# A drop forms when liquid is forced out of a small tube. The shape of the drop is determined by a balance of pressure, gravity, and surface tension

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "A drop forms when liquid is forced out of a small tube. The shape of the drop is determined by a balance of pressure, gravity, and surface tension"

Transcription

1 A drop forms when liquid is forced out of a small tube. The shape of the drop is determined by a balance of pressure, gravity, and surface tension forces. 2

2 Objectives 3

3 i i 2 1 INTRODUCTION Property: P, temperature T, volume V, and mass m. or extensive. Intensive properties: Extensive properties: Specific properties: Criterion to differentiate intensive and extensive properties. 4

4 Continuum continuum Despite the relatively large gaps between molecules, a substance can be treated as a continuum because of the very large number of molecules even in an extremely small volume. 5

5 The length scale associated with most flows, such as seagulls in flight, is orders of magnitude larger than the mean free path of the air molecules. Therefore, here, and for all fluid flows considered in this book, the continuum idealization is appropriate. 6

6 2 2 DENSITY AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY Density Specific gravity: Specific volume Specific weight: Density is mass per unit volume; specific volume is volume per unit mass. 7

7 R Density of Ideal Gases Equation of state: Ideal-gas equation of state: u: The universal gas constant The thermodynamic temperature scale in the SI is the Kelvin scale. In the English system, it is the Rankine scale. 8

8 The ideal-gas relation closely approximates the P-v-T behavior of real gases at low densities.. Air behaves as an ideal gas, even at very high speeds. In this schlieren image, a bullet traveling at about the speed of sound bursts through both sides of a balloon, forming two expanding shock waves. The turbulent wake of the bullet is also visible. In the range of practical interest, many familiar gases such as air, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, helium, argon, neon, and krypton and even heavier gases such as carbon dioxide can be treated as ideal gases with negligible error. 9

9 1

10 s 2 3 VAPOR PRESSURE AND CAVITATION Saturation temperature T sat Saturation pressure P sat Vapor pressure (P v ): of the liquid (Pv = Psat). Partial pressure:

11 The vapor pressure (saturation pressure) of a pure substance (e.g., water) is the pressure exerted by its vapor molecules when the system is in phase equilibrium with its liquid molecules at a given temperature.

12 cavitation bubbles cavitation Cavitation damage on a 16-mm by 23-mm aluminum sample tested at 60 m/s for 2.5 h. The sample was located at the cavity collapse region downstream of a cavity generator specifically designed to produce high damage potential.

13

14 2 4 ENERGY AND SPECIFIC HEATS total energy, E change Macroscopic forms of energy: Microscopic forms of energy: Internal energy, U: Kinetic energy, KE: Potential energy, PE: The macroscopic energy of an object changes with velocity and elevation.

15 Enthalpy Energy of a flowing fluid P/ flow energy flow work for a P = const. process For a T = const. process The internal energy u represents the microscopic energy of a nonflowing fluid per unit mass, whereas enthalpy h represents the microscopic energy of a flowing fluid per unit mass.

16 Specific Heats Specific heat at constant volume, c v Specific heat at constant pressure, c p Specific heat is the energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by one degree in a specified way. Constantvolume and constantpressure specific heats c v and c p (values are for helium gas).

17 2 5 COMPRESSIBILITY AND SPEED OF SOUND Coefficient of Compressibility the bulk modulus of elasticity the coefficient of volume expansion Fluids, like solids, compress when the applied pressure is increased from P 1 to P 2.

18 Coefficient of compressibility bulk modulus of compressibility bulk modulus of elasticity The coefficient of compressibility represents What is the coefficient of compressibility of a truly incompressible substance (v = constant)? A large value of indicates large is essentially incompressible incompressible a fluid with a

19 Water hammer: Water hammering can be quite destructive, leading to leaks or even structural damage. The effect can be suppressed with a water hammer arrestor. Water hammer arrestors: (a) A large surge tower built to protect the pipeline against water hammer damage. (b) Much smaller arrestors used for supplying water to a household washing machine.

20 The coefficient of compressibility of an ideal gas is equal to its absolute pressure, and the coefficient of compressibility of the gas increases with increasing pressure. The percent increase of density of an ideal gas during isothermal compression is equal to the percent increase in pressure. Isothermal compressibility:!

