CHARACTERISTIC OF FLUIDS. A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted on by a shearing stress at any magnitude.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "CHARACTERISTIC OF FLUIDS. A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted on by a shearing stress at any magnitude."

Transcription

1 CHARACTERISTIC OF FLUIDS A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted on by a shearing stress at any magnitude. In a fluid at rest, normal stress is called pressure. 1

2 Dimensions, Dimensional homogeneity and Units Fluid has qualitative and quantitative characteristic. Qualitative : To identify the nature of fluid such as length, time, stress and velocity. Quantitative : Numerical measure of the characteristic. Quantitative requires both a number and a standard. Such standards are called unit. 2

3 Primary quantity : L : Length T : Time M : Mass θ: Temperature Secondary quantity : L 2 : Area LT -1 : Velocity ML -3 : Density 3

4 All theoretically derived equations are dimensionally homogeneous. The dimension of the left side of the equation must be the same as those on the right side, and all additive separate terms must have the same dimensions. Example : V LT = V o = + at LT + LT

5 5

6 UNIT 3 major systems that are commonly used in engineering. 1. British Gravitational (BG) System Length foot (ft) Time second (s) Force pound (lb) Temperature Fahrenheit (ºF) 2. International System (SI) Length meter (m) Time second (s) Mass kilogram (kg) Temperature Kelvin (K) The relation of Kelvin and Celsius is; K = C

7 3. English Engineering (EE) System Length foot (ft) Time second (s) Mass pound mass (lbm) Force pound (lb or lbf) Temperature Rankine (ºR) 7

8 8

9 Density MEASURES OF FLUID MASS AND WEIGHT Designated by the Greek symbol ρ (rho). Defined as its mass per unit volume. ρ = mass = volume kg 3 m Specific volume, is the volume per unit mass. This property is not commonly used in fluid mechanics but is used widely in thermodynamics. volume υ = mass = 1 ρ 9

10 10

11 11

12 Specific weight Designated by the Greek symbol γ (gamma). Defined as its weight per unit volume. weight mg kg g γ = = = = ρg 3 volume volume m Specific gravity Designated as SG. Defined as the ratio of the density of the fluid to the density of water at some specified temperature. Usually the specified temperature is taken as 4ºC. SG = ρ H 2 ρ C 12

13 Ideal gas law Gases are highly compressible in comparison to liquids, with changes in gas density directly related to changes in pressure and temperature through the equation ; P = ρrt P : pressure ρ : density R : gas constant T : temperature 13

14 The pressure in the ideal gas law must be expressed as an absolute pressure (abs), which means that it is measured relative to absolute zero pressure (a pressure that would only occur in a perfect vacuum) Standard sea-level atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi and 101 kpa, respectively. 14

15 VISCOSITY The property of viscosity is described the fluidity of the fluid. To resist the applied force, P, a shearing stress, τ, would be developed at the plate-material interface. The equilibrium is ; P = τa It revealed that as the shearing stress, τ, is increased by increasing P. 15

16 We can say that shear stress, τ, has direct proportion with the velocity gradient that is ; τ du dy The shearing stress and velocity gradient can be related with a relationship of the form ; τ = µ (mu) is dynamic viscosity. µ du dy 16

17 Fluids for which the shearing stress is linearly related to the rate of shearing strain are designated as Newtonian fluids. Fluids for which the shearing stress is not linearly related to the rate of shearing strain are designated as non-newtonian fluids. 17

18 18

19 19

20 BULK MODULUS A property that is commonly used to characterize compressibility is the bulk modulus. Defined as ; dp E = = dp υ dv dρ V ρ we conclude that liquids can be considered as incompressible for most practical engineering applications. 20

21 COMPRESSION & EXPANSION OF GAS When gases are compressed (or expanded) the relationship between pressure and density depends on the nature of the process. If the compression or expansion takes place under constant temperature conditions (isothermal process), then ; P = constant ρ If the compression or expansion is frictionless and no heat is exchanged with the surroundings (isentropic process), then ; P k ρ = constant 21

22 k is the ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure, c p, to the specific heat at constant volume, c v. k = c p c v 22

23 SURFACE TENSION The intensity of the molecular attraction per unit length along any line in the surface is called the surface tension. Designated by the Greek symbol, σ (sigma) Unit is N/m. The forces balance of half-cut spherical is shown as ; 2 2πRσ = PπR 23

24 The forces balance of capillary action is shown as ; 2 2π Rσ cosθ = ρghπr 24

25 PROBLEMS FOR CHAPTER 1 FLUID PROPERTIES QUESTION 1 According to information found in an old hydraulics book, the energy loss per unit weight of fluid flowing through a nozzle connected to a hose can be estimated by the formula 4 2 h = (0.04 to 0.09)( D / d) V / 2g where h is the energy loss per unit weight, D the hose diameter, d the nozzle tip diameter, V the fluid velocity in the hose, and g the acceleration of gravity. Do you think this equation is valid in any system of units? Explain. QUESTION 2 The no-slip condition means that a fluid sticks to a solid surface. This is true for both fixed and moving surfaces. Let two layers of fluid be dragged along by the motion of an upper plate as shown in Figure 1. The bottom plate is stationary. The top fluid puts a shear stress on the upper plate, and the lower fluid puts a shear stress on the bottom plate. Determine the ratio of these two shear stresses. QUESTION 3 Figure 1 A 25-mm-diameter shaft is pulled through a cylindrical bearing as shown in Figure 2. The lubricant that fills the 0.3-mm gap between the shaft and bearing is an oil having a kinematic viscosity of m 2 /s and a specific gravity of Determine the force P required to pull the shaft at a velocity of 3 m/s. Assume the velocity distribution in the gap is linear. Figure 2 1

