University of Hail Faculty of Engineering DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. ME Fluid Mechanics Lecture notes. Chapter 1


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1 University of Hail Faculty of Engineering DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ME Fluid Mechanics Lecture notes Chapter 1 Introduction and fluid properties Prepared by : Dr. N. Ait Messaoudene Based on: Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics Munson; Young; Okiishi; Huebsch, 6 th Edition, John Willey and Sons, st semester
2 What is Fluid Mechanics? First, what is a fluid? Three common states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. A fluid is either a liquid or a gas. If surface effects are not present, flow behaves similarly in all common fluids, whether gases or liquids. Formal definition of a fluid  A fluid is a substance which deforms continuously under the application of a shear stress.
3 Definition of stress  A stress is defined as a force per unit area, acting on an infinitesimal surface element. Stresses have both magnitude (force per unit area) and direction, and the direction is relative to the surface on which the stress acts. There are normal stresses and tangential stresses. Pressure is an example of a normal stress, and acts inward, toward the surface, and perpendicular to the surface. A shear stress is an example of a tangential stress, i.e. it acts along the surface, parallel to the surface. Friction due to fluid viscosity is the primary source of shear stresses in a fluid.
4 Free body diagram for a fluid particle at rest. A fluid at rest can have only normal stresses, since a fluid at rest cannot resist a shear stress. In this case, the sum of all the forces must balance the weight of the fluid element. This condition is known as hydrostatics. Here, pressure is the only normal stress which exists. Free body diagram for a fluid particle in motion. Since the fluid is in motion, it can have both normal and shear stresses, as shown by the free body diagram. The vector sum of all forces acting on the fluid element must equal the mass of the element times its acceleration (Newton's second law).
5 Next, what is Fluid mechanics? Mechanics is essentially the application of the laws of force and motion. Conventionally, it is divided into two branches, statics and dynamics. Applying this to fluids two branches of fluid mechanics: Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the study of fluids at rest. The main equation required for this is Newton's second law for nonaccelerating bodies, i.e. Fluid dynamics is the study of fluids in motion. The main equation required for this is Newton's second law for accelerating bodies, i.e.
6 Examples of problems that can be solved using fluid mechanics
7 PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS 1. Density, Specific Weight, Relative Density Density (ρ) = mass per unit volume of substance = δm/δv; [ρ] = [ML 3 ]. Variation of density with temperature for water Specific volume ( v) = Volume of fluid / mass of fluid = 1 / ρ Specific weight (γ) = force exerted by the earth's gravity upon a unit volume of the substance = ρg; [γ] = [ML 2 T 2 ]. Relative density (specific gravity) = ratio of mass density of the substance to that of water at a standard temperature and pressure = ρ/ρ w (nondimensional).
8 2. Viscosity Viscosity is a measure of the importance of friction in fluid flow. Consider, for example, a fluid in twodimensional steady shear between two parallel plates, as shown below. The bottom plate is fixed, while the upper plate is moving at a steady speed of U. the velocity of the fluid matches that of the wall at both the top and bottom walls. This is known as the no slip condition In fluid mechanics, shear stress, defined as a tangential force per unit area, is used rather than force itself, and is commonly denoted by τ. In simple shear flow such as this, the shear stress is directly proportional to the rate of deformation of the fluid, which in this case is equal to the slope of the velocity profile τ U/b.
9 Introducing the constant of proportionality μ, which is called the coefficient of viscosity; the Newton's equation of viscosity states that: τ = μ du/dy Fluids that follow the above relation are called Newtonian fluids. The coefficient of viscosity is also known as dynamic viscosity; its dimensions are [μ] = [ML 1 T 1 ] while its SI units are Pas. An ideal fluid is one which has zero viscosity, i.e., inviscid or nonviscous. Sometimes, it is more convenient to use kinematic viscosity, denoted by Greek letter "nu", which is simply defined as the viscosity divided by density, i.e. ν= μ/ρ Kinematic viscosity has the dimensions [ν] = [L 2 T 1 ], and its SI units are m 2 /s.
10 Newtonian fluids Typically, as temperature increases, the viscosity will decrease for a liquid, but will increase for a gas.
11 The fluid is nonnewtonian if the relation between shear stress and shear strain rate is nonlinear. e.g. Latex paint e.g. Toothpaste e.g. Quick sand
12 3. Vapor Pressure Vapor pressure is defined as the pressure at which a liquid will boil (vaporize). Cavitation phenomenon 4. Perfect Gas Law Very often we have fluid flows of gases at, or near, atmospheric pressure. In these cases, it can be considered as a perfect gas (or ideal) obeying to the ideal gas law: P = ρrt ; with R=R g /M g where R is called the perfect gas constant, R g is the Universal gas constant and M g is the gas molecular weight. The universal gas constant is R g 8.31 J/mol 5. Compressibility For most practical purposes liquids may be regarded as incompressible. However, there are certain cases, such as unsteady flow in pipes (e.g., water hammer), where the compressibility should be taken into account. Gases may also be treated as incompressible if the change in density is very small (typically less than 3%). An ideal fluid is an incompressible fluid.
13 6. Surface Tension and Capillarity Surface tension is a property of liquids which is felt at the interface between the liquid and another fluid (typically a gas). Surface tension has dimensions of force per unit length, and always acts parallel to the interface. A soap bubble is a good example to illustrate the effects of surface tension. How does a soap bubble remain spherical in shape? The answer is that there is a higher pressure inside the bubble than outside, much like a balloon. In fact, surface tension in the soap film acts much the same as the tension in the skin of a balloon.
14
15 Example 1. 1
16 Example 1. 2
17 Example 1. 3
18 Example 1. 3
19 Example 1. 4
20 Example 1.5: A standard bearing 500 mm Long and 151 mm in diameter encases a Shaft of 150 mm outer diameter. The oil film enclosed between the shaft and the bearing has a viscosity of 0.9 poise. What is the power lost in friction if the shaft revolves at 240 RPM? Find also the torque developed. Given : μ = 0.9 poise ; n=240 rpm ; l=151mm; dy=0.5mm du=πdn/60=3.14*.150*240/60=1.884 m/s τ = μ du/dy = N/m 2 Shear force F= τ A=339.12*π*.15*.500=79.90 N Power =F*u=79.90*1.884= W Torque=F*D/2 =79.90*.150/2 = Nm
21 Example 1. 6
22 Example 1. 6
23 Example 1. 7
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