21 Coefficient of Volume Expansion winds, currents in oceans, rise of plumes in chimneys, the operation of hot-air balloons, heat transfer by natural convection, and even the rise of hot air and thus the phrase heat rises. variation of the density of a fluid with temperature at constant pressure Natural convection over a woman s hand. " "

22 ) ( ' & % \$ The coefficient of volume expansion (or volume expansivity): A large value of for a fluid means a large change in density with temperature, and the product T represents the fraction of volume change of a fluid that corresponds to a temperature change of T at constant pressure. gas (P = RT ) at a temperature T is equivalent to the inverse of the temperature: The coefficient of volume expansion is a measure of the change in volume of a substance with temperature at constant pressure. #

23 In the study of natural convection currents, the condition of the main fluid body that surrounds the finite hot or cold regions is indicated by the subscript infinity to serve as a reminder that this is the value at a distance where the presence of the hot or cold region is not felt. In such cases, the volume expansion coefficient can be expressed approximately as The combined effects of pressure and temperature changes on the volume change of a fluid can be determined by taking the specific volume to be a function of T and P. The fractional change in volume (or density) due to changes in pressure and temperature can be expressed approximately as + *

24 -,

25 0 /

26 The variation of the coefficient of volume expansion of water with temperature in the range of 20 C to 50 C. ; :

27 Speed of Sound and Mach Number Speed of sound (sonic speed): Control volume moving with the small pressure wave along a duct. Propagation of a small pressure wave along a duct. = <

28 Mach number Ma: The speed of sound changes with temperature and varies with the fluid. The Mach number can be different at different temperatures even if the flight speed is the same.? >

29

30 2 6 VISCOSITY Viscosity: Drag force: deformation resistance to A fluid moving relative to a body exerts a drag force on the body, partly because of friction caused by viscosity. C B

31 Newtonian fluids: Shear stress The behavior of a fluid in laminar flow between two parallel plates when the upper plate moves with a constant velocity. Shear force coefficient of viscosity Dynamic (absolute) viscosity Fs or N s/m2 or Pa s 1 poise = 0.1 Pa s E D

32 The rate of deformation (velocity gradient) of a Newtonian fluid is proportional to shear stress, and the constant of proportionality is the viscosity. Variation of shear stress with the rate of deformation for Newtonian and non-newtonian fluids (the slope of a curve at a point is the apparent viscosity of the fluid at that point). G G

33 J Kinematic viscosity /s or stoke 1 stoke = 1 cm 2 /s For liquids, For gases, For gases: Dynamic viscosity, in general, does not depend on pressure, but kinematic viscosity does. For liquids I H

34 The viscosity of a fluid is directly related to the pumping power needed to transport a fluid in a pipe or to move a body through a fluid. Viscosity is caused by the cohesive forces between the molecules in liquids and by the molecular collisions in gases, and it varies greatly with temperature. In a liquid, In a gas, The viscosity of liquids decreases and the viscosity of gases increases with temperature. L K

35 The variation of dynamic (absolute) viscosity of common fluids with temperature at 1 atm (1 N s/m 2 = 1kg/m s = lbf s/ft 2 ) N M

36 The variation of dynamic (absolute) viscosity of common fluids with temperature at 1 atm (1 N s/m 2 = 1 kg/m s = lbf s/ft 2 ). Q O

37 Ulength of the cylinder number of revolutions per unit time T S viscometer

38 W V

39 Z ] ` ^ [ _ [ c d b \ a [ Z c 2 7 SURFACE TENSION AND CAPILLARY EFFECT surface tension ^) and is usually expressed in the unit N/m. ` \ Z _ ^ [ ] c ]\\ surface energy em/m2. Some consequences of surface tension. Y X

40 Attractive forces acting on a liquid molecule at the surface and deep inside the liquid. Stretching a liquid film with a U- shaped wire, and the forces acting on the movable wire of length b. Surface tension: g f

41 The free-body diagram of half a droplet or air bubble and half a soap bubble. j h

42 p onn m w q p r m t n Capillary effect: Capillaries: Meniscus: contact angle tangent to the liquid surface makes with the solid surface at the point of contact. q) m t n n r t n m u Capillary Effect The contact angle for wetting and nonwetting fluids. The meniscus of colored water in a 4-mm-inner-diameter glass tube. Note that the edge of the meniscus meets the wall of the capillary tube at a very small contact angle. l k

43 The capillary rise of water and the capillary fall of mercury in a smalldiameter glass tube. The forces acting on a liquid column that has risen in a tube due to the capillary effect. Capillary rise is inversely proportional to the radius of the tube and density of the liquid. v v

44 y x

45 { z

46 }

47 Summary Continuum Density of Ideal Gases Coefficient of Compressibility Coefficient of Volume Expansion Speed of Sound and Mach Number ~

### Liquids and solids are essentially incompressible substances and the variation of their density with pressure is usually negligible.

