forces acting on it PHY ONLY: Explain how an object falling from rest through a fluid due to gravity reaches its terminal velocity Explain the motion of an object moving with a uniform velocity and identify that forces must be in effect if its velocity is changing, by stating and applying Newton s First Law Define and apply Newton's second law relating to the acceleration of an object Recall and apply the equation: [ F = ma ] HT ONLY: Describe what inertia is and give a definition Estimate the speed, accelerations and forces of large vehicles involved in everyday road transport Required practical 7: investigate the effect of varying the force on the acceleration of an object of constant mass, and the effect of varying the mass of an object on the acceleration Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd,

3 Apply Newton s Third Law to examples of equilibrium situations Describe factors that can affect a driver s reaction time Explain methods used to measure human reaction times and recall typical results Interpret and evaluate measurements from simple methods to measure the different reaction times of students Evaluate the effect of various factors on thinking distance based on given data PHY ONLY: Estimate the distance required for an emergency stop in a vehicle over a range of typical speeds PHY ONLY: Interpret graphs relating speed to stopping distance for a range of vehicles State typical reaction times and describe how reaction time (and therefore stopping distance) can be affected by different factors Explain methods used to measure human reaction times and take, interpret and evaluate measurements of the reaction times of students Explain how the braking distance of a vehicle can be affected by different factors, including implications for road safety Explain how a braking force applied to the wheel does work to reduce the vehicle's kinetic energy and increases the temperature of the brakes Explain and apply the idea that a greater braking force causes a larger deceleration and explain how this might be dangerous for drivers HT ONLY: Estimate the forces involved in the deceleration of road vehicles Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd,

4 4.5.7 Momentum HT ONLY: Calculate momentum by recalling and applying the equation: [ p = mv ] HT ONLY: Explain and apply the idea that, in a closed system, the total momentum before an event is equal to the total momentum after the event HT ONLY: Describe examples of momentum in a collision PHY & HT ONLY: Complete conservation of momentum calculations involving two objects PHY & HT ONLY: Explain that when a force acts on an object that is moving, or able to move, a change in momentum occurs PHY & HT ONLY: Calculate a force applied to an object, or the change in momentum it causes, by applying but not recalling the equation: [ F = m Δv / Δt ] PHY & HT ONLY: Explain that an increased force delivers an increased rate of change of momentum PHY & HT ONLY: Apply the idea of rate of change of momentum to explain safety features such as air bags, seat belts, helmets and cushioned surfaces Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd,

5 AQA Physics (8463) from 2016 Topics P4.6. Waves Topic Student Checklist R A G Describe waves as either transverse or longitudinal, defining these waves in terms of the direction of their oscillation and energy transfer and giving examples of each Define waves as transfers of energy from one place to another, carrying information Define amplitude, wavelength, frequency, period and wave speed and Identify them where appropriate on diagrams State examples of methods of measuring wave speeds in different media and Identify the suitability of apparatus of measuring frequency and wavelength Calculate wave speed, frequency or wavelength by applying, but not recalling, the equation: [ v = f λ] and calculate wave period by recalling and applying the equation: [ T = 1/f ] Identify amplitude and wavelength from given diagrams Describe a method to measure the speed of sound waves in air Describe a method to measure the speed of ripples on a water surface PHY ONLY: Demonstrate how changes in velocity, frequency and wavelength are interrelated in the transmission of sound waves from one medium to another Required practical 8: make observations to identify the suitability of apparatus to measure the frequency, wavelength and speed of waves in a ripple tank and waves in a solid PHY ONLY: Discuss the importance of understanding both mechanical and electromagnetic waves by giving examples, such as designing comfortable and safe structures and technologies PHY ONLY: Describe a wave's ability to be reflected, absorbed or transmitted at the boundary between two different materials PHY ONLY: Draw the reflection of a wave at a surface by constructing ray diagrams Required practical 9 (physics only): investigate the reflection of light by different types of surface and the refraction of light by different substances. PHY & HT ONLY: Describe, with examples, processes which convert wave disturbances between sound waves and vibrations in solids PHY & HT ONLY: Explain why such processes only work over a limited frequency range and the relevance of this to the range of human hearing, which is from 20 Hz to 20 khz PHY & HT ONLY: Define ultrasound waves and explain how these are used to form images of internal structures in both medical and industrial imaging PHY & HT ONLY: Compare the two types of seismic wave produced by earthquakes with reference to the media they can travel in and the evidence they provide of the structure of the Earth PHY & HT ONLY: Describe how echo sounding using high frequency sound waves is used to detect objects in deep water and measure water depth Waves in air, fluids and solids Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd,

7 AQA Physics (8463) from 2016 Topics P4.8. Space physics TOPIC Student Checklist R A G PHY ONLY: List the types of body that make up the solar system and describe our solar system as part of a galaxy PHY ONLY: Explain how stars are formed PHY ONLY: Describe the life cycle of a star the size of the Sun and of a star which is much more massive than the Sun PHY ONLY: Explain how fusion processes lead to the formation of new elements and how supernovas have allowed heavy elements to appear in later solar systems PHY & HT ONLY: Explain that, for circular orbits, the force of gravity leads to a constantly changing velocity but unchanged speed PHY & HT ONLY: Explain that, for a stable orbit, the radius must change if the speed changes Solar system; stability of orbital motions; satellites Red-shift PHY ONLY: Explain, qualitatively, the red-shift of light from galaxies that are receding and how this red-shift changes with distance from Earth PHY ONLY: Explain why the change of each galaxy s speed with distance is evidence of an expanding universe PHY ONLY: Explain how scientists are able to use observations to arrive at theories, such as the Big Bang theory and discuss that there is still much about the universe that is not understood Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd,

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