26 QUESTION 4 A layer of water flows down an inclined fixed surface with the velocity profile shown in Figure 3. Determine the magnitude and direction of the shearing stress that the water exerts on the fixed surface for U = 2 m/s and h = 0.1 m. Figure 3 QUESTION 5 The viscosity of liquids can be measured through the use of a rotating cylinder viscometer of the type illustrated in Figure 4. In this device the outer cylinder is fixed and the inner cylinder is rotated with an angular velocity, ω. The torque T required to develop ω is measured and the viscosity is calculated from these two measurements. Develop an equation relating µ, ω, T, l, R o, and R i. Neglect end effects and assume the velocity distribution in the gap is linear. Figure 4 2

27 QUESTION 6 A conical body rotates at a constant angular velocity of 600 rpm in a container as shown in Figure 5. A uniform ft gap between the cone and the container is filled with oil that has a viscosity of 0.01 lb s/ft 2. Determine the torque required to rotate the cone. Figure 5 QUESTION 7 A 12-in.-diameter circular plate is placed over a fixed bottom plate with a 0.1-in. gap between the two plates filled with glycerin as shown in Figure 6. Determine the torque required to rotate the circular plate slowly at 2 rpm. Assume that the velocity distribution in the gap is linear and that the shear stress on the edge of the rotating plate is negligible. Figure 6 3

28 QUESTION 8 Surface tension forces can be strong enough to allow a double-edge steel razor blade to float on water, but a single-edge blade will sink. Assume that the surface tension forces act at an angle θ relative to the water surface as shown in Figure 7. (a) The mass of the double-edge blade is kg, and the total length of its sides is 206 mm. Determine the value of θ required to maintain equilibrium between the blade weight and the resultant surface tension force. (b) The mass of the single-edge blade is kg, and the total length of its sides is 154 mm. Explain why this blade sinks. Support your answer with the necessary calculations. Figure 7 Answer : 1. Valid. Similarity in units P = 286 (N) 4. τ = (N/m 2 ). Acting in the direction of flow. 3 2πR1 lµω 5. Torque = R o R1 6. Torque = ft.lb 7. Torque = ft.lb 8. (a) sinθ = (float) (b) sinθ = (impossible, sink) 4

29 PAST YEAR QUESTION QUESTION 1 Rajah S1 (a) Sebuah cakera berdiameter 75mm berputar pada kelajuan ω = 4 rad/s dalam sebuah bekas yang berputar pada kelajuan ω = 2 rad/s seperti dalam rajah S1. Bekas dipenuhi minyak berkelikatan Ns/m2. Dengan mengabaikan kesan kelikatan dihujung cakera, buktikan bahawa daya kilas yang diperlukan untuk memutarkan satu permukaan cakera ialah : T = / h dengan h ialah kelegaan antara cakera dengan bekas. (b) Jika kelegaan dibahagian atas cakera dalam soalan 1(a) ialah 3m dan dibahagian bawah ialah 2mm, tentukan daya kilas yang diperlukan untuk memutar cakera tersebut.

30 QUESTION 2 Figure Q1 (a) State and explain the Newton s law of viscosity. (b) A viscous clutch is to be made from a pair of closely spaced parallel discs enclosing a thin layer of viscous liquid a shown in Figure Q1. Develop algebraic expression for the torque and the power transmitted by the disc pair, in term of liquid viscosity, µ, disc radius, R, disc spacing, a, and the angular speed, ω i, of the input disc and ω o of the output disc. (c) Develop an expression for the slip ratio, s = ω/ω i, in term of ω i and the torque transmitted. ω is the difference of angular speed between the disc pair. Answer : 1. (b) Total Torque = (N.m) ( ω ωo) 2. (b) Torque = µ π a 2aT (c) S = 4 ω πµ R R 2

CHARACTERISTIC OF FLUIDS. A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted on by a shearing stress at any magnitude.

CHARACTERISTIC OF FLUIDS. A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted on by a shearing stress at any magnitude. CHARACTERISTIC OF FLUIDS A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted on by a shearing stress at any magnitude. In a fluid at rest, normal stress is called pressure. 1 Dimensions,

More information

Tutorial: Viscosity Question 1

Tutorial: Viscosity Question 1 Tutorial: Viscosity Question 1 ii I I (a) What is meant by Newtonian fluid? {b) T.he viscosity of liquids can be measured through the use of a rotating cylinder viscorneter of the type illustrated in Figure

More information

Homework of chapter (1) (Solution)

Homework of chapter (1) (Solution) بسم اهلل الرمحن الرحيم The Islamic University of Gaza, Civil Engineering Department, Fluid mechanics-discussion, Instructor: Dr. Khalil M. Al Astal T.A: Eng. Mohammed H El Nazli Eng. Sarah R Rostom First

More information

INTRODUCTION DEFINITION OF FLUID. U p F FLUID IS A SUBSTANCE THAT CAN NOT SUPPORT SHEAR FORCES OF ANY MAGNITUDE WITHOUT CONTINUOUS DEFORMATION

INTRODUCTION DEFINITION OF FLUID. U p F FLUID IS A SUBSTANCE THAT CAN NOT SUPPORT SHEAR FORCES OF ANY MAGNITUDE WITHOUT CONTINUOUS DEFORMATION INTRODUCTION DEFINITION OF FLUID plate solid F at t = 0 t > 0 = F/A plate U p F fluid t 0 t 1 t 2 t 3 FLUID IS A SUBSTANCE THAT CAN NOT SUPPORT SHEAR FORCES OF ANY MAGNITUDE WITHOUT CONTINUOUS DEFORMATION

More information

) = slugs/ft 3. ) = lb ft/s. ) = ft/s

) = slugs/ft 3. ) = lb ft/s. ) = ft/s 1. Make use of Tables 1. in the text book (See the last page in this assignent) to express the following quantities in SI units: (a) 10. in./in, (b) 4.81 slugs, (c).0 lb, (d) 7.1 ft/s, (e) 0.04 lb s/ft.