Properties of Fluids Intensive properties are those that are independent of the mass of a system i.e. temperature, pressure and density. Extensive properties are those whose values depend on the size of

### Lecturer, Department t of Mechanical Engineering, SVMIT, Bharuch

Fluid Mechanics By Ashish J. Modi Lecturer, Department t of Mechanical Engineering, i SVMIT, Bharuch Review of fundamentals Properties of Fluids Introduction Any characteristic of a system is called a

### Welcome to MECH 280. Ian A. Frigaard. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia. Mech 280: Frigaard

Welcome to MECH 280 Ian A. Frigaard Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia Lectures 1 & 2: Learning goals/concepts: What is a fluid Apply continuum hypothesis Stress and viscosity

### BFC FLUID MECHANICS BFC NOOR ALIZA AHMAD

BFC 10403 FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER 1.0: Principles of Fluid 1.1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 1.2 Thermodynamic Properties of a Fluid: Density, specific weight, specific gravity, viscocity (kelikatan)berat

### COURSE NUMBER: ME 321 Fluid Mechanics I. Fluid: Concept and Properties

COURSE NUMBER: ME 321 Fluid Mechanics I Fluid: Concept and Properties Course teacher Dr. M. Mahbubur Razzaque Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering BUET 1 What is Fluid Mechanics? Fluid mechanics

### HYDRAULICS STAFF SELECTION COMMISSION CIVIL ENGINEERING STUDY MATERIAL HYDRAULICS

1 STAFF SELECTION COMMISSION CIVIL ENGINEERING STUDY MATERIAL Syllabus Hydraulics ( Fluid Mechanics ) Fluid properties, hydrostatics, measurements of flow, Bernoulli's theorem and its application, flow

### Introduction to Marine Hydrodynamics

1896 1920 1987 2006 Introduction to Marine Hydrodynamics (NA235) Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering First Assignment The first

### CHAPTER 1 Fluids and their Properties

FLUID MECHANICS Gaza CHAPTER 1 Fluids and their Properties Dr. Khalil Mahmoud ALASTAL Objectives of this Chapter: Define the nature of a fluid. Show where fluid mechanics concepts are common with those

### Petroleum Engineering Department Fluid Mechanics Second Stage Assist Prof. Dr. Ahmed K. Alshara

Continents Petroleum Engineering Department Fluid Mechanics Second Stage Assist Prof. Dr. Ahmed K. Alshara Chapter 1. Fluid Mechanics -Properties of fluids -Density, specific gravity, specific volume and

### University of Hail Faculty of Engineering DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. ME Fluid Mechanics Lecture notes. Chapter 1

University of Hail Faculty of Engineering DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ME 311 - Fluid Mechanics Lecture notes Chapter 1 Introduction and fluid properties Prepared by : Dr. N. Ait Messaoudene Based

### Petroleum Engineering Dept. Fluid Mechanics Second Stage Dr. Ahmed K. Alshara

Continents Chapter 1. Fluid Mechanics -Properties of fluids -Density, specific gravity, specific volume and Viscosity -Newtonian and non Newtonian fluids -Surface tension Compressibility -Pressure -Cavitations

### 1. The Properties of Fluids

1. The Properties of Fluids [This material relates predominantly to modules ELP034, ELP035] 1.1 Fluids 1.1 Fluids 1.2 Newton s Law of Viscosity 1.3 Fluids Vs Solids 1.4 Liquids Vs Gases 1.5 Causes of viscosity

### Thermodynamics. Atoms are in constant motion, which increases with temperature.

Thermodynamics SOME DEFINITIONS: THERMO related to heat DYNAMICS the study of motion SYSTEM an object or set of objects ENVIRONMENT the rest of the universe MICROSCOPIC at an atomic or molecular level

### MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS:

Important Definitions: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS: Fluid: A substance that can flow is called Fluid Both liquids and gases are fluids Pressure: The normal force acting per unit area of a surface is

### Chapter 1 Introduction and Basic Concepts

Chapter 1 Introduction and Basic Concepts 1-1 Thermodynamics and Energy Application Areas of Thermodynamics 1-2 Importance of Dimensions and Units Some SI and English Units Dimensional Homogeneity Unity

### Middle East Technical University Department of Mechanical Engineering ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Fall 2018 Section 4 (Dr.

