Name Regents Review Packet #2 Date

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1 Name Regents Review Packet #2 Date Base your answers to questions 1 through 5 on diagram below, which represents the Sun s apparent paths and the solar noon positions for an observer at 42 N latitude on December 21, September 23, and June What happens to the length of the shadow on September 23 from sunrise to sunset? A) It increases only B) It decreases only C) It decreases, then increases D) It increases, then decreases 2. Which diagram best shows the location of Polaris relative to the observer? 3. In which direction will sunrise occur on June 21? A) south of due east B) north of due west C) south of due west D) north of due east 4. How many hours occurred between sunrise and solar noon on September 23? A) 8 B) 12 C) 6 D) 24

2 5. Which graph best shows the altitude of the Sun, as measured by the observer located at 42 N, at various times on December 21? Base your answers to questions 6 and 7 on the diagram below, which shows numbered positions of the Sun at four different times along the Sun s apparent daily path, as seen by an observer in New Jersey. Numbers 1 through represent apparent positions of the Sun. 8. The diagram below shows the latitude and longitude lines on Earth. Points A and B are locations on Earth's surface. 6. The observer had the longest shadow when the Sun was at position A) 4 B) 1 C) 3 D) 2 7. During which day of the year is the Sun most likely to follow the apparent path shown? A) October 1 B) July 1 C) March 1 D) December 1 If it is 4 a.m. at location A, what time is it at location B? A) 6 a.m. B) 8 a.m. C) 2 a.m. D) 10 a.m. 9. When the distance between the foci of an ellipse is increased, the eccentricity of the ellipse will A) decrease B) increase C) remain the same

3 10. The reaction below represents an energy-producing process. The reaction represents how energy is produced A) during nuclear decay B) in the Sun by fusion C) when water condenses in Earth s atmosphere D) from the movement of crustal plates 11. The diagram below represents the shape of the Milky Way Galaxy. 16. The diagrams below represent Earth s ocean tides at four different positions of the Moon. Which diagram shows the Moon position that will produce the highest high tides and the lowest iow tides? (The diagrams are not drawn to scale.) A) The Milky Way Galaxy is best described as A) spiral B) circular C) irregular D) elliptical 12. Compared to Jovian planets, terrestrial planets have a A) larger size. B) lower density. C) more rapid rotation. D) more rocky composition. 13. On March 21, at which location in New York State would sunrise occur first? A) Massena B) Buffalo C) Riverhead D) Syracuse 14. Cosmic background radiation provides direct evidence for the origin of A) Earth s ozone layer B) the universe C) Earth s earliest atmosphere D) our solar system 15. The most abundant element on the sun is A) carbon B) helium C) oxygen D) hydrogen B) C) D) 17. Billions of stars in the same region of the universe are called A) constellations B) asteroid belts C) solar systems D) galaxies

4 18. Which diagram best represents the size of the Moon, compared to Earth, when drawn to scale? 19. Which observation is a direct result of changes in distance between Earth and the Sun? A) A Foucault pendulum shows predictable changes in its direction of swing. B) The apparent diameter of the Sun shows predictable changes in size. C) Summer occurs in the Northern Hemisphere at the same time that winter occurs in the Southern Hemisphere. D) The length of daylight at the poles changes from 0 to 24 hours during the year. 20. Which statement best describes the position of the Sun at sunrise and sunset as seen by an observer in New York State on June 21? A) The Sun rises south of due east and sets north of due west. B) The Sun rises south of due east and sets south of due west. C) The Sun rises north of due east and sets south of due west. D) The Sun rises north of due east and sets north of due west. 21. Compared with our Sun, the star Betelgeuse is A) larger, hotter, and less luminous B) smaller, hotter, and less luminous C) smaller, cooler, and more luminous D) larger, cooler, and more luminous

