AMME2261: Fluid Mechanics 1 Course Notes


 Aubrey Lamb
 3 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Module 1 Introduction and Fluid Properties Introduction Matter can be one of two states: solid or fluid. A fluid is a substance that deforms continuously under the application of a shear stress, no matter how infinitesimal it is. Therefore, any fluid at rest has zero shear stress. Fluids are divided into liquids and gases. Liquids have closely packed molecules with strong cohesive forces and retain their volume in a gravitational field. Methods of Analysis Analytical fluid mechanics involves obtaining general analytical solutions for basic laws of fluid mechanics, such as the conservation of mass and thermodynamic laws. Numerical fluid mechanics involves obtaining numerical solutions for the governing equations for a set of specific initial and boundary conditions. There is also a field of experimental fluid mechanics. A system is defined as a quantity of matter or a region in space chosen for study. The mass or region outside the system is called the surroundings, and the real or imaginary surface that separates a system from its surroundings is called the boundary. Boundaries may be fixed or movable and a system may be comprised of several of each type. A closed system or control mass, such as a pistoncylinder, has a fixed amount of mass and no mass flow across its boundary. A closed system is assumed if not otherwise specified. Energy, in the form of heat or work, can cross the boundary. The volume of a closed system may not be fixed. In special cases, when even energy is not allowed to cross the boundary, the system is called an isolated system. An open system or control volume encloses a device which has mass flow across its boundary, for example a turbine. Both mass and energy (heat or work) can cross the system boundary, which is called a control surface and can be real or imaginary. In general, any arbitrary region in space can be selected as a control volume. Reference Frames A Lagrangian reference frame is a moving reference frame considering individual components governed by Newton s second law. ΣF = ma = m dv dt = m d) r dt ) For the Eulerian or fixed reference frame, a fixed point in space is monitored and flow past it is observed to obtain field solutions v. Dimensions, Units and Consistency v = v(r, t) Fundamental dimensions are length, mass, time and temperature, while others such as force are expressed in terms of the primary dimensions and are called secondary or derived dimensions.
2 Density and Continuum Fluids are aggregations of molecules, in which the distance between molecules is very large compared to the molecular diameter. Molecules are not fixed in a lattice, so there is microscopic uncertainty. Also, macroscopic uncertainty occurs when the observation volume is very large and aggregate variations occur. However, this uncertainty diminishes when the observation volume is large compared to the molecular spacing. ρ = m V v = V m = 1 ρ SG = ρ ρ H2 O γ = ρg In large engineering applications, a fluid is called a continuum, as the variation of properties is sufficiently smooth that differential calculus can be used in the analysis. However, at very low pressures, the molecular spacing can be comparable to the size of the system. Then, the continuum approximation must be replaced by the molecular theory of rarefied gas flows. Viscosity Viscosity is a measure of a fluid s resistance to a shear stress. It determines the fluid strain rate that is generated by an applied shear stress F 9 /A <. A Newtonian fluid, such as water, oil or air, is a fluid in which there is a linear relationship between the applied shear and the resulting strain rate. δθ is the shear angle and the upper surface travels at velocity δu greater than the lower surface. Dynamic viscosity μ has units ML 1 t 1 and kinematic viscosity v has units L 2 t 1. τ = μ dθ du = μ dt dy v = μ ρ 2
3 NonNewtonian fluids do not have an exact linear relationship between shear stress and deformation rate. Fluids for which η decreases with increasing deformation ate are called pseudoplastic or shear thinning fluids, such as toothpaste or paint. Fluids for which η increases with increasing deformation rate are called dilatant or shear thickening fluids, such as sandy solutions. For these kinds of fluids, apparent viscosity η is used. τ = η du dy Surface Tension At an interface between two liquids, a liquid and a gas or a liquid and a solid, the liquid surface acts like a stretched elastic membrane in tension. This is caused by attractive intermolecular forces. For a droplet, these forces are not symmetrical, thus a net force pulls the surface towards the interior of a droplet. A liquid is wetting a surface when the contact angle between the surface and the tangent at the droplet edge is below 90. A nonwetted surface has the contact angle at above 90. F E = σπd 4σ cos θ Δh = ρgd 3