More information

Fluid Mechanics Introduction

Fluid Mechanics Introduction Fluid Mechanics Introduction Fluid mechanics study the fluid under all conditions of rest and motion. Its approach is analytical, mathematical, and empirical (experimental and observation). Fluid can be

More information

We may have a general idea that a solid is hard and a fluid is soft. This is not satisfactory from

We may have a general idea that a solid is hard and a fluid is soft. This is not satisfactory from Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1 Some Characteristics of Fluids We may have a general idea that a solid is hard and a fluid is soft. This is not satisfactory from scientific or engineering point of view. In

More information

Middle East Technical University Department of Mechanical Engineering ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Fall 2018 Section 4 (Dr.

Middle East Technical University Department of Mechanical Engineering ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Fall 2018 Section 4 (Dr. Reading Assignments Middle East Technical University Department of Mechanical Engineering ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Fall 2018 Section 4 (Dr. Sert) Study Set 1 You can find the answers of some of the following

More information

Part II Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics By Munson, Young, and Okiishi

Part II Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics By Munson, Young, and Okiishi Part II Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics By Munson, Young, and Okiishi WHAT we will learn I. Characterization of Fluids - What is the fluid? (Physical properties of Fluid) II. Behavior of fluids - Fluid

More information

P = 1 3 (σ xx + σ yy + σ zz ) = F A. It is created by the bombardment of the surface by molecules of fluid.

P = 1 3 (σ xx + σ yy + σ zz ) = F A. It is created by the bombardment of the surface by molecules of fluid. CEE 3310 Thermodynamic Properties, Aug. 27, 2010 11 1.4 Review A fluid is a substance that can not support a shear stress. Liquids differ from gasses in that liquids that do not completely fill a container

More information

ME3250 Fluid Dynamics I

ME3250 Fluid Dynamics I ME3250 Fluid Dynamics I Section I, Fall 2012 Instructor: Prof. Zhuyin Ren Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Connecticut Course Information Website: http://www.engr.uconn.edu/~rzr11001/me3250_f12/

More information

Introduction to Marine Hydrodynamics

Introduction to Marine Hydrodynamics 1896 1920 1987 2006 Introduction to Marine Hydrodynamics (NA235) Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering First Assignment The first

More information

CHAPTER 1 Fluids and their Properties

CHAPTER 1 Fluids and their Properties FLUID MECHANICS Gaza CHAPTER 1 Fluids and their Properties Dr. Khalil Mahmoud ALASTAL Objectives of this Chapter: Define the nature of a fluid. Show where fluid mechanics concepts are common with those

More information

Fluid Mechanics Discussion. Prepared By: Dr.Khalil M. Al-Astal Eng.Ahmed S. Al-Agha Eng.Ruba M. Awad

Fluid Mechanics Discussion. Prepared By: Dr.Khalil M. Al-Astal Eng.Ahmed S. Al-Agha Eng.Ruba M. Awad Discussion Prepared By: Dr.Khalil M. Al-Astal Eng.Ahmed S. Al-Agha Eng.Ruba M. Awad 2014-2015 Chapter (1) Fluids and their Properties Fluids and their Properties Fluids (Liquids or gases) which a substance

More information

Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

More information

The online of midterm-tests of Fluid Mechanics 1

The online of midterm-tests of Fluid Mechanics 1 The online of midterm-tests of Fluid Mechanics 1 1) The information on a can of pop indicates that the can contains 460 ml. The mass of a full can of pop is 3.75 lbm while an empty can weights 80.5 lbf.

More information

Fluid Properties and Units

Fluid Properties and Units Fluid Properties and Units CVEN 311 Continuum Continuum All materials, solid or fluid, are composed of molecules discretely spread and in continuous motion. However, in dealing with fluid-flow flow relations

More information

Fluid Mechanics-61341

Fluid Mechanics-61341 An-Najah National University College of Engineering Fluid Mechanics-61341 Chapter [1] Fundamentals 1 The Book (Elementary Fluid Mechanics by Street, Watters and Vennard) Each chapter includes: Concepts

More information

Chapter 1 Fluid Proper2es. CE Fluid Mechanics Diogo Bolster

Chapter 1 Fluid Proper2es. CE Fluid Mechanics Diogo Bolster Chapter 1 Fluid Proper2es CE30460 - Fluid Mechanics Diogo Bolster What is a Fluid? A substance that deforms con2nuously when acted on by a shearing stress A solid will deform to a certain point for a given

More information

Lecturer, Department t of Mechanical Engineering, SVMIT, Bharuch

Lecturer, Department t of Mechanical Engineering, SVMIT, Bharuch Fluid Mechanics By Ashish J. Modi Lecturer, Department t of Mechanical Engineering, i SVMIT, Bharuch Review of fundamentals Properties of Fluids Introduction Any characteristic of a system is called a

More information

ENGR 292 Fluids and Thermodynamics

ENGR 292 Fluids and Thermodynamics ENGR 292 Fluids and Thermodynamics Scott Li, Ph.D., P.Eng. Mechanical Engineering Technology Camosun College Jan.13, 2017 Review of Last Class Course Outline Class Information Contact Information, Website

More information

University of Hail Faculty of Engineering DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. ME Fluid Mechanics Lecture notes. Chapter 1

