Line Integrals. Partitioning the Curve. Estimating the Mass


 Elijah Clarke
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Line Integrls Suppose we hve curve in the xy plne nd ssocite density δ(p ) = δ(x, y) t ech point on the curve. urves, of course, do not hve density or mss, but it my sometimes be convenient or useful to construct model where we pretend curve does hve density nd mss, for exmple, when nlyzing wire. Although we re now looking curve in plne, tht is mere convenience; nlogs of our results will hold for curves in R 3. Prtitioning the urve If we wished to estimte the mss of the curve, we might prtition the curve into smll pieces nd estimte the mss of ech smll piece by multiplying its density times its length. Although the density my vry, it probbly won t vry much in smll piece of the curve, so we could use the density t ny point in the piece of the curve in our estimte. If the curve hs the prmetriztion x = x(t), y = y(t), t b, prtitioning the curve mounts to tking prtition P = {t 0, t 1, t 2,..., t n } of [, b]. Estimting the Mss For ech i, 1 i n, We could choose some t i [t i 1, t i ] nd use δ(x i, yi ), where x i = x(t i ), yi = y(t i ) s our estimte for the density. We hve previously estimted the rc length ( ) 2 ( ) 2 dy s i + t i, where the derivtives re evluted t t i. We could then estimte the mss m i of the i th piece of the curve by ( ) 2 ( ) 2 dy δ(x i, yi ) + t i, so s n estimte for the entire mss m we would get ( m = n i=1 m i ) 2 n i=1 δ(x i, yi ) + The Line Integrl 1 ( ) 2 dy t i.
2 ( ) 2 ( ) 2 n dy i=1 δ(x i, yi ) + t i is Riemnn Sum, which, if everything is continuous, will pproch the ordinry integrl ( ) 2 ( ) 2 b dy δ(x(t), y(t)) +. This integrl is clled line integrl nd is denoted by δ(x, y) ds. efinition of Line Integrl In generl, given curve with prmetriztion x = x(t), y = y(t), t b nd function f(x, y) defined on the curve, we define ( f(x, y) ds = ) 2 ( ) 2 b dy f(x(t), y(t)) +. In R 3, we would hve, with the nlogous sitution, ( f(x, y, z) ds = ) 2 b f(x(t), y(t), z(t)) + ( ) 2 dy + 2 ( ) 2 dz. Note: This generlizes in the obvious wy to higher dimensions nd there re other types of line integrls. Work Suppose force F(x) is exerted long curve : x(t), t b. Along short intervl of length s, the force won t chnge much nd the mount of work performed will pproximte the tngentil component of the force multiplied by the length of tht short piece of curve. The tngentil component of the force will equl F T, where T is the unit tngent. We thus conclude the totl mount of work my be clculted by the line integrl W = F T ds. Another Look t the Line Integrl Since T = nd ds =, when we evlute the line integrl we get
3 W = b F = b F, which we my wnt to write s F. Another Type of Line Integrl If we write F =< F x, F y > nd b (F x + F dy y ), or =<, dy >, reclling dy = nd = dy, we might write the integrl s F x + F y dy. This suggests nother type of line integrl, which we might write s P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy. P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy If we prtition curve, in ech piece of the curve from (x i 1, y i 1 ) to (x i, y i ) choose point (x i, yi ) nd clculte n i=1 P (x i, yi ) x i + Q(x i, yi ) y i, s limit we will get the line integrl P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy. To clculte such line integrl, we tke prmetriztion nd clculte b P (x, y) + Q(x, y)dy. Sometimes, it s convenient to split the integrl into the sum P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy nd use different prmetriztions for ech. Integrls Along Horizontl Line Segments onsider P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy where is horizontl line segment y = k, x b. In this cse, we cn clculte P (x, y) +Q(x, y) dy = b P (x, k). To see this, use the prmetriztion x = t, y = k, t b, so = 1, dy = 0 nd P (x, y) +Q(x, y) dy = b dy P (x, y) +Q(x, y) = b P (t, k) 1 + Q(t, k) 0 = b P (t, k) = b P (x, k). Integrls Along Verticl Line Segments 3