5 22. The symbols below are used to represent different regions of space. Which diagram shows the correct relationship between these four regions? [If one symbol is within another symbol, that means it is part of, or included in, that symbol.] Base your answers to questions 23 through 25 on the diagram below, which represents an exaggerated view of Earth revolving around the Sun. Letters A, B, C, and D represent Earth's location in its orbit on the first day of each of the four seasons. 26. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which represents Earth revolving around the Sun. Letters A, B, C, and D represent Earth's location in its orbit on the first day of the four seasons. NP represents the North Pole. 23. Which observation provides the best evidence that Earth revolves around the Sun? A) The change from high ocean tide to low ocean tide is a repeating pattern. B) Earth's planetary winds are deflected by the Coriolis effect. C) Different star constellations are seen from Earth at different times of the year. D) Stars seen from Earth appear to circle Polaris. 24. Earth s rate of revolution around the Sun is approximately A) 1 per day B) 360 per day C) 15 per hour D) 23.5 per hour 25. Which location in Earth s orbit represents the first day of fall (autumn) for an observer in Pennsylvania? A) A B) B C) C D) D If the tilt of Earth's axis were decreased from 23.5 to 15, New York State's winters would become A) cooler, and summers would become warmer B) cooler, and summers would become cooler C) warmer, and summers would become warmer D) warmer, and summers would become cooler 27. Which change would occur if the Earth's rate of rotation were to increase? A) The year would be longer. B) The day would be shorter. C) The year would be shorter. D) The day would be longer. 28. The passage of the Moon into Earth's shadow causes a A) lunar eclipse B) full Moon C) solar eclipse D) new Moon

6 Regents Review Packet #2 29. Base your answer to the following question on on the data table below, which shows information about the four largest asteroids found in our solar system. The asteroids shown in the data table are located between the orbits of A) Jupiter and Saturn C) Earth and Mars B) Venus and Earth D) Mars and Jupiter Base your answers to questions 30 through 33 on the world map below. The shaded portion of the map indicates areas of night, and the unshaded portion indicates areas of daylight on a certain day of the year. Dashed latitude lines represent the Arctic Circle (66.5 N) and the Antarctic Circle (66.5 S). Point A is a location on Earth s surface. 30. Approximately what time of day is it at point A? A) sunset B) midnight C) sunrise D) noon 31. On this day, the duration of daylight from the equator to the Arctic Circle A) decreases, only C) increases, then decreases B) increases, only D) decreases, then increases

7 32. Which diagram shows the position of Earth relative to the Sun s rays on this day? 33. Approximately how many hours of daylight would occur at position A on this day? A) 12 B) 15 C) 6 D) Which photograph of star trails was taken by an observer facing directly north in New Jersey? A) B) C) D) 35. The time required for the Moon to show a complete cycle of phases when viewed from Earth is approximately A) 1 week B) 1 day C) 1 month D) 1 year 36. Which planet s orbit around the Sun is most nearly circular? A) Neptune B) Pluto C) Mercury D) Venus 37. Compared to the distances between the planets of our solar system, the distances between stars are usually A) much less B) much greater C) about the same 38. Which star color indicates the hottest star surface temperature? A) white B) yellow C) red D) blue 39. Which planet has the least distance between the two foci of its elliptical orbit? A) Jupiter B) Mars C) Venus D) Earth 40. What is the inferred age of our solar system, in millions of years? A) 4600 B) 544 C) 10,000 D) 1300

8 41. The table below shows gravitational data for a planet traveling in an elliptical orbit around a star. The table shows the relative gravitational force between the star and this planet at eight positions in the orbit (letters A through H). Higher numbers indicate stronger gravitational attraction. Which diagram best represents the positions of the planet in its orbit that would produce the gravitational forces shown in the data table? 42. The diagram below shows the noontime shadows cast by a student and a tree. 43. The diagram below shows Earth s orbit around the Sun and different positions of the Moon as it travels around Earth. Letters A through D represent four different positions of the Moon. If the time is solar noon and the student is located in New York State, in what direction is the student facing? A) north B) south C) west D) east An eclipse of the Moon is most likely to occur when the Moon is at position A) A B) B C) C D) D

9 44. The diagram below shows a satellite in four different positions as it revolves around a planet. Which graph best represents the changes in this satellite s orbital velocity as it revolves around the planet? 45. Which graph best represents the change in gravitational attraction between the Sun and a comet as the distance between them increases? 46. The Sun revolves around the center of A) the Milky Way Galaxy B) Earth C) Polaris D) Aldebaran 47. Why are impact structures more obvious on the Moon than on Earth? A) The Moon has little or no atmosphere. B) The rocks on the Moon are weaker than those on Earth. C) The Moon's gravity is stronger than Earth's gravity. D) The Moon rotates at a slower rate than Earth does.