University of Hail Faculty of Engineering DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. ME Fluid Mechanics Lecture notes. Chapter 1 University of Hail Faculty of Engineering DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ME 311 - Fluid Mechanics Lecture notes Chapter 1 Introduction and fluid properties Prepared by : Dr. N. Ait Messaoudene Based

More information

Fluids and their Properties

Fluids and their Properties Chapter (1) Fluids and their Properties Dr. KHALIL MAHMOUD ALASTAL Eng.Mohammed AbuRahma Eng.Reem Sbaih 2017 Newton s Law of Viscosity: - / Non-Newtonian Fluids: - Mass Density: - / Specific weight: -

More information

Review of Fluid Mechanics

Review of Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3 Review of Fluid Mechanics 3.1 Units and Basic Definitions Newton s Second law forms the basis of all units of measurement. For a particle of mass m subjected to a resultant force F the law may

More information

Non-Newtonian fluids is the fluids in which shear stress is not directly proportional to deformation rate, such as toothpaste,

Non-Newtonian fluids is the fluids in which shear stress is not directly proportional to deformation rate, such as toothpaste, CHAPTER1: Basic Definitions, Zeroth, First, and Second Laws of Thermodynamics 1.1. Definitions What does thermodynamic mean? It is a Greeks word which means a motion of the heat. Water is a liquid substance

More information

Chapter 1 Fluid Characteristics

Chapter 1 Fluid Characteristics Chapter 1 Fluid Characteristics 1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 Phases Solid increasing increasing spacing and intermolecular liquid latitude of cohesive Fluid gas (vapor) molecular force plasma motion 1.1.2 Fluidity

More information

Liquids and solids are essentially incompressible substances and the variation of their density with pressure is usually negligible.

Liquids and solids are essentially incompressible substances and the variation of their density with pressure is usually negligible. Properties of Fluids Intensive properties are those that are independent of the mass of a system i.e. temperature, pressure and density. Extensive properties are those whose values depend on the size of

More information

HYDRAULICS STAFF SELECTION COMMISSION CIVIL ENGINEERING STUDY MATERIAL HYDRAULICS

HYDRAULICS STAFF SELECTION COMMISSION CIVIL ENGINEERING STUDY MATERIAL HYDRAULICS 1 STAFF SELECTION COMMISSION CIVIL ENGINEERING STUDY MATERIAL Syllabus Hydraulics ( Fluid Mechanics ) Fluid properties, hydrostatics, measurements of flow, Bernoulli's theorem and its application, flow

More information

MM303 FLUID MECHANICS I PROBLEM SET 1 (CHAPTER 2) FALL v=by 2 =-6 (1/2) 2 = -3/2 m/s

MM303 FLUID MECHANICS I PROBLEM SET 1 (CHAPTER 2) FALL v=by 2 =-6 (1/2) 2 = -3/2 m/s MM303 FLUID MECHANICS I PROBLEM SET 1 (CHAPTER ) FALL 018 1) For the velocity fields given below, determine: i) Whether the flow field is one-, two-, or three-dimensional, and why. ii) Whether the flow

More information

CE MECHANICS OF FLUIDS UNIT I

CE MECHANICS OF FLUIDS UNIT I CE 6303- MECHANICS OF FLUIDS UNIT I 1. Define specific volume of a fluid and write its unit [N/D-14][M/J-11] Volume per unit mass of a fluid is called specific volume. Unit: m3 / kg. 2. Name the devices

More information

Fluid Mechanics Abdusselam Altunkaynak

Fluid Mechanics Abdusselam Altunkaynak Fluid Mechanics Abdusselam Altunkaynak 1. Unit systems 1.1 Introduction Natural events are independent on units. The unit to be used in a certain variable is related to the advantage that we get from it.

More information

Fluid Engineering Mechanics

Fluid Engineering Mechanics Fluid Engineering Mechanics Chapter Fluid Properties: Density, specific volume, specific weight, specific gravity, compressibility, viscosity, measurement of viscosity, Newton's equation of viscosity,

More information

AMME2261: Fluid Mechanics 1 Course Notes

AMME2261: Fluid Mechanics 1 Course Notes Module 1 Introduction and Fluid Properties Introduction Matter can be one of two states: solid or fluid. A fluid is a substance that deforms continuously under the application of a shear stress, no matter

More information

CHAPTER (2) FLUID PROPERTIES SUMMARY DR. MUNZER EBAID MECH.ENG.DEPT.

CHAPTER (2) FLUID PROPERTIES SUMMARY DR. MUNZER EBAID MECH.ENG.DEPT. CHAPTER () SUMMARY DR. MUNZER EBAID MECH.ENG.DEPT. 08/1/010 DR.MUNZER EBAID 1 System Is defined as a given quantity of matter. Extensive Property Can be identified when it is Dependent on the total mass

More information

Please remember all the unit that you use in your calculation. There are no marks for correct answer without unit.