4 Module 2 Fluid Statics Pressure Pressure is the normal force exerted by a fluid per unit area, its units being the Pascal. Absolute pressure, the actual pressure at a given position, is measured relative to absolute zero pressure (or absolute vacuum ). Gauge pressure, the difference between the absolute pressure and the local atmospheric pressure, and vacuum pressure, which is pressure below atmospheric pressure, are measured relative to atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressure is measured by a barometer. We assume we are working with absolute pressure unless the problem explicitly states gauge pressure is used. +P gage is used when P abs > P atm and P gage is used for a vacuum gauge. P = F A While a static fluid at rest does not have shear stresses, there are normal stresses due to the weight, which cause pressure. Pascal s law states that in a fluid at rest, the pressure at a point is the same in all directions. P gauge = P abs P atm P vac = P atm P abs P abs = P atm ± P gauge Liquids are incompressible and therefore liquid density does not vary with depth. For bodies of liquid, it is convenient to take the reference point as the free surface exposed to air and measure positive distance down. P = P gauge = ρgh Gases are compressible and therefore gas density varies with depth due to changes in pressure and temperature. Hydraulic Pressure and Manometers Blaise Pascal ( ) knew that the force applied by a fluid is proportional to the surface area involved. He realised that two hydraulic cylinders of different areas could be connected, and the larger one could be used to exert a proportionally greater force than that applied to the smaller one (Pascal s Machine). Pascal s law states that the pressure applied to a confined fluid increases the pressure throughout by the same amount. The area ratio A 2/A 1 is called the ideal mechanical advantage of the hydraulic lift. P Z = P ) F Z A Z = F ) A ) F ) F Z = A ) A Z 4
5 Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces To determine the resultant force acting on a submerged surface, we must specify its magnitude, direction and line of action through which it acts at the centre of pressure with coordinates (x, y ). Here, the surface lies in the xyplane and the origin is at the intersection of the free surface and a line extending from the submerged surface. The hydrostatic force acts normal to the surface. y \ is the y coordinate of the centroid of area and P \ is the absolute pressure at the centroid. F ] = P^A + ρg sin θy \ A = (P^ + ρg sin θy \ )A = P \ A If there is air on one side of the plate, the atmospheric pressure component of F ] cancels out. F ] = ρg sin θy \ A = P \ gauge A Even though the magnitude of F ] can be calculated from the pressure at the centroid of area, this is not the point through which F ] acts (i.e. y \ y ; centroid of area centre of pressure). y d = y \ + ρg sin θi ff F ] x d = x \ + ρg sin θi hh F ] Where there is air at atmospheric pressure on the underside surface, the atmospheric pressure P^ cancels, which leads to the following equations. y d = y \ + I ff Ay \ x d = x \ + I hh Ax \ 5
Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering September 25, 2013
Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam Mechanics Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering September 25, 2013 s and FE Morning ( Mechanics) A. Flow measurement 7% of FE Morning B. properties Session
More informations and FE X. A. Flow measurement B. properties C. statics D. impulse, and momentum equations E. Pipe and other internal flow 7% of FE Morning Session I
Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam General Section Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering October 26, 2010 s and FE X. A. Flow measurement B. properties C. statics D. impulse, and momentum
More informationWe may have a general idea that a solid is hard and a fluid is soft. This is not satisfactory from
Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1 Some Characteristics of Fluids We may have a general idea that a solid is hard and a fluid is soft. This is not satisfactory from scientific or engineering point of view. In
More informationCHAPTER 1 Fluids and their Properties
FLUID MECHANICS Gaza CHAPTER 1 Fluids and their Properties Dr. Khalil Mahmoud ALASTAL Objectives of this Chapter: Define the nature of a fluid. Show where fluid mechanics concepts are common with those
More informationClass Notes Fall 2014
57:020 Fluid Mechanics Class Notes Fall 2014 Prepared by: Professor Fred Stern Typed by: Stephanie Schrader (Fall 1999) Corrected by: Jun Shao (Fall 2003, Fall 2005) Corrected by: Jun Shao, Tao Xing (Fall
More informationP = 1 3 (σ xx + σ yy + σ zz ) = F A. It is created by the bombardment of the surface by molecules of fluid.
CEE 3310 Thermodynamic Properties, Aug. 27, 2010 11 1.4 Review A fluid is a substance that can not support a shear stress. Liquids differ from gasses in that liquids that do not completely fill a container
More informationLecture 3. Properties of Fluids 11/01/2017. There are thermodynamic properties of fluids like:
11/01/2017 Lecture 3 Properties of Fluids There are thermodynamic properties of fluids like: Pressure, p (N/m 2 ) or [ML 1 T 2 ], Density, ρ (kg/m 3 ) or [ML 3 ], Specific weight, γ = ρg (N/m 3 ) or
More informationCHARACTERISTIC OF FLUIDS. A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted on by a shearing stress at any magnitude.