10 48. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which shows a portion of the solar system. Mercury and Venus are the only planets that show phases when viewed from Earth because both Mercury and Venus A) revolve around the Sun inside Earth's orbit B) are eclipsed by Earth's shadow C) rotate more slowly than Earth does D) pass behind the Sun in their orbit 49. The diagram below shows one model of a portion of the universe. 50. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. The best inference that can be made based on the diagrams is that this planet is A) tilted on its axis B) changing seasons C) revolving D) rotating 51. The diagram below represents two planets in our solar system drawn to scale, Jupiter and planet A. What type of model does the diagram best demonstrate? A) a heliocentric model, in which celestial objects orbit the Sun B) a geocentric model, in which celestial objects orbit the Sun C) a geocentric model, in which celestial objects orbit Earth D) a heliocentric model, in which celestial objects orbit Earth Planet A most likely represents A) Venus B) Earth C) Uranus D) Saturn

11 Base your answers to questions 52 through 55 on the diagram below, which shows positions of the Moon in its orbit and phases of the Moon as viewed from New York State. 52. During which Moon phase might a solar eclipse be viewed on Earth? A) last quarter B) first quarter C) new Moon D) full Moon 53. Approximately how many days occur between the Moon s first-quarter phase and the Moon s last-quarter phase? A) 15 d B) 7 d C) d D) 29.5 d 54. Which statement best explains why the same side of the Moon is viewed from Earth as the Moon goes through its phases? A) The Moon s period of rotation equals the Moon s period of revolution around Earth. B) The Moon s period of rotation equals Earth s period of revolution around the Sun. C) The Moon s period of rotation equals Earth s period of rotation. D) The Moon does not rotate as it revolves around Earth. 55. During which Moon phase might a lunar eclipse be viewed on Earth? A) last quarter B) first quarter C) new Moon D) full Moon 56. A light year is A) the distance traveled by light in one year B) the time it takes light to go once around the Earth's orbit C) the distance the Earth moves in one year D) the time it takes light to travel one year 57. Compared to Jovian planets, terrestrial planets have A) larger equatorial diameters B) shorter periods of rotation C) larger masses D) shorter periods of revolution

12 58. A student in New York State looked toward the eastern horizon to observe sunrise at three different times during the year. The student drew the following diagram that shows the positions of sunrise, A, B, and C, during this one-year period. Which list correctly pairs the location of sunrise to the time of the year? A) A March 21 B June 21 C December 21 B) A June 21 B December 21 C March 21 C) A December 21 B March 21 C June 21 D) A June 21 B March 21 C December Base your answer to the following question on the diagram of the solar system below. According to Kepler's Harmonic Law of Planetary Motion, the farther a planet is located from the Sun, the A) shorter its period of revolution B) longer its period of rotation C) shorter its period of rotation D) longer its period of revolution 60. An astronomical unit (A.U.) is A) equal to a light year B) a term for defining the luminosity of a star C) the average distance of any given planet to the sun D) the average distance from the Earth to the sun 61. In the Northern Hemisphere, planetary winds deflect to the A) left, due to the Coriolis effect B) right, due to the Doppler effect C) left, due to the Doppler effect D) right, due to the Coriolis effect

13 Base your answers to questions 62 through 64 on the diagram below, which shows Earth and the Moon in relation to the Sun. Positions A, B, C, and D show the Moon at specific locations in its orbit. Point X is a location on Earth's surface. 62. A solar eclipse might occur when the Moon is at location A) A B) B C) C D) D 63. What is the time of day at point X? A) 6 p.m. B) midnight C) noon D) 6 a.m. 64. On what date does the line separating day and night pass through Earth's North Pole, as shown in this diagram? A) December 21 B) January 21 C) March 21 D) June Which diagram represents the tilt of Earth s axis relative to the Sun s rays on December 15?

14 Base your answers to questions 66 through 68 on the calendar below, which shows the month of July of a recent year. The dates of major Moon phases, as seen in New York State, are shown. The diagram below represents the phase of the Moon observed from New York State one night during the month of July. 66. On which date was this phase of the Moon visible from New York State? A) July 4 B) July 11 C) July 19 D) July Why does the Moon s gravity have a greater effect on Earth s ocean tides than the Sun s gravity? A) The Moon has a greater mass. B) The Sun s gravity influences more planets. C) The Moon is much closer to Earth. D) The Sun is composed mostly of gases. 68. Eclipses do not occur every month because the Moon s A) rate of rotation is 15 each hour B) orbit is inclined to Earth s orbit C) period of revolution is 27.3 days D) period of rotation and period of revolution are the same 69. Which diagram sequence correctly shows the order of Moon phases, as viewed from Earth, for a period of 1 month? [Note that some phases have been omitted.]