Reading Assignments Middle East Technical University Department of Mechanical Engineering ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Fall 2018 Section 4 (Dr. Sert) Study Set 1 You can find the answers of some of the following

### ME3250 Fluid Dynamics I

ME3250 Fluid Dynamics I Section I, Fall 2012 Instructor: Prof. Zhuyin Ren Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Connecticut Course Information Website: http://www.engr.uconn.edu/~rzr11001/me3250_f12/

### INTRODUCTION DEFINITION OF FLUID. U p F FLUID IS A SUBSTANCE THAT CAN NOT SUPPORT SHEAR FORCES OF ANY MAGNITUDE WITHOUT CONTINUOUS DEFORMATION

INTRODUCTION DEFINITION OF FLUID plate solid F at t = 0 t > 0 = F/A plate U p F fluid t 0 t 1 t 2 t 3 FLUID IS A SUBSTANCE THAT CAN NOT SUPPORT SHEAR FORCES OF ANY MAGNITUDE WITHOUT CONTINUOUS DEFORMATION

### Fluids and their Properties

Chapter (1) Fluids and their Properties Dr. KHALIL MAHMOUD ALASTAL Eng.Mohammed AbuRahma Eng.Reem Sbaih 2017 Newton s Law of Viscosity: - / Non-Newtonian Fluids: - Mass Density: - / Specific weight: -

### AMME2261: Fluid Mechanics 1 Course Notes

Module 1 Introduction and Fluid Properties Introduction Matter can be one of two states: solid or fluid. A fluid is a substance that deforms continuously under the application of a shear stress, no matter

### Fluid Mechanics Introduction

Fluid Mechanics Introduction Fluid mechanics study the fluid under all conditions of rest and motion. Its approach is analytical, mathematical, and empirical (experimental and observation). Fluid can be

### Part II Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics By Munson, Young, and Okiishi

Part II Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics By Munson, Young, and Okiishi WHAT we will learn I. Characterization of Fluids - What is the fluid? (Physical properties of Fluid) II. Behavior of fluids - Fluid

### P = 1 3 (σ xx + σ yy + σ zz ) = F A. It is created by the bombardment of the surface by molecules of fluid.

CEE 3310 Thermodynamic Properties, Aug. 27, 2010 11 1.4 Review A fluid is a substance that can not support a shear stress. Liquids differ from gasses in that liquids that do not completely fill a container

### Chapter 1 Fluid Characteristics

Chapter 1 Fluid Characteristics 1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 Phases Solid increasing increasing spacing and intermolecular liquid latitude of cohesive Fluid gas (vapor) molecular force plasma motion 1.1.2 Fluidity

### Review of Fluid Mechanics

Chapter 3 Review of Fluid Mechanics 3.1 Units and Basic Definitions Newton s Second law forms the basis of all units of measurement. For a particle of mass m subjected to a resultant force F the law may

### CPO Science Foundations of Physics. Unit 8, Chapter 27

CPO Science Foundations of Physics Unit 8, Chapter 27 Unit 8: Matter and Energy Chapter 27 The Physical Properties of Matter 27.1 Properties of Solids 27.2 Properties of Liquids and Fluids 27.3 Properties

### Further Applications of Newton s Laws - Friction Static and Kinetic Friction

urther pplications of Newton s Laws - riction Static and Kinetic riction The normal force is related to friction. When two surfaces slid over one another, they experience a force do to microscopic contact

### Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

### What s important: viscosity Poiseuille's law Stokes' law Demo: dissipation in flow through a tube

PHYS 101 Lecture 29x - Viscosity 29x - 1 Lecture 29x Viscosity (extended version) What s important: viscosity Poiseuille's law Stokes' law Demo: dissipation in flow through a tube Viscosity We introduced

### Chapter 1: Basic Concepts

What is a fluid? A fluid is a substance in the gaseous or liquid form Distinction between solid and fluid? Solid: can resist an applied shear by deforming. Stress is proportional to strain Fluid: deforms

### Contents. I Introduction 1. Preface. xiii

Contents Preface xiii I Introduction 1 1 Continuous matter 3 1.1 Molecules................................ 4 1.2 The continuum approximation.................... 6 1.3 Newtonian mechanics.........................