4 onsider P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy where is verticl line segment x = k, y b. In this cse, we cn clculte P (x, y) +Q(x, y) dy = b P (k, y) dy. We cn see this using the prmetriztion x = k, y = t, t b. Integrls Along urves y = f(x) onsider P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy where is curve y = f(x), x b. In this cse, we my clculte P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy = b P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy, where we replce y by f(x). This is shown immeditely using the cnonicl prmetriztion x = t, y = f(t), t b, getting P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy = b P (x, y) + Q(x, y)dy = b P (x, y) 1 + Q(x, y) dy = b P (t, f(t)) + Q(t, f(t))f (t) = b P (x, f(x)) + Q(x, f(x))f (x). Independence of Pth If, in some domin, 1 P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy = 2 P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy whenever 1 nd 2 re piecewise smooth curves with the sme initil nd terminl points, we sy P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy is independent of pth in. Independence of Pth nd losed urves A closed curve is curve for which the initil nd terminl points coincide. A circle is the simplest exmple of closed curve. It is esily seen tht n integrl P + Q dy is independent of pth in some domin if nd only if P + Q dy = 0 for every closed curve in the domin. The only if prt is obvious. To prove the if prt, suppose 1 nd 2 re two curves in the domin with the sme initl nd terminl points nd let be the curve obtined by first trveling long 1 nd then trveling bckwrds long 2. Then P + Q dy = 0, but lso P + Q dy = 1 P + Q dy 2 P +Q dy, so 1 P +Q dy 2 P +Q dy = 0 nd 1 P + Q dy = 2 P + Q dy. Independence of Pth nd Potentil Functions 4
5 It cn esily be shown tht P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy is independent of pth if there exists some potentil function φ(x, y) such tht φ =< P, Q >, i.e. such tht φ x = P, φ y = Q. Suppose such function exists nd goes from (x 1, y 1 ) to (x 2, y 2 ). Let x = f(t), y = g(t), t b be prmetriztion of. We then clculte: P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy = b φ φ + x y dy = b dφ = [φ(f(t), g(t))] b = φ(f(b), g(b)) φ(f(), g()) = φ(x 2, y 2 ) φ(x 1, y 1 ). This obviously doesn t depend on. A Necessry ondition If φ φ = P nd x y derivtives we get 2 φ y x = P y nd 2 φ x y = Q x. = Q, when we clculte the second prtil If these second prtils re continuous, then they must be equl, so P y = Q x. This is obviously necessry condition for the existence of potentil function φ. It cn be shown this is lso sufficient condition for the integrl P + Q dy to be independent of pth. This will be consequence of Green s Theorem. Green s Theorem Theorem 1 (Green s Theorem). Under suitble hypothesis, given plne region with boundry oriented positively, P +Q dy = Q x P y da. If we hve closed curve bounding region nd Q x = P y, it follows tht P + Q dy = the integrl is independent of pth. Proof of Green s Theorem Q x P y da = 0 da = 0, so 5
6 We will verify Green s Theorem for some specil curves, but will not give generl proof. We will first ssume region cn be described s {(x, y) f(x) y g(x), x b. We cn then prmetrize the boundry by the union = , with 1 is the curve y = f(x), with x going from to b, 2 is the verticl line segment x = b, with y going from f(b) to g(b), 3 is the curve y = g(x), with x going from b to nd 4 is the verticl line segment x =, with y going from g() to f(). Hlf the Integrl Now consider P. We cn split the integrl into four prts. P = 1 P + 2 P + 3 P + 4 P. The portions long the verticl line segments re obviously 0, so we re left with P = 1 P + 3 P = b P (x, f(x)) + P (x, g(x)) = b b P (x, f(x)) b P (x, g(x)) = b P (x, f(x)) P (x, g(x)). But P (x, f(x)) P (x, g(x)) = f(x) P dy, so g(x) y P = b f(x) P g(x) y dy = b g(x) P f(x) y dy = P y da. More on Green s Theorem Essentilly, we hve shown tht if region cn be divided up into verticl strips going between two curves, then P (x, y) = P y da. A similr clcultion shows tht if the sme region cn be divided up into horizontl strips going between two curves, then Q(x, y) dy = Q x da. If the region cn be divided up both wys, we cn dd these integrls together to get P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy = Q x P y da. Simple losed urves nd Independence of Pth A curve for which the initil nd terminl points coincide is clled closed curve. If those re the only points which coincide, the curve is clled simple closed curve. We will ssume ll our curves re piecewise smooth. 6