15 70. A camera was placed outside at night and pointed directly at Polaris and several other stars. The lens was kept open and a time-exposure photograph was taken. The diagram below represents that photograph of Polaris and star trails, with an angular protractor to measure apparent motion. How many hours was the lens kept open to create the star trails in this photograph? A) 1 hour B) 6 hours C) 3 hours D) 4 hours 71. The diagram below shows the altitude of the Sun at solar noon on March 21, as seen by an observer at 42 N latitude. 72. Base your answer to the question below on the diagram below. The diagram represents the path of a planet orbiting a star. Points A, B, C, and D indicate four orbital positions of the planet. Compared to the altitude of the Sun observed at solar noon on March 21, the altitude of the Sun observed at solar noon on June 21 will be A) 48 higher in the sky B) 15 higher in the sky C) 42 higher in the sky D) 23.5 higher in the sky When viewed by an observer on the planet, the star has the largest apparent diameter at position A) A B) B C) C D) D 73. The best evidence that the distance between the Moon and the Earth varies is provided by the apparent change in the Moon's A) diameter B) shape C) altitude D) phase

16 74. The diagram below represents the Moon in its orbit, as viewed from above Earth s North Pole. Position 1 represents a specific location of the Moon in its orbit. 76. Which graph best illustrates the average temperatures of the planets in the solar system? A) B) C) Which phase of the Moon will be seen from Earth when the Moon is at position 1? D) 75. Which sequence of Moon phases could be observed from Earth during a 2-week period? 77. The diagram below shows a planet's orbit around the Sun. A) B) C) At which location is the planet's orbital velocity greatest? A) C B) D C) B D) A D)

17 78. The diagram below shows the position of the Sun, the Moon, and Earth during a solar eclipse. The full shadow (umbra) and partial shadow (penumbra) of the Moon and Earth are shown. Which diagram best represents the appearance of the Sun and the Moon to an observer located within the umbra of the Moon s shadow on Earth s surface? 79. The atmosphere of Venus is composed primarily of A) carbon dioxide B) hydrogen and helium C) ammonia D) methane 80. The period of time a planet takes to make one revolution around the Sun is most dependent on the planet's average A) rotation rate B) insolation from the Sun C) distance from the Sun D) mass 81. During a total solar eclipse one might view A) the sun's solar winds B) the sun's corona C) sun spots D) nothing of the sun, since it is totally blocked by the moon 82. The force of gravity between two objects is greatest when A) masses are small and the objects are close together B) masses are small and the objects are far apart C) masses are large and the objects are close together D) masses are large and the objects are far apart

18 Base your answers to questions 83 through 85 on the diagram below. The diagram represents the Earth at a position in orbit around the Sun, the Sun's rays at solar noon, and the direction to Polaris. Letters A through D represent positions on the Earth's surface. 87. Which diagram most correctly shows the portion of Earth that is illuminated by sunlight and the portion that is in shadow on the first day of summer in the Northern Hemisphere? 83. During one complete rotation of the Earth on its axis, which position receives the least number of hours of daylight? A) D B) C C) A D) B 84. Which date is represented by the diagram? A) June 21 B) September 23 C) December 21 D) March Which position is receiving the Sun's rays from directly overhead at solar noon? A) D B) B C) C D) A 86. The diagram below shows the elliptical orbit of a planet revolving around a star. The star and F2 are the foci of this ellipse. What is the approximate eccentricity of this ellipse? A) 1.47 B) 0.47 C) 0.68 D) 0.22 Base your answers to questions 88 and 89 on the diagram below which represents nine positions of the Earth in orbit around the Sun during one complete orbit of the Moon around the Earth. 88. The elliptical shape of the Moon's orbit around the Earth causes A) the Moon's period of rotation to equal its period of revolution B) the 23 tilt of the Earth's axis of rotation C) changes in the gravitational attraction between the Moon and the Earth D) the Earth to have an equatorial bulge 89. The Earth rotates on its axis, causing the Moon to appear to rise each day. Moonrise occurs about 52 minutes later each day because as the Earth completes one rotation, the Moon also A) completes one rotation on its axis B) revolves part way around the Earth C) wobbles on its axis D) is inclined 23