Please remember all the unit that you use in your calculation. There are no marks for correct answer without unit. CHAPTER 1 : PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS What is fluid? A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted on by a shearing stress at any magnitude. In a fluid at rest, normal stress is called

More information

1. Introduction, fluid properties (1.1, 2.8, 4.1, and handouts)

1. Introduction, fluid properties (1.1, 2.8, 4.1, and handouts) 1. Introduction, fluid properties (1.1, 2.8, 4.1, and handouts) Introduction, general information Course overview Fluids as a continuum Density Compressibility Viscosity Exercises: A1 Fluid mechanics Fluid

More information

Fluid Mechanics. Spring 2009

Fluid Mechanics. Spring 2009 Instructor: Dr. Yang-Cheng Shih Department of Energy and Refrigerating Air-Conditioning Engineering National Taipei University of Technology Spring 2009 Chapter 1 Introduction 1-1 General Remarks 1-2 Scope

More information

Class Notes Fall 2014

Class Notes Fall 2014 57:020 Fluid Mechanics Class Notes Fall 2014 Prepared by: Professor Fred Stern Typed by: Stephanie Schrader (Fall 1999) Corrected by: Jun Shao (Fall 2003, Fall 2005) Corrected by: Jun Shao, Tao Xing (Fall

More information

BFC FLUID MECHANICS BFC NOOR ALIZA AHMAD

BFC FLUID MECHANICS BFC NOOR ALIZA AHMAD BFC 10403 FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER 1.0: Principles of Fluid 1.1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 1.2 Thermodynamic Properties of a Fluid: Density, specific weight, specific gravity, viscocity (kelikatan)berat

More information

Shell Balances in Fluid Mechanics

Shell Balances in Fluid Mechanics Shell Balances in Fluid Mechanics R. Shankar Subramanian Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Clarkson University When fluid flow occurs in a single direction everywhere in a system, shell

More information

Petroleum Engineering Dept. Fluid Mechanics Second Stage Dr. Ahmed K. Alshara

Petroleum Engineering Dept. Fluid Mechanics Second Stage Dr. Ahmed K. Alshara Continents Chapter 1. Fluid Mechanics -Properties of fluids -Density, specific gravity, specific volume and Viscosity -Newtonian and non Newtonian fluids -Surface tension Compressibility -Pressure -Cavitations

More information

Fluid Mechanics II Viscosity and shear stresses

Fluid Mechanics II Viscosity and shear stresses Fluid Mechanics II Viscosity and shear stresses Shear stresses in a Newtonian fluid A fluid at rest can not resist shearing forces. Under the action of such forces it deforms continuously, however small

More information

Exercise: concepts from chapter 10

Exercise: concepts from chapter 10 Reading:, Ch 10 1) The flow of magma with a viscosity as great as 10 10 Pa s, let alone that of rock with a viscosity of 10 20 Pa s, is difficult to comprehend because our common eperience is with s like

More information

Introduction and Fundamental Concepts (Lectures 1-7)

Introduction and Fundamental Concepts (Lectures 1-7) Introduction and Fundamental Concepts (Lectures -7) Q. Choose the crect answer (i) A fluid is a substance that (a) has the same shear stress at a point regardless of its motion (b) is practicall incompressible

More information

Unit A-1: List of Subjects

Unit A-1: List of Subjects ES312 Energy Transfer Fundamentals Unit A: Fundamental Concepts ROAD MAP... A-1: Introduction to Thermodynamics A-2: Engineering Properties Unit A-1: List of Subjects What is Thermodynamics? First and

More information

A drop forms when liquid is forced out of a small tube. The shape of the drop is determined by a balance of pressure, gravity, and surface tension

A drop forms when liquid is forced out of a small tube. The shape of the drop is determined by a balance of pressure, gravity, and surface tension A drop forms when liquid is forced out of a small tube. The shape of the drop is determined by a balance of pressure, gravity, and surface tension forces. 2 Objectives 3 i i 2 1 INTRODUCTION Property:

More information

Thermodynamics-1. S. M. Hosseini Sarvari Chapter 1 Introduction & Basic Concepts

Thermodynamics-1. S. M. Hosseini Sarvari Chapter 1 Introduction & Basic Concepts Mechanical Engineering Dept. Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman Thermodynamics-1 S. M. Hosseini Sarvari Chapter 1 Introduction & Basic Concepts Mechanical Engineering Dept. Shahid Bahonar University of

More information

Course: TDEC202 (Energy II) dflwww.ece.drexel.edu/tdec

Course: TDEC202 (Energy II) dflwww.ece.drexel.edu/tdec Course: TDEC202 (Energy II) Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach Course Director/Lecturer: Dr. Michael Carchidi Course Website URL dflwww.ece.drexel.edu/tdec 1 Course Textbook Cengel, Yunus A. and Michael

More information

Figure 3: Problem 7. (a) 0.9 m (b) 1.8 m (c) 2.7 m (d) 3.6 m

Figure 3: Problem 7. (a) 0.9 m (b) 1.8 m (c) 2.7 m (d) 3.6 m 1. For the manometer shown in figure 1, if the absolute pressure at point A is 1.013 10 5 Pa, the absolute pressure at point B is (ρ water =10 3 kg/m 3, ρ Hg =13.56 10 3 kg/m 3, ρ oil = 800kg/m 3 ): (a)

More information

Welcome to MECH 280. Ian A. Frigaard. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia. Mech 280: Frigaard

Welcome to MECH 280. Ian A. Frigaard. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia. Mech 280: Frigaard Welcome to MECH 280 Ian A. Frigaard Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia Lectures 1 & 2: Learning goals/concepts: What is a fluid Apply continuum hypothesis Stress and viscosity

More information

DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

DIMENSIONS AND UNITS DIMENSIONS AND UNITS A dimension is the measure by which a physical variable is expressed quantitatively. A unit is a particular way of attaching a number to the quantitative dimension. Primary Dimension

More information

Petroleum Engineering Department Fluid Mechanics Second Stage Assist Prof. Dr. Ahmed K. Alshara

Petroleum Engineering Department Fluid Mechanics Second Stage Assist Prof. Dr. Ahmed K. Alshara Continents Petroleum Engineering Department Fluid Mechanics Second Stage Assist Prof. Dr. Ahmed K. Alshara Chapter 1. Fluid Mechanics -Properties of fluids -Density, specific gravity, specific volume and