CHARACTERISTIC OF FLUIDS A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted on by a shearing stress at any magnitude. In a fluid at rest, normal stress is called pressure. 1 Dimensions,
More informationIntroduction to Marine Hydrodynamics
1896 1920 1987 2006 Introduction to Marine Hydrodynamics (NA235) Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering First Assignment The first
More informationPetroleum Engineering Dept. Fluid Mechanics Second Stage Dr. Ahmed K. Alshara
Continents Chapter 1. Fluid Mechanics Properties of fluids Density, specific gravity, specific volume and Viscosity Newtonian and non Newtonian fluids Surface tension Compressibility Pressure Cavitations
More informationNonNewtonian fluids is the fluids in which shear stress is not directly proportional to deformation rate, such as toothpaste,
CHAPTER1: Basic Definitions, Zeroth, First, and Second Laws of Thermodynamics 1.1. Definitions What does thermodynamic mean? It is a Greeks word which means a motion of the heat. Water is a liquid substance
More informationCE MECHANICS OF FLUIDS UNIT I
CE 6303 MECHANICS OF FLUIDS UNIT I 1. Define specific volume of a fluid and write its unit [N/D14][M/J11] Volume per unit mass of a fluid is called specific volume. Unit: m3 / kg. 2. Name the devices
More informationUniversity of Hail Faculty of Engineering DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. ME Fluid Mechanics Lecture notes. Chapter 1
University of Hail Faculty of Engineering DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ME 311  Fluid Mechanics Lecture notes Chapter 1 Introduction and fluid properties Prepared by : Dr. N. Ait Messaoudene Based
More informationPetroleum Engineering Department Fluid Mechanics Second Stage Assist Prof. Dr. Ahmed K. Alshara
Continents Petroleum Engineering Department Fluid Mechanics Second Stage Assist Prof. Dr. Ahmed K. Alshara Chapter 1. Fluid Mechanics Properties of fluids Density, specific gravity, specific volume and
More informationPlease remember all the unit that you use in your calculation. There are no marks for correct answer without unit.
CHAPTER 1 : PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS What is fluid? A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted on by a shearing stress at any magnitude. In a fluid at rest, normal stress is called
More informationLiquids and solids are essentially incompressible substances and the variation of their density with pressure is usually negligible.
Properties of Fluids Intensive properties are those that are independent of the mass of a system i.e. temperature, pressure and density. Extensive properties are those whose values depend on the size of
More informationFluid Mechanics. du dy
FLUID MECHANICS Technical English  I 1 th week Fluid Mechanics FLUID STATICS FLUID DYNAMICS Fluid Statics or Hydrostatics is the study of fluids at rest. The main equation required for this is Newton's
More informationNicholas J. Giordano. Chapter 10 Fluids
Nicholas J. Giordano www.cengage.com/physics/giordano Chapter 10 Fluids Fluids A fluid may be either a liquid or a gas Some characteristics of a fluid Flows from one place to another Shape varies according
More informationMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS:
Important Definitions: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS: Fluid: A substance that can flow is called Fluid Both liquids and gases are fluids Pressure: The normal force acting per unit area of a surface is
More informationFluid Mechanics Introduction
Fluid Mechanics Introduction Fluid mechanics study the fluid under all conditions of rest and motion. Its approach is analytical, mathematical, and empirical (experimental and observation). Fluid can be
More informationFluid Mechanics Abdusselam Altunkaynak
Fluid Mechanics Abdusselam Altunkaynak 1. Unit systems 1.1 Introduction Natural events are independent on units. The unit to be used in a certain variable is related to the advantage that we get from it.
