Chapter 26 Section 1 pages Directed Reading Section: Viewing the Universe

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1 Name: Period: Chapter 26 Section 1 pages Directed Reading Section: Viewing the Universe 1. How did observations of the sky help sailors in the past? 2. What is the main reason people study the sky today? THE VALUE OF ASTRONOMY 3. What are the potential benefits to humans of studying the universe? CHARACTERISTICS OF THE UNIVERSE 4. The study of the origin, properties, processes, and evolution of the universe is called A. astronomy. B. the big bang. C. gravity. D. cosmology. 5. Most astronomers agree that the universe began with the big bang, which was A. a gradual blooming of stars and planets. B. a great dust swirl that appeared about 4 billion years ago. C. a giant explosion that occurred about 14 billion years ago. D. a black hole that turned inside out. 6. In addition to telescopes, what do astronomers commonly use to study the universe? A. computer models. B. experiments. C. microscopes. D. computer games. 7. A large collection of stars, dust, and gas bound together by gravity is called a A. solar system. B. Milky Way. C. comet. D. galaxy. 8. What is the average distance between Earth and the sun? What is this distance called? 9. How far does light travel in one year? What is this distance called? OBSERVING SPACE 10. What are all the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation called? A. visible light. B. the electric spectrum. C. the radiation frequencies. D. the electromagnetic spectrum 11. Which colors of light have the shortest wavelengths? 12. Which have the longest? Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. 1

2 13. Describe the wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation that cannot be seen by humans. TELESCOPES 14. Galileo is known for A. discovering the moon. B. naming the Milky Way. C. using a telescope to study the sky. D. inventing the telescope. 15. A telescope is an instrument that A. collects electromagnetic radiation from the sky and concentrates it. B. changes X rays from the sky to visible light. C. makes infrared waves visible to humans. D. reflects light from the craters on the moon. In the space provided, write the letter of the definition that best matches the term or phrase. 16. optical telescope 17. lens 18. refracting telescope 19. reflecting telescope 20. radio telescope 21. What are two problems with refracting telescopes? 22. What problem does a reflecting telescope solve? In what way are the mirrors in reflecting telescopes better than the objective lenses in refracting telescopes? 24. What effect does Earth s atmosphere have on many forms of electromagnetic radiation? 25. Why do ground-based telescopes that detect invisible radiation work best at high elevations? SPACE-BASED ASTRONOMY 26. Why have spacecraft with instruments proved valuable in investigating planets, stars, and other distant objects? In the space provided, write the letter of the description that best matches the term or phrase. 27. Hubble Space Telescope 28. Chandra X-rayObservatory 29. Compton Gamma RayObservatory 30. Spitzer Space Telescope 31. James Webb SpaceTelescope a. was launched in 2003 to detect infrared radiation b. orbits Earth to collect electromagnetic radiation from space objects c. will be launched in 2011 to detect infrared radiation from objects in space d. was used to detect gamma rays from objects such as black holes e. makes clear images using X rays from objects in space 32. Why are scientists interested in studying Titan?

3 33. How has space exploration led to improved electronics and medical equipment? Chapter 26 Section 2 : Movements of Earth Pages Directed Reading THE ROTATING EARTH Use the terms from the list below to complete the sentences that follow. Each term may be used only once. Some terms may not be used. daylight rotation revolution east nighttime year day west night 1. The spinning of Earth on its axis is called. 2. A complete rotation of Earth takes about one. 3. As Earth rotates from west to east, the sun seems to rise in The. 4. The sun appears to set in the. 5. The side of Earth facing the sun at any given moment experiences. 6. The side of Earth facing away from the sun at any given moment Experiences. 7. What did Foucault s pendulum provide in the 19th century? 8. What happens to the path of a pendulum over the course of a day? 9. What causes the apparent change in the path of a pendulum? 10. What causes deflection of ocean currents and wind belts? 11. In which direction are ocean currents and wind belts deflected in the Northern Hemisphere? In the Southern Hemisphere? 12. What is the curving of the path of wind belts and ocean currents called? THE REVOLVING EARTH 13. What is the average speed of Earth as it travels around the sun? 14. How long does each complete revolution of Earth around the sun take? In the space provided, write the letter of the definition that best matches the term or phrase. 15. Revolution 16. orbit 17. ellipse 18. perihelion 19. aphelion 20. What is the shape of Earth s orbit around the sun? 3