### Nicholas J. Giordano. Chapter 10 Fluids

Nicholas J. Giordano www.cengage.com/physics/giordano Chapter 10 Fluids Fluids A fluid may be either a liquid or a gas Some characteristics of a fluid Flows from one place to another Shape varies according

### Chapter One Reviews of Thermodynamics Update on 2013/9/13

Chapter One Reviews of Thermodynamics Update on 2013/9/13 (1.1). Thermodynamic system An isolated system is a system that exchanges neither mass nor energy with its environment. An insulated rigid tank

### Fluid Mechanics. Spring 2009

Instructor: Dr. Yang-Cheng Shih Department of Energy and Refrigerating Air-Conditioning Engineering National Taipei University of Technology Spring 2009 Chapter 1 Introduction 1-1 General Remarks 1-2 Scope

### General Chemistry I. Dr. PHAN TẠI HUÂN Faculty of Food Science and Technology Nong Lam University. Module 3: The Three States of Matter

General Chemistry I Dr. PHAN TẠI HUÂN Faculty of Food Science and Technology Nong Lam University Module 3: The Three States of Matter Gas state (Equation of state: ideal gas and real gas). Liquid state

### ENGR 292 Fluids and Thermodynamics

ENGR 292 Fluids and Thermodynamics Scott Li, Ph.D., P.Eng. Mechanical Engineering Technology Camosun College Jan.13, 2017 Review of Last Class Course Outline Class Information Contact Information, Website

### FE Fluids Review March 23, 2012 Steve Burian (Civil & Environmental Engineering)

Topic: Fluid Properties 1. If 6 m 3 of oil weighs 47 kn, calculate its specific weight, density, and specific gravity. 2. 10.0 L of an incompressible liquid exert a force of 20 N at the earth s surface.

### CHAPTER (2) FLUID PROPERTIES SUMMARY DR. MUNZER EBAID MECH.ENG.DEPT.

CHAPTER () SUMMARY DR. MUNZER EBAID MECH.ENG.DEPT. 08/1/010 DR.MUNZER EBAID 1 System Is defined as a given quantity of matter. Extensive Property Can be identified when it is Dependent on the total mass

### Introduction to Aerodynamics. Dr. Guven Aerospace Engineer (P.hD)

Introduction to Aerodynamics Dr. Guven Aerospace Engineer (P.hD) Aerodynamic Forces All aerodynamic forces are generated wither through pressure distribution or a shear stress distribution on a body. The

### Fluid Properties and Units

Fluid Properties and Units CVEN 311 Continuum Continuum All materials, solid or fluid, are composed of molecules discretely spread and in continuous motion. However, in dealing with fluid-flow flow relations

### 1. Introduction, fluid properties (1.1, 2.8, 4.1, and handouts)

1. Introduction, fluid properties (1.1, 2.8, 4.1, and handouts) Introduction, general information Course overview Fluids as a continuum Density Compressibility Viscosity Exercises: A1 Fluid mechanics Fluid

### Non-Newtonian fluids is the fluids in which shear stress is not directly proportional to deformation rate, such as toothpaste,

CHAPTER1: Basic Definitions, Zeroth, First, and Second Laws of Thermodynamics 1.1. Definitions What does thermodynamic mean? It is a Greeks word which means a motion of the heat. Water is a liquid substance

### Principles of Convection

Principles of Convection Point Conduction & convection are similar both require the presence of a material medium. But convection requires the presence of fluid motion. Heat transfer through the: Solid

### Fluid Engineering Mechanics

Fluid Engineering Mechanics Chapter Fluid Properties: Density, specific volume, specific weight, specific gravity, compressibility, viscosity, measurement of viscosity, Newton's equation of viscosity,

### MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS

CHAPTER-10 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS QUESTIONS 1 marks questions 1. What are fluids? 2. How are fluids different from solids? 3. Define thrust of a liquid. 4. Define liquid pressure. 5. Is pressure

### Fluid Mechanics-61341

An-Najah National University College of Engineering Fluid Mechanics-61341 Chapter [1] Fundamentals 1 The Book (Elementary Fluid Mechanics by Street, Watters and Vennard) Each chapter includes: Concepts

### Temperature Thermal Expansion Ideal Gas Law Kinetic Theory Heat Heat Transfer Phase Changes Specific Heat Calorimetry Heat Engines

Temperature Thermal Expansion Ideal Gas Law Kinetic Theory Heat Heat Transfer Phase Changes Specific Heat Calorimetry Heat Engines Zeroeth Law Two systems individually in thermal equilibrium with a third

### s and FE X. A. Flow measurement B. properties C. statics D. impulse, and momentum equations E. Pipe and other internal flow 7% of FE Morning Session I

Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam General Section Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering October 26, 2010 s and FE X. A. Flow measurement B. properties C. statics D. impulse, and momentum