More informationBFC FLUID MECHANICS BFC NOOR ALIZA AHMAD
BFC 10403 FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER 1.0: Principles of Fluid 1.1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 1.2 Thermodynamic Properties of a Fluid: Density, specific weight, specific gravity, viscocity (kelikatan)berat
More informationMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS
CHAPTER10 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS QUESTIONS 1 marks questions 1. What are fluids? 2. How are fluids different from solids? 3. Define thrust of a liquid. 4. Define liquid pressure. 5. Is pressure
More informationHYDRAULICS STAFF SELECTION COMMISSION CIVIL ENGINEERING STUDY MATERIAL HYDRAULICS
1 STAFF SELECTION COMMISSION CIVIL ENGINEERING STUDY MATERIAL Syllabus Hydraulics ( Fluid Mechanics ) Fluid properties, hydrostatics, measurements of flow, Bernoulli's theorem and its application, flow
More informationReview of Fluid Mechanics
Chapter 3 Review of Fluid Mechanics 3.1 Units and Basic Definitions Newton s Second law forms the basis of all units of measurement. For a particle of mass m subjected to a resultant force F the law may
More informationIntroduction to Marine Hydrodynamics
1896 1920 1987 2006 Introduction to Marine Hydrodynamics (NA235) Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering Shanghai Jiao Tong University
More informationChapter 14. Lecture 1 Fluid Mechanics. Dr. Armen Kocharian
Chapter 14 Lecture 1 Fluid Mechanics Dr. Armen Kocharian States of Matter Solid Has a definite volume and shape Liquid Has a definite volume but not a definite shape Gas unconfined Has neither a definite
More information1. Introduction, fluid properties (1.1, 2.8, 4.1, and handouts)
1. Introduction, fluid properties (1.1, 2.8, 4.1, and handouts) Introduction, general information Course overview Fluids as a continuum Density Compressibility Viscosity Exercises: A1 Fluid mechanics Fluid
More informationMULTIPLECHOICE PROBLEMS:(Two marks per answer) (Circle the Letter Beside the Most Correct Answer in the Questions Below.)
MULTIPLECHOICE PROLEMS:(Two marks per answer) (Circle the Letter eside the Most Correct Answer in the Questions elow.) 1. The absolute viscosity µ of a fluid is primarily a function of: a. Density. b.
More informationFluid Mechanics Discussion. Prepared By: Dr.Khalil M. AlAstal Eng.Ahmed S. AlAgha Eng.Ruba M. Awad
Discussion Prepared By: Dr.Khalil M. AlAstal Eng.Ahmed S. AlAgha Eng.Ruba M. Awad 20142015 Chapter (1) Fluids and their Properties Fluids and their Properties Fluids (Liquids or gases) which a substance
More informationTOPICS. Density. Pressure. Variation of Pressure with Depth. Pressure Measurements. Buoyant ForcesArchimedes Principle
Lecture 6 Fluids TOPICS Density Pressure Variation of Pressure with Depth Pressure Measurements Buoyant ForcesArchimedes Principle Surface Tension ( External source ) Viscosity ( External source ) Equation
More informationChapter 9: Solids and Fluids
Chapter 9: Solids and Fluids State of matters: Solid, Liquid, Gas and Plasma. Solids Has definite volume and shape Can be crystalline or amorphous Molecules are held in specific locations by electrical
More informationACE Engineering College
ACE Engineering College Ankushapur (V), Ghatkesar (M), R.R.Dist 501 301. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * MECHANICS OF FLUIDS & HYDRAULIC
More informationCOURSE NUMBER: ME 321 Fluid Mechanics I. Fluid: Concept and Properties
COURSE NUMBER: ME 321 Fluid Mechanics I Fluid: Concept and Properties Course teacher Dr. M. Mahbubur Razzaque Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering BUET 1 What is Fluid Mechanics? Fluid mechanics
More informationLagrangian description from the perspective of a parcel moving within the flow. Streamline Eulerian, tangent line to instantaneous velocity field.
Chapter 2 Hydrostatics 2.1 Review Eulerian description from the perspective of fixed points within a reference frame. Lagrangian description from the perspective of a parcel moving within the flow. Streamline
More information2. For a S.H.O. determine, (a) the total energy (E), the kinetic and potential energies. of half amplitude:
The amplitude of vibration and hence, the energy transferred into the vibrating system is found to depend on the difference between f and, its maximum when the frequency of the external force is equal
More informationPart II Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics By Munson, Young, and Okiishi
Part II Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics By Munson, Young, and Okiishi WHAT we will learn I. Characterization of Fluids  What is the fluid? (Physical properties of Fluid) II. Behavior of fluids  Fluid
More informationEnergy: The ability to cause changes. thermodynamics stems from therme (heat) and dynamis (power).