19 Base your answers to questions 90 through 93 on the diagram below, which shows a model of the apparent path and position of the Sun in relation to an observer at four different locations, A, B, C, and D, on Earth s surface on the dates indicated. The zenith (z) and the actual position of the Sun in the model at the time of the observation are shown. [The zenith is the point directly over the observer.] 90. Where on Earth's surface is the observer at location D located? A) at the North Pole B) mid latitude northern hemisphere C) mid latitude southern hemisphere D) at the Equator 91. From sunrise to sunset at location B, the length of the observer s shadow will A) increase, only B) increase, then decrease C) decrease, then increase D) decrease, only 92. According to the Sun s actual position shown in the diagrams, the most intense insolation is being received by the observer at location A) A B) B C) C D) D 93. Where on Earth s surface is the observer at location C located? A) at the North Pole B) at the Equator C) at the South Pole D) in Oswego, New York 94. A tree in New York State casts a shadow as shown in the diagram below. 95. The diagram below represents the elliptical orbit of a moon revolving around a planet. The foci of this orbit are the points labeled F 1 and F 2. What time of day and season are represented by the diagram? A) early morning in summer B) early morning in winter C) late afternoon in summer D) late afternoon in winter What is the approximate eccentricity of this elliptical orbit? A) 0.7 B) 0.5 C) 1.4 D) 0.3

20 Base your answers to questions 96 through 98 on the diagram below, which represents the Moon orbiting Earth as viewed from space above the North Pole. The Moon is shown at eight different positions in its orbit. 96. The approximate time required for the Moon to move from position 3 to position 7 is A) 1 hour B) 2 weeks C) 3 months D) 4 days 97. Which motion causes the Moon to show phases when viewed from Earth? A) revolution of Earth B) rotation of Earth C) rotation of the Sun D) revolution of the Moon 98. As the Moon changes location from position 2 to position 6, the visible portion of the Moon as observed from Earth A) decreases, only B) increases, then decreases C) increases, only D) decreases, then increases 99. In each diagram below, the mass of the star is the same. In which diagram is the force of gravity greatest between the star and the planet shown?

21 100. Which two factors cause the perpendicular rays of the Sun to move between 23.5º N and 23.5º S? A) tilt of Earth's axis and Earth's revolution B) tilt of Earth's axis and Earth's rotation C) eccentricity of Earth's orbit and Earth's revolution D) eccentricity of Earth's orbit and Earth's rotation 101. The diagram below represents the direction of Earth's rotation as it appears from above the North Pole. Point X is a location on Earths surface Two stars of the same color are plotted on an H-R diagram. Star A is more luminous than star B. Which one of the following statements could explain this? A) Star A is hotter than star B. B) Star A is more distant than star B. C) Star A is larger than star B. D) Star A appears brighter in the sky than star B The diagram below represents the development of our universe from the time of the Big Bang until the present. Letter A indicates two celestial objects. The time at point X is closest to A) 12 midnight B) 12 noon C) 9 a.m. D) 9 p.m Which diagram correctly shows how surface winds are deflected (curved) in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres due to Earth's rotation? The present-day celestial objects labeled A are best identified as A) eccentric comets B) terrestrial planets C) spiral galaxies D) asteroid belts 105. The diagram below represents the direction of Earth s rotation as it appears from above the North Pole. Point X is a location on Earth s surface. The time at point X is closest to A) 6 a.m. B) 12 midnight C) 12 noon D) 6 p.m.

22 Regents Review Packet # Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which shows an inferred sequence in which our solar system formed from a giant interstellar cloud of gas and debris. Stage A shows the collapse of the gas cloud, stage B shows its flattening, and stage C shows the sequence that led to the formation of planets. From stage B to stage C, the young Sun was created A) B) C) D) when gravity caused the center of the cloud to contract by outgassing from Earth s interior when gravity caused heavy dust particles to split apart by outgassing from the spinning interstellar cloud 107. The diagram below shows the positions of the Moon and the Sun at sunset during an evening in New York State. Points A, B, C, and D represent positions along the western horizon. At sunset on the following evening, the Moon will be located at position A) A B) B C) C D) D

23 108. The diagram below shows Earth s orbit around the Sun. Locations A, B, C, and D represent Earth on th first day of each season. Which location represents March 21? A) A B) C C) B D) D 109. Diagram 1 shows the Moon in its orbit at four positions labeled A, B, C, and D. Diagram 2 shows a phase of the Moon as viewed from New York State. At which labeled Moon position would the phase of the Moon shown in diagram 2 be observed from New York State? A) D B) C C) B D) A