### Chapter -5(Section-1) Friction in Solids and Liquids

Chapter -5(Section-1) Friction in Solids and Liquids Que 1: Define friction. What are its causes? Ans : Friction:- When two bodies are in contact with each other and if one body is made to move then the

### Fluid Mechanics Theory I

Fluid Mechanics Theory I Last Class: 1. Introduction 2. MicroTAS or Lab on a Chip 3. Microfluidics Length Scale 4. Fundamentals 5. Different Aspects of Microfluidcs Today s Contents: 1. Introduction to

### Summary of Dimensionless Numbers of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer

1. Nusselt number Summary of Dimensionless Numbers of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer Average Nusselt number: convective heat transfer Nu L = conductive heat transfer = hl where L is the characteristic

### Outlines. simple relations of fluid dynamics Boundary layer analysis. Important for basic understanding of convection heat transfer

Forced Convection Outlines To examine the methods of calculating convection heat transfer (particularly, the ways of predicting the value of convection heat transfer coefficient, h) Convection heat transfer

### 1 FLUIDS AND THEIR PROPERTIES

FLUID MECHANICS CONTENTS CHAPTER DESCRIPTION PAGE NO 1 FLUIDS AND THEIR PROPERTIES PART A NOTES 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Fluids 1.3 Newton s Law of Viscosity 1.4 The Continuum Concept of a Fluid 1.5 Types

### Fluid Mechanics. du dy

FLUID MECHANICS Technical English - I 1 th week Fluid Mechanics FLUID STATICS FLUID DYNAMICS Fluid Statics or Hydrostatics is the study of fluids at rest. The main equation required for this is Newton's

### CHAPTER 10. States of Matter

CHAPTER 10 States of Matter Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetikos - Moving Based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion The motion has consequences Explains the behavior of Gases, Liquids,

### CHAPTER 10. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Five Assumptions of the KMT. Atmospheric Pressure

Kinetic Molecular Theory CHAPTER 10 States of Matter Kinetikos - Moving Based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion The motion has consequences Explains the behavior of Gases, Liquids,

### Physics 1501 Lecture 35

Physics 1501: Lecture 35 Todays Agenda Announcements Homework #11 (Dec. 2) and #12 (Dec. 9): 2 lowest dropped Honors students: see me after the class! Todays topics Chap.16: Temperature and Heat» Latent

### Chapter 10, Thermal Physics

CHAPTER 10 1. If it is given that 546 K equals 273 C, then it follows that 400 K equals: a. 127 C b. 150 C c. 473 C d. 1 200 C 2. A steel wire, 150 m long at 10 C, has a coefficient of linear expansion

### Summary PHY101 ( 2 ) T / Hanadi Al Harbi

الكمية Physical Quantity القانون Low التعريف Definition الوحدة SI Unit Linear Momentum P = mθ be equal to the mass of an object times its velocity. Kg. m/s vector quantity Stress F \ A the external force

### Name : Applied Physics II Exam One Winter Multiple Choice ( 7 Points ):

Name : e-mail: Applied Physics II Exam One Winter 2006-2007 Multiple Choice ( 7 Points ): 1. Pure nitrogen gas is contained in a sealed tank containing a movable piston. The initial volume, pressure and

### UNIT II CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER

UNIT II CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER Convection is the mode of heat transfer between a surface and a fluid moving over it. The energy transfer in convection is predominately due to the bulk motion of the fluid

CE 6303 MECHANICS OF FLUIDS L T P C QUESTION BANK 3 0 0 3 UNIT I FLUID PROPERTIES AND FLUID STATICS PART - A 1. Define fluid and fluid mechanics. 2. Define real and ideal fluids. 3. Define mass density

### What we will learn about now

Chapter 4: Gases What we will learn about now We will learn how volume, pressure, temperature are related. You probably know much of this qualitatively, but we ll learn it quantitatively as well with the

### Homework of chapter (1) (Solution)

بسم اهلل الرمحن الرحيم The Islamic University of Gaza, Civil Engineering Department, Fluid mechanics-discussion, Instructor: Dr. Khalil M. Al Astal T.A: Eng. Mohammed H El Nazli Eng. Sarah R Rostom First

### CHAPTER 13. States of Matter. Kinetic = motion. Polar vs. Nonpolar. Gases. Hon Chem 13.notebook

CHAPTER 13 States of Matter States that the tiny particles in all forms of matter are in constant motion. Kinetic = motion A gas is composed of particles, usually molecules or atoms, with negligible volume

### Although different gasses may differ widely in their chemical properties, they share many physical properties

IV. Gases (text Chapter 9) A. Overview of Chapter 9 B. Properties of gases 1. Ideal gas law 2. Dalton s law of partial pressures, etc. C. Kinetic Theory 1. Particulate model of gases. 2. Temperature and

### CHARACTERISTIC OF FLUIDS. A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted on by a shearing stress at any magnitude.