7 lim 1. In domin, P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy is independent of pth if nd only if P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy = 0 over ll simple closed curves. lerly, if, P (x, y) +Q(x, y) dy is independent of pth, then for ny closed curve P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy = 0 since the vlue of the integrl would be the sme if we used degenerte curve. On the other hnd, suppose P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy = 0 over every simple closed curve nd consider curves 1, 2 with the sme ini til nd terminl points. Let = 1 ( 2 ). By 2 we men the curve trcing over the sme points s 2 but going in the opposite direction. is closed curve, so P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy = 0. But P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy = 1 2 P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy = 1 P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy 2 P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy. It follows tht 1 P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy = 2 P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy. Green s Theorem nd Independence of Pth If Q x = P, then over ny simple closed curve, which we my ssume trverses counterclockwise round the boundry of plne region y, P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy = Q x = P y da = 0 da = 0. It follows immeditely tht if Q x = P y in, then P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy is independent of pth in. The Other irection Theorem 2. If P (x, y) + Q(x, y) dy is independent of pth in, then Q x = P in. y We cn prove this by finding potentil function φ(x, y) such tht φ =< P, Q >, i.e. such tht φ x = P, φ y = Q. To define φ(x, y), tke n rbitrry point (x 0, y 0 ) in nd let φ(x, y) = P (x, y) +Q(x, y) dy, where is ny smooth curve in going from (x 0, y 0 ) to (x, y). This is n unmbiguous definition, since the integrl is independent of pth. If we tke curve where the lst prt is horizontl line segment, we x+h φ(x, y) φ(x + h, y) φ(x, y) P (t, y) x get = lim h 0 = lim h 0 x h h 7
8
We partition C into n small arcs by forming a partition of [a, b] by picking s i as follows: a = s 0 < s 1 < < s n = b.
Mth 255  Vector lculus II Notes 4.2 Pth nd Line Integrls We begin with discussion of pth integrls (the book clls them sclr line integrls). We will do this for function of two vribles, but these ides cn
More informationSpace Curves. Recall the parametric equations of a curve in xyplane and compare them with parametric equations of a curve in space.
Clculus 3 Li Vs Spce Curves Recll the prmetric equtions of curve in xyplne nd compre them with prmetric equtions of curve in spce. Prmetric curve in plne x = x(t) y = y(t) Prmetric curve in spce x = x(t)
More informationSection 17.2 Line Integrals
Section 7. Line Integrls Integrting Vector Fields nd Functions long urve In this section we consider the problem of integrting functions, both sclr nd vector (vector fields) long curve in the plne. We
More informationJim Lambers MAT 280 Spring Semester Lecture 17 Notes. These notes correspond to Section 13.2 in Stewart and Section 7.2 in Marsden and Tromba.
Jim Lmbers MAT 28 Spring Semester 29 Lecture 7 Notes These notes correspond to Section 3.2 in Stewrt nd Section 7.2 in Mrsden nd Tromb. Line Integrls Recll from singlevrible clclus tht if constnt force
More informationDefinite Integrals. The area under a curve can be approximated by adding up the areas of rectangles = 1 1 +
Definite Integrls 5 The re under curve cn e pproximted y dding up the res of rectngles. Exmple. Approximte the re under y = from x = to x = using equl suintervls nd + x evluting the function t the lefthnd
More informationLine Integrals. Chapter Definition
hpter 2 Line Integrls 2.1 Definition When we re integrting function of one vrible, we integrte long n intervl on one of the xes. We now generlize this ide by integrting long ny curve in the xyplne. It
More informationA REVIEW OF CALCULUS CONCEPTS FOR JDEP 384H. Thomas Shores Department of Mathematics University of Nebraska Spring 2007
A REVIEW OF CALCULUS CONCEPTS FOR JDEP 384H Thoms Shores Deprtment of Mthemtics University of Nebrsk Spring 2007 Contents Rtes of Chnge nd Derivtives 1 Dierentils 4 Are nd Integrls 5 Multivrite Clculus
More informationMath Advanced Calculus II
Mth 452  Advnced Clculus II Line Integrls nd Green s Theorem The min gol of this chpter is to prove Stoke s theorem, which is the multivrible version of the fundmentl theorem of clculus. We will be focused
More information10 Vector Integral Calculus
Vector Integrl lculus Vector integrl clculus extends integrls s known from clculus to integrls over curves ("line integrls"), surfces ("surfce integrls") nd solids ("volume integrls"). These integrls hve
More informationIntegrals along Curves.