More information

1. The Properties of Fluids

1. The Properties of Fluids 1. The Properties of Fluids [This material relates predominantly to modules ELP034, ELP035] 1.1 Fluids 1.1 Fluids 1.2 Newton s Law of Viscosity 1.3 Fluids Vs Solids 1.4 Liquids Vs Gases 1.5 Causes of viscosity

More information

A Physical Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. Study Guide and Practice Problems Spring 2017

A Physical Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. Study Guide and Practice Problems Spring 2017 A Physical Introduction to Fluid Mechanics Study Guide and Practice Problems Spring 2017 A Physical Introduction to Fluid Mechanics Study Guide and Practice Problems Spring 2017 by Alexander J. Smits

More information

FRIDAYS 14:00 to 15:40. FRIDAYS 16:10 to 17:50

FRIDAYS 14:00 to 15:40. FRIDAYS 16:10 to 17:50 Brad Peterson, P.E. FRIDAYS 14:00 to 15:40 FRIDAYS 16:10 to 17:50 BRAD PETERSON, P.E., PTOE Brigham Young University, 1975 Highway and Bridge Design Montana, Utah, Idaho, Wyoming Worked 27 Years in Helena,

More information

2 Navier-Stokes Equations

2 Navier-Stokes Equations 1 Integral analysis 1. Water enters a pipe bend horizontally with a uniform velocity, u 1 = 5 m/s. The pipe is bended at 90 so that the water leaves it vertically downwards. The input diameter d 1 = 0.1

More information

REE Internal Fluid Flow Sheet 2 - Solution Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

REE Internal Fluid Flow Sheet 2 - Solution Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics REE 307 - Internal Fluid Flow Sheet 2 - Solution Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics 1. Is the following flows physically possible, that is, satisfy the continuity equation? Substitute the expressions for

More information

TOPICS. Density. Pressure. Variation of Pressure with Depth. Pressure Measurements. Buoyant Forces-Archimedes Principle

TOPICS. Density. Pressure. Variation of Pressure with Depth. Pressure Measurements. Buoyant Forces-Archimedes Principle Lecture 6 Fluids TOPICS Density Pressure Variation of Pressure with Depth Pressure Measurements Buoyant Forces-Archimedes Principle Surface Tension ( External source ) Viscosity ( External source ) Equation

More information

Differential relations for fluid flow

Differential relations for fluid flow Differential relations for fluid flow In this approach, we apply basic conservation laws to an infinitesimally small control volume. The differential approach provides point by point details of a flow

More information

Lecture 3. Properties of Fluids 11/01/2017. There are thermodynamic properties of fluids like:

Lecture 3. Properties of Fluids 11/01/2017. There are thermodynamic properties of fluids like: 11/01/2017 Lecture 3 Properties of Fluids There are thermodynamic properties of fluids like: Pressure, p (N/m 2 ) or [ML -1 T -2 ], Density, ρ (kg/m 3 ) or [ML -3 ], Specific weight, γ = ρg (N/m 3 ) or

More information

Energy: The ability to cause changes. thermodynamics stems from therme (heat) and dynamis (power).

Energy: The ability to cause changes. thermodynamics stems from therme (heat) and dynamis (power). Energy: The ability to cause changes. thermodynamics stems from therme (heat) and dynamis (power). Thermodynamics: The science of energy. Conservation of energy principle: During an interaction, energy

More information

INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS. Chapter 1. Mehmet Kanoglu. Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 6 th Edition. Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A.

INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS. Chapter 1. Mehmet Kanoglu. Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 6 th Edition. Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A. Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 6 th Edition Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A. Boles McGraw-Hill, 2008 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS Mehmet Kanoglu Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

More information

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1 The Fluid. 1-2 Dimensions. 1-3 Units. 1-4 Fluid Properties. 1 1-1 The Fluid: It is the substance that deforms continuously when subjected to a shear stress. Matter Solid Fluid

More information

Northern Lesson 2 Gear Pump Terminology. Gear Pump 101. Lesson 2: Gear Pump Terminology. When your reputation depends on it!

Northern Lesson 2 Gear Pump Terminology. Gear Pump 101. Lesson 2: Gear Pump Terminology. When your reputation depends on it! Gear Pump 101 Lesson 2: Gear Pump Terminology When your reputation depends on it! Symbol Term Metric Unit Abbreviation US Customary Unit Abbreviation Conversion factor a A Area square millimeter mm2 square

More information

PIPE FLOW. The Energy Equation. The first law of thermodynamics for a system is, in words = +

PIPE FLOW. The Energy Equation. The first law of thermodynamics for a system is, in words = + The Energy Equation PIPE FLOW The first law of thermodynamics for a system is, in words Time rate of increase of the total storage energy of the t Net time rate of energy addition by heat transfer into

More information

Final Mock Exam PH 221-1D

Final Mock Exam PH 221-1D Final Mock Exam PH 221-1D April 18, 2015 You will have 2 hours to complete this exam. You must answer 8 questions to make a perfect score of 80. 1 Chapter Concept Summary Equations: Cutnell & Johnson

More information

Universal Viscosity Curve Theory

Universal Viscosity Curve Theory TM Universal Viscosity Curve Theory Turbine Flow Meters and Flow Viscosity Introduction Like any transducer, a turbine flow meter is sensitive to physical parameters other than the one which is of interest.