CHARACTERISTIC OF FLUIDS A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted on by a shearing stress at any magnitude. In a fluid at rest, normal stress is called pressure. 1 Dimensions,

### Fluid Mechanics II Viscosity and shear stresses

Fluid Mechanics II Viscosity and shear stresses Shear stresses in a Newtonian fluid A fluid at rest can not resist shearing forces. Under the action of such forces it deforms continuously, however small

### Chapter 10. Thermal Physics. Thermodynamic Quantities: Volume V and Mass Density ρ Pressure P Temperature T: Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

Chapter 10 Thermal Physics Thermodynamic Quantities: Volume V and Mass Density ρ Pressure P Temperature T: Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Temperature Scales Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids Ideal

### Class Notes Fall 2014

57:020 Fluid Mechanics Class Notes Fall 2014 Prepared by: Professor Fred Stern Typed by: Stephanie Schrader (Fall 1999) Corrected by: Jun Shao (Fall 2003, Fall 2005) Corrected by: Jun Shao, Tao Xing (Fall

### Solid to liquid. Liquid to gas. Gas to solid. Liquid to solid. Gas to liquid. +energy. -energy

33 PHASE CHANGES - To understand solids and liquids at the molecular level, it will help to examine PHASE CHANGES in a little more detail. A quick review of the phase changes... Phase change Description

### CHAPTER 16 A MACROSCOPIC DESCRIPTION OF MATTER

CHAPTER 16 A MACROSCOPIC DESCRIPTION OF MATTER This brief chapter provides an introduction to thermodynamics. The goal is to use phenomenological descriptions of the microscopic details of matter in order

### (2) The volume of molecules is negligible in comparison to the volume of gas. (3) Molecules of a gas moves randomly in all direction.

9.1 Kinetic Theory of Gases : Assumption (1) The molecules of a gas are identical, spherical and perfectly elastic point masses. (2) The volume of molecules is negligible in comparison to the volume of

### Fluid Mechanics Abdusselam Altunkaynak

Fluid Mechanics Abdusselam Altunkaynak 1. Unit systems 1.1 Introduction Natural events are independent on units. The unit to be used in a certain variable is related to the advantage that we get from it.

### Lesson 6 Review of fundamentals: Fluid flow

Lesson 6 Review of fundamentals: Fluid flow The specific objective of this lesson is to conduct a brief review of the fundamentals of fluid flow and present: A general equation for conservation of mass

### - Apply closed system energy balances, observe sign convention for work and heat transfer.

CHAPTER : ENERGY AND THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Objectives: - In this chapter we discuss energy and develop equations for applying the principle of conservation of energy. Learning Outcomes: - Demonstrate

### Physics 231 Topic 12: Temperature, Thermal Expansion, and Ideal Gases Alex Brown Nov

Physics 231 Topic 12: Temperature, Thermal Expansion, and Ideal Gases Alex Brown Nov 18-23 2015 MSU Physics 231 Fall 2015 1 homework 3 rd midterm final Thursday 8-10 pm makeup Friday final 9-11 am MSU

### MM303 FLUID MECHANICS I PROBLEM SET 1 (CHAPTER 2) FALL v=by 2 =-6 (1/2) 2 = -3/2 m/s

MM303 FLUID MECHANICS I PROBLEM SET 1 (CHAPTER ) FALL 018 1) For the velocity fields given below, determine: i) Whether the flow field is one-, two-, or three-dimensional, and why. ii) Whether the flow

### Understanding KMT using Gas Properties and States of Matter

Understanding KMT using Gas Properties and States of Matter Learning Goals: Students will be able to describe matter in terms of particle motion. The description should include Diagrams to support the

Table of Contents Foreword.... xiii Preface... xv Chapter 1. Fundamental Equations, Dimensionless Numbers... 1 1.1. Fundamental equations... 1 1.1.1. Local equations... 1 1.1.2. Integral conservation equations...