Energy: The ability to cause changes. thermodynamics stems from therme (heat) and dynamis (power). Thermodynamics: The science of energy. Conservation of energy principle: During an interaction, energy
More informationGeneral Physics I (aka PHYS 2013)
General Physics I (aka PHYS 2013) PROF. VANCHURIN (AKA VITALY) University of Minnesota, Duluth (aka UMD) OUTLINE CHAPTER 12 CHAPTER 19 REVIEW CHAPTER 12: FLUID MECHANICS Section 12.1: Density Section 12.2:
More informationChapter 1: Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics and Energy. Dimensions and Units
Chapter 1: Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics Every science has its own unique vocabulary associated with it. recise definition of basic concepts forms a sound foundation for development of a science and
More informationHydrostatic. Pressure distribution in a static fluid and its effects on solid surfaces and on floating and submerged bodies.
Hydrostatic Pressure distribution in a static fluid and its effects on solid surfaces and on floating and submerged bodies. M. Bahrami ENSC 283 Spring 2009 1 Fluid at rest hydrostatic condition: when a
More informationCHAPTER (2) FLUID PROPERTIES SUMMARY DR. MUNZER EBAID MECH.ENG.DEPT.
CHAPTER () SUMMARY DR. MUNZER EBAID MECH.ENG.DEPT. 08/1/010 DR.MUNZER EBAID 1 System Is defined as a given quantity of matter. Extensive Property Can be identified when it is Dependent on the total mass
More informationChapter 14. Fluid Mechanics
Chapter 14 Fluid Mechanics States of Matter Solid Has a definite volume and shape Liquid Has a definite volume but not a definite shape Gas unconfined Has neither a definite volume nor shape All of these
More information1 FLUIDS AND THEIR PROPERTIES
FLUID MECHANICS CONTENTS CHAPTER DESCRIPTION PAGE NO 1 FLUIDS AND THEIR PROPERTIES PART A NOTES 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Fluids 1.3 Newton s Law of Viscosity 1.4 The Continuum Concept of a Fluid 1.5 Types
More informationEric G. Paterson. Spring 2005
Eric G. Paterson Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Pennsylvania State University Spring 2005 Reading and Homework Read Chapter 3. Homework Set #2 has been posted. Due date: Friday 21 January.
More informationPhysics 201 Chapter 13 Lecture 1
Physics 201 Chapter 13 Lecture 1 Fluid Statics Pascal s Principle Archimedes Principle (Buoyancy) Fluid Dynamics Continuity Equation Bernoulli Equation 11/30/2009 Physics 201, UWMadison 1 Fluids Density
More informationFluid Mechanics. If deformation is small, the stress in a body is proportional to the corresponding
Fluid Mechanics HOOKE'S LAW If deformation is small, the stress in a body is proportional to the corresponding strain. In the elasticity limit stress and strain Stress/strain = Const. = Modulus of elasticity.
More informationA drop forms when liquid is forced out of a small tube. The shape of the drop is determined by a balance of pressure, gravity, and surface tension
A drop forms when liquid is forced out of a small tube. The shape of the drop is determined by a balance of pressure, gravity, and surface tension forces. 2 Objectives 3 i i 2 1 INTRODUCTION Property:
More informationMULTIPLECHOICE PROBLEMS :(Two marks per answer) (Circle the Letter Beside the Most Correct Answer in the Questions Below.)
Test Midterm 1 F2013 MULTIPLECHOICE PROBLEMS :(Two marks per answer) (Circle the Letter Beside the Most Correct nswer in the Questions Below.) 1. The absolute viscosity µ of a fluid is primarily a function
More informationChapter 1 Fluid Characteristics
Chapter 1 Fluid Characteristics 1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 Phases Solid increasing increasing spacing and intermolecular liquid latitude of cohesive Fluid gas (vapor) molecular force plasma motion 1.1.2 Fluidity
More informationStates of matter. Density high > high >> low (pressure dependent)
Fluids States of matter Solids Fluids crystalline amorphous liquids gasses Interatomic forces strong > strong >> very weak Density high > high >> low (pressure dependent) Density is an important material
More informationFluid Mechanics. Forces on Fluid Elements. Fluid Elements  Definition:
Fluid Mechanics Chapter 2: Fluid Statics Lecture 3 Forces on Fluid Elements Fluid Elements  Definition: Fluid element can be defined as an infinitesimal region of the fluid continuum in isolation from
More informationFluid Mechanics61341
AnNajah National University College of Engineering Fluid Mechanics61341 Chapter [2] Fluid Statics 1 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester 2010 [2] Fluid Statics Fluid Statics Problems Fluid statics refers to
More informationINTRODUCTION DEFINITION OF FLUID. U p F FLUID IS A SUBSTANCE THAT CAN NOT SUPPORT SHEAR FORCES OF ANY MAGNITUDE WITHOUT CONTINUOUS DEFORMATION
INTRODUCTION DEFINITION OF FLUID plate solid F at t = 0 t > 0 = F/A plate U p F fluid t 0 t 1 t 2 t 3 FLUID IS A SUBSTANCE THAT CAN NOT SUPPORT SHEAR FORCES OF ANY MAGNITUDE WITHOUT CONTINUOUS DEFORMATION
More informationPhy 212: General Physics II. Daniel Bernoulli ( )
Phy 1: General Physics II Chapter 14: Fluids Lecture Notes Daniel Bernoulli (1700178) Swiss merchant, doctor & mathematician Worked on: Vibrating strings Ocean tides Kinetic theory Demonstrated that as
More informationPressure in stationary and moving fluid Lab Lab On On Chip: Lecture 2
Pressure in stationary and moving fluid LabOnChip: Lecture Lecture plan what is pressure e and how it s distributed in static fluid water pressure in engineering problems buoyancy y and archimedes law;
More informationCHARACTERISTIC OF FLUIDS. A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted on by a shearing stress at any magnitude.