More information

Fluid Mechanics 3502 Day 1, Spring 2018

Fluid Mechanics 3502 Day 1, Spring 2018 Instructor Fluid Mechanics 3502 Day 1, Spring 2018 Dr. Michele Guala, Civil Eng. Department UMN Office hours: (Tue -?) CEGE 162 9:30-10:30? Tue Thu CEGE phone (612) 626-7843 (Mon,Wed,Fr) SAFL, 2 third

More information

CENG 501 Examination Problem: Estimation of Viscosity with a Falling - Cylinder Viscometer

CENG 501 Examination Problem: Estimation of Viscosity with a Falling - Cylinder Viscometer CENG 501 Examination Problem: Estimation of Viscosity with a Falling - Cylinder Viscometer You are assigned to design a fallingcylinder viscometer to measure the viscosity of Newtonian liquids. A schematic

More information

Hydrostatics. ENGR 5961 Fluid Mechanics I: Dr. Y.S. Muzychka

Hydrostatics. ENGR 5961 Fluid Mechanics I: Dr. Y.S. Muzychka 1 Hydrostatics 2 Introduction In Fluid Mechanics hydrostatics considers fluids at rest: typically fluid pressure on stationary bodies and surfaces, pressure measurements, buoyancy and flotation, and fluid

More information

Chapter 9: Solids and Fluids

Chapter 9: Solids and Fluids Chapter 9: Solids and Fluids State of matters: Solid, Liquid, Gas and Plasma. Solids Has definite volume and shape Can be crystalline or amorphous Molecules are held in specific locations by electrical

More information

Fluid Dynamics Exam #1: Introduction, fluid statics, and the Bernoulli equation March 2, 2016, 7:00 p.m. 8:40 p.m. in CE 118

Fluid Dynamics Exam #1: Introduction, fluid statics, and the Bernoulli equation March 2, 2016, 7:00 p.m. 8:40 p.m. in CE 118 CVEN 311-501 (Socolofsky) Fluid Dynamics Exam #1: Introduction, fluid statics, and the Bernoulli equation March 2, 2016, 7:00 p.m. 8:40 p.m. in CE 118 Name: : UIN: : Instructions: Fill in your name and

More information

4 Mechanics of Fluids (I)

4 Mechanics of Fluids (I) 1. The x and y components of velocity for a two-dimensional flow are u = 3.0 ft/s and v = 9.0x ft/s where x is in feet. Determine the equation for the streamlines and graph representative streamlines in

More information

Department of Civil Engineering Hydraulics and Water Resources Division Application and Solution I

Department of Civil Engineering Hydraulics and Water Resources Division Application and Solution I Question 1: The Specific weight of water is 1000 /. Using this given value, find the specific mass of water in SI units (g= m/s ). Solution 1: The specific mass of water in SI units: 1 N 1000 m 9810 Nm

More information

Name : Applied Physics II Exam One Winter Multiple Choice ( 7 Points ):

Name :   Applied Physics II Exam One Winter Multiple Choice ( 7 Points ): Name : e-mail: Applied Physics II Exam One Winter 2006-2007 Multiple Choice ( 7 Points ): 1. Pure nitrogen gas is contained in a sealed tank containing a movable piston. The initial volume, pressure and

More information

What s important: viscosity Poiseuille's law Stokes' law Demo: dissipation in flow through a tube

What s important: viscosity Poiseuille's law Stokes' law Demo: dissipation in flow through a tube PHYS 101 Lecture 29x - Viscosity 29x - 1 Lecture 29x Viscosity (extended version) What s important: viscosity Poiseuille's law Stokes' law Demo: dissipation in flow through a tube Viscosity We introduced

More information

Lagrangian description from the perspective of a parcel moving within the flow. Streamline Eulerian, tangent line to instantaneous velocity field.

Lagrangian description from the perspective of a parcel moving within the flow. Streamline Eulerian, tangent line to instantaneous velocity field. Chapter 2 Hydrostatics 2.1 Review Eulerian description from the perspective of fixed points within a reference frame. Lagrangian description from the perspective of a parcel moving within the flow. Streamline

More information

COURSE NUMBER: ME 321 Fluid Mechanics I. Fluid: Concept and Properties

COURSE NUMBER: ME 321 Fluid Mechanics I. Fluid: Concept and Properties COURSE NUMBER: ME 321 Fluid Mechanics I Fluid: Concept and Properties Course teacher Dr. M. Mahbubur Razzaque Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering BUET 1 What is Fluid Mechanics? Fluid mechanics

More information

States of matter. Density high > high >> low (pressure dependent)

States of matter. Density high > high >> low (pressure dependent) Fluids States of matter Solids Fluids crystalline amorphous liquids gasses Inter-atomic forces strong > strong >> very weak Density high > high >> low (pressure dependent) Density is an important material

More information

Figure 1 Answer: = m

Figure 1 Answer: = m Q1. Figure 1 shows a solid cylindrical steel rod of length =.0 m and diameter D =.0 cm. What will be increase in its length when m = 80 kg block is attached to its bottom end? (Young's modulus of steel

More information

Why do we need to study thermodynamics? Examples of practical thermodynamic devices:

Why do we need to study thermodynamics? Examples of practical thermodynamic devices: Why do we need to study thermodynamics? Knowledge of thermodynamics is required to design any device involving the interchange between heat and work, or the conversion of material to produce heat (combustion).

More information

SKMM 2413 Thermodynamics

SKMM 2413 Thermodynamics SKMM 2413 Thermodynamics Md. Mizanur Rahman, PhD Department of Thermo-Fluids Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia UTM Office: C23-228 mizanur@fkm.utm.my Semester I, 2016-2017

More information

FE Fluids Review March 23, 2012 Steve Burian (Civil & Environmental Engineering)

FE Fluids Review March 23, 2012 Steve Burian (Civil & Environmental Engineering) Topic: Fluid Properties 1. If 6 m 3 of oil weighs 47 kn, calculate its specific weight, density, and specific gravity. 2. 10.0 L of an incompressible liquid exert a force of 20 N at the earth s surface.