### Kinetic Theory (Kinetikos - Moving ) Based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion

Chapter 10 Kinetic Theory (Kinetikos - Moving ) Based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion The motion has consequences Behavior of Gases Physical Properties of Gases Ideal Gas an imaginary

### 1. Introduction Some Basic Concepts

1. Introduction Some Basic Concepts 1.What is a fluid? A substance that will go on deforming in the presence of a deforming force, however small 2. What Properties Do Fluids Have? Density ( ) Pressure

### INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS. Chapter 1. Mehmet Kanoglu. Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 6 th Edition. Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A.

Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 6 th Edition Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A. Boles McGraw-Hill, 2008 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS Mehmet Kanoglu Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

### ANSWERS 391. Chapter 9

ANSWERS 391 ANSWERS Chapter 9 9.1 1.8 9. (a) From the given graph for a stress of 150 10 6 N m - the strain is 0.00 Approximate yield strength of the material is 3 10 8 N m - 9.3 (a) Material A Strength

### Atomic Mass and Atomic Mass Number. Moles and Molar Mass. Moles and Molar Mass

Atomic Mass and Atomic Mass Number The mass of an atom is determined primarily by its most massive constituents: protons and neutrons in its nucleus. The sum of the number of protons and neutrons is called

### Simpo PDF Merge and Split Unregistered Version -

74. The rate of heat flow by conduction through a slab does NOT depend upon the: A. temperature difference between opposite faces of the slab B. thermal conductivity of the slab C. slab thickness D. cross-sectional

### 1.060 Engineering Mechanics II Spring Problem Set 1

1.060 Engineering Mechanics II Spring 2006 Due on Tuesday, February 21st Problem Set 1 Important note: Please start a new sheet of paper for each problem in the problem set. Write the names of the group

### 10 TEMPERATURE, THERMAL EXPANSION, IDEAL GAS LAW, AND KINETIC THEORY OF GASES.

10 TEMPERATURE, THERMAL EXPANSION, IDEAL GAS LAW, AND KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. Key words: Atoms, Molecules, Atomic Theory of Matter, Molecular Mass, Solids, Liquids, and Gases, Thermodynamics, State Variables,

### SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS - Here's a brief review of the atomic picture or gases, liquids, and solids GASES

30 SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS - Here's a brief review of the atomic picture or gases, liquids, and solids GASES * Gas molecules are small compared to the space between them. * Gas molecules move in straight lines

### We may have a general idea that a solid is hard and a fluid is soft. This is not satisfactory from

Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1 Some Characteristics of Fluids We may have a general idea that a solid is hard and a fluid is soft. This is not satisfactory from scientific or engineering point of view. In

### INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking

INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking Sixth Edition by Charles H. Corwin Chapter 11 The Gaseous State by Christopher Hamaker 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 1 Properties of Gases

### Chapter 10. Thermal Physics

Chapter 10 Thermal Physics Thermal Physics Thermal physics is the study of Temperature Heat How these affect matter Thermal Physics, cont Descriptions require definitions of temperature, heat and internal

### CE MECHANICS OF FLUIDS UNIT I

CE 6303- MECHANICS OF FLUIDS UNIT I 1. Define specific volume of a fluid and write its unit [N/D-14][M/J-11] Volume per unit mass of a fluid is called specific volume. Unit: m3 / kg. 2. Name the devices

### An-Najah National University Civil Engineering Department. Fluid Mechanics. Chapter 1. General Introduction

1 An-Najah National University Civil Engineering Department Fluid Mechanics Chapter 1 General Introduction 2 What is Fluid Mechanics? Mechanics deals with the behavior of both stationary and moving bodies

### Chapter 14. The Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory

Chapter 14 The Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory 14.1 Molecular Mass, the Mole, and Avogadro s Number The atomic number of an element is the # of protons in its nucleus. Isotopes of an element have different

### Ideal Gases. 247 minutes. 205 marks. theonlinephysicstutor.com. facebook.com/theonlinephysicstutor. Name: Class: Date: Time: Marks: Comments:

Ideal Gases Name: Class: Date: Time: 247 minutes Marks: 205 marks Comments: Page 1 of 48 1 Which one of the graphs below shows the relationship between the internal energy of an ideal gas (y-axis) and

### S15--AP Phys Q4--Heat-Thermo Ch13_14_15 PRACTICE

Name: Class: Date: S5--AP Phys Q4--Heat-Thermo Ch3_4_5 PRACTICE Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.. Which of the following is a thermodynamic

### R09. d water surface. Prove that the depth of pressure is equal to p +.

Code No:A109210105 R09 SET-1 B.Tech II Year - I Semester Examinations, December 2011 FLUID MECHANICS (CIVIL ENGINEERING) Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 75 Answer any five questions All questions carry equal