CHARACTERISTIC OF FLUIDS A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted on by a shearing stress at any magnitude. In a fluid at rest, normal stress is called pressure. 1 Dimensions,
More informationDIMENSIONS AND UNITS
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS A dimension is the measure by which a physical variable is expressed quantitatively. A unit is a particular way of attaching a number to the quantitative dimension. Primary Dimension
More informationFluid Mechanics61341
AnNajah National University College of Engineering Fluid Mechanics61341 Chapter [1] Fundamentals 1 The Book (Elementary Fluid Mechanics by Street, Watters and Vennard) Each chapter includes: Concepts
More informationWelcome to MECH 280. Ian A. Frigaard. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia. Mech 280: Frigaard
Welcome to MECH 280 Ian A. Frigaard Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia Lectures 1 & 2: Learning goals/concepts: What is a fluid Apply continuum hypothesis Stress and viscosity
More informationThermodynamics INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS. Copyright The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Thermodynamics INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS Copyright The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. THERMODYNAMICS AND ENERGY Thermodynamics: The science of energy.
More informationINTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS. Chapter 1. Mehmet Kanoglu. Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 6 th Edition. Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A.
Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 6 th Edition Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A. Boles McGrawHill, 2008 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS Mehmet Kanoglu Copyright The McGrawHill Companies, Inc.
More informationChapter 1 INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 11 The Fluid. 12 Dimensions. 13 Units. 14 Fluid Properties. 1 11 The Fluid: It is the substance that deforms continuously when subjected to a shear stress. Matter Solid Fluid
More informationThermodynamic System. A thermodynamic system is a volume in space containing a quantity of matter that is being studied for thermodynamic analysis.
Thermodynamic System A thermodynamic system is a volume in space containing a quantity of matter that is being studied for thermodynamic analysis. The system is bounded by an arbitrary surface called the
More informationCourse: TDEC202 (Energy II) dflwww.ece.drexel.edu/tdec
Course: TDEC202 (Energy II) Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach Course Director/Lecturer: Dr. Michael Carchidi Course Website URL dflwww.ece.drexel.edu/tdec 1 Course Textbook Cengel, Yunus A. and Michael
More informationChapter 9. Solids and Fluids. States of Matter. Solid. Liquid. Gas
Chapter 9 States of Matter Solids and Fluids Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Solids Have definite volume Have definite shape Molecules are held in specific locations By electrical forces Vibrate about equilibrium
More informationLecturer, Department t of Mechanical Engineering, SVMIT, Bharuch
Fluid Mechanics By Ashish J. Modi Lecturer, Department t of Mechanical Engineering, i SVMIT, Bharuch Review of fundamentals Properties of Fluids Introduction Any characteristic of a system is called a
More informationChapter 9. Solids and Fluids
Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Solids Have definite volume Have definite shape Molecules are held in specific locations By electrical forces Vibrate about equilibrium
More informationChapter 5(Section1) Friction in Solids and Liquids
Chapter 5(Section1) Friction in Solids and Liquids Que 1: Define friction. What are its causes? Ans : Friction: When two bodies are in contact with each other and if one body is made to move then the
More information11.1 Mass Density. Fluids are materials that can flow, and they include both gases and liquids. The mass density of a liquid or gas is an
Chapter 11 Fluids 11.1 Mass Density Fluids are materials that can flow, and they include both gases and liquids. The mass density of a liquid or gas is an important factor that determines its behavior