More information

Mock Exam III PH 201, PH 221

Mock Exam III PH 201, PH 221 Mock Exam III PH 201, PH 221 April 12, 2015 You will have 1 hour to complete this exam, and must answer 7 of the problems correctly to make a perfect score. 1 Chapter Concept Summary Equations: Cutnell

More information

MULTIPLE-CHOICE PROBLEMS:(Two marks per answer) (Circle the Letter Beside the Most Correct Answer in the Questions Below.)

MULTIPLE-CHOICE PROBLEMS:(Two marks per answer) (Circle the Letter Beside the Most Correct Answer in the Questions Below.) MULTIPLE-CHOICE PROLEMS:(Two marks per answer) (Circle the Letter eside the Most Correct Answer in the Questions elow.) 1. The absolute viscosity µ of a fluid is primarily a function of: a. Density. b.

More information

Contents. I Introduction 1. Preface. xiii

Contents. I Introduction 1. Preface. xiii Contents Preface xiii I Introduction 1 1 Continuous matter 3 1.1 Molecules................................ 4 1.2 The continuum approximation.................... 6 1.3 Newtonian mechanics.........................

More information

Laboratory 9: The Viscosity of Liquids

Laboratory 9: The Viscosity of Liquids Laboratory 9: The Viscosity of Liquids Introduction The essential difference between solids and fluids lies in the nature of their response to the socalled shearing stress. In solids, an elastic force

More information

Fundamentals of Fluid Dynamics: Elementary Viscous Flow

Fundamentals of Fluid Dynamics: Elementary Viscous Flow Fundamentals of Fluid Dynamics: Elementary Viscous Flow Introductory Course on Multiphysics Modelling TOMASZ G. ZIELIŃSKI bluebox.ippt.pan.pl/ tzielins/ Institute of Fundamental Technological Research

More information

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS. Prepared by Engr. John Paul Timola

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS. Prepared by Engr. John Paul Timola MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Prepared by Engr. John Paul Timola Mechanics of materials branch of mechanics that studies the internal effects of stress and strain in a solid body. stress is associated with the

More information

Sliding Contact Bearings

Sliding Contact Bearings Sliding Contact Bearings Classification of Bearings 1. According to the direction of load to be supported. The bearings under this group are classified as: (a) Radial bearings (b) Thrust bearings. In radial

More information

ME 262 BASIC FLUID MECHANICS Assistant Professor Neslihan Semerci Lecture 4. (Buoyancy and Viscosity of water)

ME 262 BASIC FLUID MECHANICS Assistant Professor Neslihan Semerci Lecture 4. (Buoyancy and Viscosity of water) ME 262 BASIC FLUID MECHANICS Assistant Professor Neslihan Semerci Lecture 4 (Buoyancy and Viscosity of water) 16. BUOYANCY Whenever an object is floating in a fluid or when it is completely submerged in

More information

ME 2322 Thermodynamics I PRE-LECTURE Lesson 10 Complete the items below Name:

ME 2322 Thermodynamics I PRE-LECTURE Lesson 10 Complete the items below Name: Lesson 10 1. (5 pt) If P > P sat (T), the phase is a subcooled liquid. 2. (5 pt) if P < P sat (T), the phase is superheated vapor. 3. (5 pt) if T > T sat (P), the phase is superheated vapor. 4. (5 pt)

More information

열과유체, 에너지와친해지기 KAIST 기계공학과정상권

열과유체, 에너지와친해지기 KAIST 기계공학과정상권 열과유체, 에너지와친해지기 KAIST 기계공학과정상권 이번시간에는! 열역학 - 세상을움직이는스마트한법칙 물과공기로움직이는기계 사라지지않는에너지 / 증가하는엔트로피 열역학 - 세상을움직이는스마트한법칙 KAIST 기계공학과정상권 [ 학습목차 ] Thermofluids Energy conservation principle Energy Work (boundary work)

More information

Basic Considerations. Outline. Chapter Objectives

Basic Considerations. Outline. Chapter Objectives 1 Basic Considerations Outline 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Dimensions, Units, and Physical Quantities 1.3 Continuum View of Gases and Liquids 1.4 Pressure and Temperature Scales 1.5 Fluid Properties 1.5.1 Density

More information

Thermodynamics INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Thermodynamics INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Thermodynamics INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. THERMODYNAMICS AND ENERGY Thermodynamics: The science of energy.

More information

2/28/2006 Statics ( F.Robilliard) 1

2/28/2006 Statics ( F.Robilliard) 1 2/28/2006 Statics (.Robilliard) 1 Extended Bodies: In our discussion so far, we have considered essentially only point masses, under the action of forces. We now broaden our considerations to extended

More information

Lecture 1 INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS

Lecture 1 INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS Lecture 1 INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS Objectives Identify the unique vocabulary associated with thermodynamics through the precise definition of basic concepts to form a sound foundation for the development

More information

Fluid Dynamics for Ocean and Environmental Engineering Homework #2 Viscous Flow

Fluid Dynamics for Ocean and Environmental Engineering Homework #2 Viscous Flow OCEN 678-600 Fluid Dynamics for Ocean and Environmental Engineering Homework #2 Viscous Flow Date distributed : 9.18.2005 Date due : 9.29.2005 at 5:00 pm Return your solution either in class or in my mail

More information

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS:

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS: Important Definitions: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS: Fluid: A substance that can flow is called Fluid Both liquids and gases are fluids Pressure: The normal force acting per unit area of a surface is

More information

= o + t = ot + ½ t 2 = o + 2

= o + t = ot + ½ t 2 = o + 2 Chapters 8-9 Rotational Kinematics and Dynamics Rotational motion Rotational motion refers to the motion of an object or system that spins about an axis. The axis of rotation is the line about which the

More information