24 110. The diagram below represents a planet in orbit around a star. Which statement best describes how the planet's energy is changing as it moves from point A to point B? A) Kinetic energy is increasing and potential energy is decreasing. B) Both kinetic and potential energy are increasing. C) Kinetic energy is decreasing and potential energy is increasing. D) Both kinetic and potential energy are decreasing How do Jupiter s density and period of rotation compare to Earth s? A) Jupiter is less dense and has a longer period of rotation. B) Jupiter is more dense and has a shorter period of rotation. C) Jupiter is more dense and has a longer period of rotation. D) Jupiter is less dense and has a shorter period of rotation Which statement best describes the age of our solar system and the universe? A) The universe is at least twice as old as our solar system. B) Our solar system and the universe are estimated to be 10 billion years old. C) Our solar system is at least twice as old as the universe. D) Our solar system and the universe are estimated to be 5 billion years old Compared to the terrestrial planets, the Jovian planets have A) slower rates of rotation B) smaller diameters C) greater average densities D) longer periods of revolution 114. In order to describe the apparent daily motion of stars, a person must observe the A) position of one star relative to the horizon over a period of time B) position of one particular star at one particular time C) locations of several stars at the same time D) brightness of several stars over a period of time 115. The constellation Pisces changes position during a night, as shown in the diagram below. Which motion is mainly responsible for this change in position? A) rotation of Earth on its axis B) revolution of Pisces around the Sun C) revolution of Earth around the Sun D) rotation of Pisces on its axis 116. For what reason did the heliocentric model of the universe replace the geocentric model of the universe? A) The geocentric model did not predict the phases of the Moon. B) The heliocentric model provided a simpler explanation of the motions of the planets. C) The geocentric model no longer predicted the positions of the constellations. D) The heliocentric model proved that the Earth rotates Which event is a direct result of Earth's revolution? A) the daily rising and setting of the Sun B) the apparent deflection of winds C) the changing of the Moon phases D) the seasonal changes in constellations viewed in the night sky

25 118. Which model best represents the apparent path of the Sun observed at various times during the year at the Equator? A) 121. The diagram below represents our solar system. B) C) D) 119. The diagram below represents the bright-line spectrum for an element. This system is best classified as A) heliocentric, with elliptical orbits B) heliocentric, with circular orbits C) geocentric, with elliptical orbits D) geocentric, with circular orbits 122. Which arrangement of the Sun, the Moon, and Earth results in the highest high tides, and the lowest low tides on Earth? (Diagrams are not drawn to scale.) The spectrum of the same element observed in the light from a distant star is shown below. The shift in the spectral lines indicates that the star is moving A) in a circular orbit around the Sun B) in an elliptical orbit around the Sun C) away from Earth D) toward Earth 120. Which motion causes the apparent rising and setting of the Moon each day, as seen from a location in Kansas? A) the Earth rotating on its axis B) the Earth revolving around the Sun C) the Moon revolving around the Earth D) the Moon rotating on its axis 123. Which diagram shows a planet with the least eccentric orbit? ( Key: = planet * = star )

26 124. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which shows sunlight entering a room through the same window at three different times on the same winter day. This room is located in a building in Connecticut. On which side of the building is the window located? A) west B) south C) east D) north 125. Base your answer to the following question on the map below, which shows locations A and B on Earth's surface at the same distance from the ocean, at the same elevation above sea level, and at the same latitude. There is a four-hour solar time difference between locations A and B. What is the difference in longitude between locations A and B? A) 45 B) 23.5 C) 15 D) 60

27 126. The diagram below represents the Earth's orbital path around the Sun. The Earth takes the same amount of time to move from A to B as from C to D The diagram below represents a swinging Foucault pendulum. Which values are equal within the system? A) The shaded sections of the diagram are equal in area. B) The gravitational force between the Earth and the Sun at point B is the same as the gravitational force at point D. C) The distance from the Sun to the Earth is the same at point A and at point D. D) The orbital velocity of the Earth at point A equals its orbital velocity at point C The diagram below represents a standard dark-line spectrum for an element. This pendulum will show an apparent change in the direction of its swing due to Earth s A) tilted axis B) revolution C) curved surface D) rotation 129. The diagram below shows the equipment used to demonstrate a Foucault pendulum. The spectral lines of this element are observed in light from a distant galaxy. Which diagram represents these spectral lines? A) B) C) In the demonstration, a student swings the weight hanging in the pail and then spins the stool. The stool represents A) the revolving Earth B) the rotating Earth C) convection currents D) the Coriolis effect D)

28 130. The diagram below shows the Moon in different positions as it revolves around Earth, as observed from above the North Pole (NP). Which image correctly represents the Moon at position 8, as observed from Earth?

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