More informationME2320 Thermodynamics I. Summer I Instructor: Dr. William W. Liou
ME2320 Thermodynamics I Summer I 2016 Instructor: Dr. William W. Liou Syllabus http://homepages.wmich.edu/~liou/wp_course.htm Homework Solutions Format 3 How to get, and stay, ahead in this class? Preview
More informationFluid Properties and Units
Fluid Properties and Units CVEN 311 Continuum Continuum All materials, solid or fluid, are composed of molecules discretely spread and in continuous motion. However, in dealing with fluidflow flow relations
More informationPressure in stationary and moving fluid. LabOnChip: Lecture 2
Pressure in stationary and moving fluid LabOnChip: Lecture Fluid Statics No shearing stress.no relative movement between adjacent fluid particles, i.e. static or moving as a single block Pressure at
More informationStates of Matter. Physics 201, Lecture 25. Density ρ. Fluids
Physics 201, Lecture 25 Today s Topics n Fluid Mechanics (chapter 14) n Solids, Liquids, Gases, Plasmas n Pressure (14.1) n Pascal s Principle, Pressure Variation with Depth (14.2) n Pressure Measurement
More informationPhysics 106 Lecture 13. Fluid Mechanics
Physics 106 Lecture 13 Fluid Mechanics SJ 7 th Ed.: Chap 14.1 to 14.5 What is a fluid? Pressure Pressure varies with depth Pascal s principle Methods for measuring pressure Buoyant forces Archimedes principle
More informationFluids, Thermodynamics, Waves, and Optics Fluids
Fluids, Thermodynamics, Waves, and Optics Fluids Lana Sheridan De Anza College April 10, 2018 Overview static fluids pressure liquid pressure Pascal s law Elastic Properties of Solids We are considering
More informationFE Fluids Review March 23, 2012 Steve Burian (Civil & Environmental Engineering)
Topic: Fluid Properties 1. If 6 m 3 of oil weighs 47 kn, calculate its specific weight, density, and specific gravity. 2. 10.0 L of an incompressible liquid exert a force of 20 N at the earth s surface.
More informationChapter 9. Solids and Fluids
Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Solids Have definite volume Have definite shape Atoms or molecules are held in specific locations By electrical forces Vibrate about
More information1. The Properties of Fluids
1. The Properties of Fluids [This material relates predominantly to modules ELP034, ELP035] 1.1 Fluids 1.1 Fluids 1.2 Newton s Law of Viscosity 1.3 Fluids Vs Solids 1.4 Liquids Vs Gases 1.5 Causes of viscosity
More informationFluid Mechanics Answer Key of Objective & Conventional Questions
019 MPROVEMENT Mechanical Engineering Fluid Mechanics Answer Key of Objective & Conventional Questions 1 Fluid Properties 1. (c). (b) 3. (c) 4. (576) 5. (3.61)(3.50 to 3.75) 6. (0.058)(0.05 to 0.06) 7.
More informationChapter 12. Fluid Mechanics. A. The density ρ of a substance of uniform composition is defined as its mass M divided by its volume V.
Chapter 12 Fluid Mechanics 12.1 Density A. The density ρ of a substance of uniform composition is defined as its mass M divided by its volume V. That is,! = M V The density of water at 4 o C is 1000 kg/m
More informationSpring_#1. Thermodynamics. Youngsuk Nam.
Spring_#1 Thermodynamics Youngsuk Nam ysnam1@khu.ac.kr Chapter 1: Objectives Understand the importance of thermodynamics Identify the unique vocabulary associated with thermodynamics through the precise
More informationFluid Mechanics. The atmosphere is a fluid!
Fluid Mechanics The atmosphere is a fluid! Some definitions A fluid is any substance which can flow Liquids, gases, and plasmas Fluid statics studies fluids in equilibrium Density, pressure, buoyancy Fluid
More informationT H E R M O D Y N A M I C S M E
T H E R M O D Y N A M I C S M E THERMODYNAMICS CONTENTS 1 BASIC CONCEPTS IN THERMODYNAMICS 2 TEMPERATURE 3 WORK AND HEAT TRANSFER Thermodynamic system, surroundings, universe, system boundary Types of
More informationWhy do we need to study thermodynamics? Examples of practical thermodynamic devices:
Why do we need to study thermodynamics? Knowledge of thermodynamics is required to design any device involving the interchange between heat and work, or the conversion of material to produce heat (combustion).