4 CONSTELLATIONS AND EARTH S MOTION 21. What is a constellation? 22. What did the International Astronomical Union do in 1930? 23. Where did many of the names for the constellations come from? 24. What causes the position of a constellation to appear to change over a period of several hours? 25. What causes the position of a constellation to appear to change, at the same time of the evening, over a period of several weeks? MEASURING TIME 26. The basis for the measurement of time is A. the sun s motion. B. the moon s motion. C. Earth s motion. D. the galaxy s motion. 27. The measurement of a day is determined by A. the rotation of Earth on its axis. B. Earth s revolution around the sun. C. the moon s motion around Earth. D. the period between successive full moons. 28. The measurement of a year is determined by A. the rotation of Earth on its axis. B. Earth s revolution around the sun. C. the moon s motion around Earth. D. the period between successive full moons. 29. The measurement of a month is based on A. the rotation of Earth on its axis. B. Earth s revolution around the sun. C. the moon s motion around Earth. D. Earth s motion around the moon. 30. Each rotation of Earth on its axis takes A. 24 hours. B days. C. 365 days. D /4 days. 31. Each complete revolution of Earth around the sun takes A. 24 hours. B days. C. 365 days. D /4 days. 32. Who were the first people to use a calendar based on a solar year? A. the Aztecs B. the Romans C. the Babylonians D. the Egyptians 33. What civilization created a calendar based on a 12-month lunar year? A. the Roman B. the Babylonian C. the Egyptian D. the Aztec 34. Why is the extra 1/4 day of the year usually ignored? 35. What is a leap year? Explain why it is necessary. 4

5 36. What calendar problem did Pope Gregory XIII address and how did his committee solve it? 37. Is it noon at the same time all over the world? Explain your answer. 38. How many degrees does each of Earth s 24 standard time zones cover? Explain your answer. 39. What is the International Date Line? What does it mark? 40. Why is daylight time shorter in the winter months than in the summer months? 41. Why does the United States use daylight savings time from March to November? 44. Seasons are caused by A. Earth s rotation on its axis. B. changes in the angle at which the sun s rays strike Earth. C. the distance of a place from the equator. D. differences in Earth s time zones. 45. Winter occurs in the Northern Hemisphere when A. the North Pole tilts away from the sun. B. the North Pole tilts toward the sun. C. the sun s rays strike the Northern Hemisphere at a high angle. D. the sun s rays creates more daylight hours. 46. A result of fewer daylight hours is A. less solar energy. B. more solar energy. C. higher temperatures. D. a longer season. 47. When it is winter in the Northern Hemisphere, the Southern Hemisphere experiences A. winter. B. summer. C. spring. D. fall. THE SEASONS 42. Earth s axis is A. vertical. B. tilted at 12. C. tilted at D During each revolution of Earth, the North Pole A. sometimes tilts toward the sun and sometimes tilts away. B. is always vertical. C. always tilts toward the sun. D. always tilts away from the sun. 5 Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

6 Use the terms from the list below to complete the sentences that follow. Each term may be used only once. Some terms may not be used. (questions 48-52) autumnal equinox hemisphere equator equinox vernal equinox celestial equator 48. A line drawn on the sky directly overhead from the equator on Earth is called the. 49. The moment when the sun appears to cross the celestial equator is a(an). 50. At an equinox, the angle of the sun s rays along the is The beginning of fall in the Northern Hemisphere is marked by the, occurring on September 22 or The beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere is marked by the, falling on March 21 or What is true of the hours of daylight and darkness everywhere on Earth at an equinox? 54. What is a solstice? 55. What begins on the solstices each year? 56. Along what line do the sun s rays strike Earth at a 90 angle at the summer solstice? Where is this line located? 67. What happens to the sun in the Northern Hemisphere at the summer solstice? Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved Along what line do the sun s rays strike Earth at a 90 angle at the winter solstice? Where is this line located? Chapter 27 pages The rotating cloud of dust and gas from which our solar system is thought to have formed is called the A. solar nebula. B. gas giant. C. sun. D. nova 2. Energy from collisions and pressure from gravity caused the center of the solar nebula to become A. hotter and less dense. B. cooler and denser. C. cooler and less dense. D. hotter and denser. 3. Which of the following formed when the temperature at the center of the nebula reached about 10,000,000 C and hydrogen fusion began? A. Mars B. Earth C. the sun D. the moon 4. How much of the matter that was contained in the solar nebula makes up the sun? A. 5% B. about 99% C. 25% D. about 75%

7 FORMATION OF THE PLANETS 5. Small bodies from which a planet originated in the early development of the solar system are called A. atmospheres. B. planetesimals. C. suns. D. moons. 6. Some planetesimals joined together through collision and through the force of gravity to form larger bodies called A. protoplanets. B. sunspots. C. protons. D. nebulas. 7. The smaller bodies that orbit the planets are called A. solar nebulas. B. moons. C. planetesimals. D. suns. 8. Why are Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars called the inner planets? 9. Why did the inner planets, which contained large percentages of heavy elements such as iron and nickel, lose their less dense gases? 10. How do the surfaces of the inner planets compare with that of Earth today? 11. How do the inner planets differ from the outer planets? 12. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are referred to as planets. 13. How did distance from the sun affect the formation of the outer planets? 14. Name the three reasons why the outer planets are referred to as gas giants. 7

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