Name Period Date Earth and Space Science. Solar System Review

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1 Name Period Date Earth and Space Science Solar System Review 1. is the spinning a planetary object on its axis. 2. is the backward motion of planets. 3. The is a unit less number between 0 and 1 that describes the elliptical shape of an orbit. 4. The is the orbital point at which the planet is farthest from the sun. 5. A planet travels at different speeds at different locations in its orbit. The closer a planet is to the sun, the greater the. 6. is the force of attraction that exists between all objects in the universe. 7. The moon revolves around Earth in. This causes the moon to rise (and set) approximately later each day. 8. A occurs when the moon passes through the earth s shadow. It may only occur during a phase. 9. Eclipses are rare because the moon s orbital plane is from the Earth s orbital plane. 10. is the movement of an object around another, i.e., the earth going around the sun or the moon going around the earth. 11. The states the sun, earth and other objects in the solar system formed from a rotating cloud of gas, called a nebula, about 4.5 billion years ago. 12. The is the orbital point at which the planet is closest to the sun 13. The model of the solar system, developed by the ancient Greeks, states the sun, moon, and known planets are in circular orbit around earth. 14. In Kepler s law, each planet revolves so that an imaginary line connecting it to the sun sweeps over in equal time intervals. 15. The greater the distance of the planet from the sun, the the amount of time it will take the planet to orbit the sun. 16. The cycle of moon phases takes (lunar month). The observed depends on the moon s location in its orbit.

2 17. A occurs when the moon passes directly between the earth and the sun. The moon casts a shadow on the earth. It may only occur during a phase. 18. The model of the solar system, developed by astronomer, states the earth and the other planets orbit the sun. 19. Kepler s first law states the planets orbit the sun in a slightly flattened circle, called an. 20. A occurs when the sun is partially blocked out by the moon. An observer on earth is under the moon s. 21. What happens when to the gravitational attraction between two objects when the total mass of the objects increase? 22. What happens when to the gravitational attraction between two objects when the distance between two objects gets closer together? 23. Why do we see only one side of the moon? 24. How did the moon form? 25. What are three common characteristics of the Jovian planets?

3 26. The apparent rising and setting of the Sun, as viewed from Earth, is caused by a. Earth s rotation b. Earth s revolution c. the Sun s rotation d. the Sun s revolution 27. The time required for the Moon to show a complete cycle of phases when viewed from Earth is approximately a. 1 day b. 1 month c. 1 week d. 1 year 28. The diagram to the right shows the Moon at four positions in its orbit around Earth. An observer on Earth could see a solar eclipse when the Moon is at position a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d The apparent westward movement of a planet against the background of stars is called. a. retrograde motion b. rotation c. revolution d. universal gravitation 30. Earth is closest to the sun at a point called. a. perihelion b. apogee c. aphelion d. precession 31. The formation of the solar system from a huge cloud of dust and gases is called the. a. protoplanet theory b. planetesimal theory c. solar nebular theory d. giant impact hypothesis 32. Based on the second law of planetary motion, when would a planet travel fastest in its orbit? a. at perihelion b. at apogee c. at aphelion d. at perigee

4 33. Compared to Pluto, Mercury moves more rapidly in its orbit because Mercury a. is larger b. is more dense c. is closer to the Sun d. has a more elliptical orbit 34. Which of the following is NOT considered part of the solar system? a. planets b. galaxies c. asteroid belt d. sun 35. What occurs when the moon casts its shadow on Earth? a. lunar eclipse b. sidereal month c. solar eclipse d. synodic month Kepler s Laws Practice 36. What is the eccentricity of the ellipse if the distance between the foci is 7.4 cm and the distance of the major axis is 8.0 cm? 37. Would you describe the eccentricity of the ellipse from problem 36 as a low or high eccentricity? 38. What is the eccentricity of the ellipse of a planet if the distance between the foci is 0.39 AU and the distance of the major axis is 1.89 AU? 39. Based on the solar system reference table, the eccentricity of the ellipse from problem 38 is closest to the eccentricity of the orbit of which planet? 40. The diagram above is a constructed ellipse. F 1 and F 2 are the foci of the ellipse. What is its eccentricity?

5 The diagram below to the right shows a model of a planet s orbit around a star. Points A, B, C, and D are four positions of this planet in its orbit. 41. At which position is the planet at aphelion? 42. At which position is the planet at perihelion? 43. At which position is the planet s velocity the greatest? 44. At which position is the planet s velocity the slowest? 45. What would happen to the orbital velocity of the planet as it moves between position A and C? 46. A planet is 3.5 AU away from a star (a). Using Kepler s third law ( (P) it takes the planet to orbit the star. 3 P a ) calculate the time 47. A planet is 7.4 AU away from a star (a). Using Kepler s third law ( (P) it takes the planet to orbit the star. 3 P a ) calculate the time A planet is 18 AU away from a star (a). Using Kepler s third law ( P a ) calculate the time (P) it takes the planet to orbit the star. 49. The dwarf planet named Eris, has been found nearly AU away from the Sun. What is the time it takes Eris to orbit the Sun?

6 50. Suppose the Sun were somehow replaced by a star with twice as much mass. What would happen to the gravitational attraction between the Earth and that star? 51. Suppose the Earth were moved to one-third of its current distance from the Sun. What would happen to the gravitational attraction between the Earth and the Sun? In each diagram below, the mass of the star is the same. 52. (a) In which diagram is the force of gravity greatest between the star and the planet? (b) Justify your answer. 53. (a) Is the force of gravity stronger in diagram 1 or 2? (b) Explain your reasoning. 54. (a) Is the force of gravity stronger in diagram 2 or 4? (b) Explain your reasoning. 55. Which graph best represents the relationship between the gravitational attraction of two objects and their distance from each other?

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