More information Marine Hydrodynamics. Lecture 4. Knowns Equations # Unknowns # (conservation of mass) (conservation of momentum)
2.20  Marine Hydrodynamics, Spring 2005 Lecture 4 2.20  Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 4 Introduction Governing Equations so far: Knowns Equations # Unknowns # density ρ( x, t) Continuity 1 velocities
More informationMM303 FLUID MECHANICS I PROBLEM SET 1 (CHAPTER 2) FALL v=by 2 =6 (1/2) 2 = 3/2 m/s
MM303 FLUID MECHANICS I PROBLEM SET 1 (CHAPTER ) FALL 018 1) For the velocity fields given below, determine: i) Whether the flow field is one, two, or threedimensional, and why. ii) Whether the flow
More informationPhysics 153 Introductory Physics II. Week One: FLUIDS. Dr. Joseph J. Trout
Physics 153 Introductory Physics II Week One: FLUIDS Dr. Joseph J. Trout joseph.trout@drexel.edu 6103486495 States (Phases) of Matter: Solid: Fixed shape. Fixed size. Even a large force will not readily
More information1 Fluid Statics. 1.1 Fluid Properties. Fluid
1 Fluid Statics 1.1 Fluid Properties Fluid A fluid is a substance, which deforms when subjected to a force. A fluid can offer no permanent resistance to any force causing change of shape. Fluid flow under
More informationFormulae that you may or may not find useful. E v = V. dy dx = v u. y cp y = I xc/a y. Volume of an entire sphere = 4πr3 = πd3
CE30 Test 1 Solution Key Date: 26 Sept. 2017 COVER PAGE Write your name on each sheet of paper that you hand in. Read all questions very carefully. If the problem statement is not clear, you should ask
More informationChapter 3 Fluid Statics
Chapter 3 Fluid Statics 3.1 Pressure Pressure : The ratio of normal force to area at a point. Pressure often varies from point to point. Pressure is a scalar quantity; it has magnitude only It produces
More informationFluid Mechanics II Viscosity and shear stresses
Fluid Mechanics II Viscosity and shear stresses Shear stresses in a Newtonian fluid A fluid at rest can not resist shearing forces. Under the action of such forces it deforms continuously, however small
More informationChapter 15  Fluid Mechanics Thursday, March 24 th
Chapter 15  Fluid Mechanics Thursday, March 24 th Fluids Static properties Density and pressure Hydrostatic equilibrium Archimedes principle and buoyancy Fluid Motion The continuity equation Bernoulli
More informationApplied Fluid Mechanics
Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and
More informationThermodynamic Systems
Thermodynamic Systems For purposes of analysis we consider two types of Thermodynamic Systems: Closed System  usually referred to as a System or a Control Mass. This type of system is separated from its
More informationT H E R M O D Y N A M I C S M T
T H E R M O D Y N A M I C S M T THERMODYNAMICS AND RATE PROCESSES CONTENTS CHAPTER DESCRIPTION PAGE NO 1 Thermodynamics NOTES 1.1. Definitions 1 1.2. Laws of Thermodynamics 3 1.2.1. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
More informationLiquids CHAPTER 13 FLUIDS FLUIDS. Gases. Density! Bulk modulus! Compressibility. To begin with... some important definitions...
CHAPTER 13 FLUIDS FLUIDS Liquids Gases Density! Bulk modulus! Compressibility Pressure in a fluid! Hydraulic lift! Hydrostatic paradox Measurement of pressure! Manometers and barometers Buoyancy and Archimedes
More information7 The NavierStokes Equations
18.354/12.27 Spring 214 7 The NavierStokes Equations In the previous section, we have seen how one can deduce the general structure of hydrodynamic equations from purely macroscopic considerations and
More informationChapter 1 INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS
Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach Seventh Edition in SI Units Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A. Boles McGrawHill, 2011 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS Mehmet Kanoglu University of Gaziantep
More informationMEB41 Lab 1: Hydrostatics. Experimental Procedures
MEB41 Lab 1: Hydrostatics In this lab you will do four brief experiments related to the following topics: manometry, buoyancy, forces on submerged planes, and hydraulics (a hydraulic jack). Each experiment
More information