Integrls long Curves. 1. Pth integrls. Let : [, b] R n be continuous function nd let be the imge ([, b]) of. We refer to both nd s curve. If we need to distinguish between the two we cll the function the
More informationProperties of Integrals, Indefinite Integrals. Goals: Definition of the Definite Integral Integral Calculations using Antiderivatives
Block #6: Properties of Integrls, Indefinite Integrls Gols: Definition of the Definite Integrl Integrl Clcultions using Antiderivtives Properties of Integrls The Indefinite Integrl 1 Riemnn Sums  1 Riemnn
More informationAPPLICATIONS OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL
APPLICATIONS OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL. Volume: Slicing, disks nd wshers.. Volumes by Slicing. Suppose solid object hs boundries extending from x =, to x = b, nd tht its crosssection in plne pssing through
More informationa < a+ x < a+2 x < < a+n x = b, n A i n f(x i ) x. i=1 i=1
Mth 33 Volume Stewrt 5.2 Geometry of integrls. In this section, we will lern how to compute volumes using integrls defined by slice nlysis. First, we recll from Clculus I how to compute res. Given the
More informationWe divide the interval [a, b] into subintervals of equal length x = b a n
Arc Length Given curve C defined by function f(x), we wnt to find the length of this curve between nd b. We do this by using process similr to wht we did in defining the Riemnn Sum of definite integrl:
More informationTHE EXISTENCEUNIQUENESS THEOREM FOR FIRSTORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
THE EXISTENCEUNIQUENESS THEOREM FOR FIRSTORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS RADON ROSBOROUGH https://intuitiveexplntionscom/picrdlindeloftheorem/ This document is proof of the existenceuniqueness theorem
More informationThe Regulated and Riemann Integrals
Chpter 1 The Regulted nd Riemnn Integrls 1.1 Introduction We will consider severl different pproches to defining the definite integrl f(x) dx of function f(x). These definitions will ll ssign the sme vlue
More informationThe Wave Equation I. MA 436 Kurt Bryan
1 Introduction The Wve Eqution I MA 436 Kurt Bryn Consider string stretching long the x xis, of indeterminte (or even infinite!) length. We wnt to derive n eqution which models the motion of the string
More informationf(x)dx . Show that there 1, 0 < x 1 does not exist a differentiable function g : [ 1, 1] R such that g (x) = f(x) for all
3 Definite Integrl 3.1 Introduction In school one comes cross the definition of the integrl of rel vlued function defined on closed nd bounded intervl [, b] between the limits nd b, i.e., f(x)dx s the
More information1 Line Integrals in Plane.
MA213 thye Brief Notes on hpter 16. 1 Line Integrls in Plne. 1.1 Introduction. 1.1.1 urves. A piece of smooth curve is ssumed to be given by vector vlued position function P (t) (or r(t) ) s the prmeter
More informationRiemann Sums and Riemann Integrals
Riemnn Sums nd Riemnn Integrls Jmes K. Peterson Deprtment of Biologicl Sciences nd Deprtment of Mthemticl Sciences Clemson University August 26, 2013 Outline 1 Riemnn Sums 2 Riemnn Integrls 3 Properties
More informationRiemann Sums and Riemann Integrals
Riemnn Sums nd Riemnn Integrls Jmes K. Peterson Deprtment of Biologicl Sciences nd Deprtment of Mthemticl Sciences Clemson University August 26, 203 Outline Riemnn Sums Riemnn Integrls Properties Abstrct
More informationMath 8 Winter 2015 Applications of Integration
Mth 8 Winter 205 Applictions of Integrtion Here re few importnt pplictions of integrtion. The pplictions you my see on n exm in this course include only the Net Chnge Theorem (which is relly just the Fundmentl
More informationReview of Calculus, cont d
Jim Lmbers MAT 460 Fll Semester 200910 Lecture 3 Notes These notes correspond to Section 1.1 in the text. Review of Clculus, cont d Riemnn Sums nd the Definite Integrl There re mny cses in which some
More informationDefinition of Continuity: The function f(x) is continuous at x = a if f(a) exists and lim
Mth 9 Course Summry/Study Guide Fll, 2005 [1] Limits Definition of Limit: We sy tht L is the limit of f(x) s x pproches if f(x) gets closer nd closer to L s x gets closer nd closer to. We write lim f(x)
More informationDefinite integral. Mathematics FRDIS MENDELU
Definite integrl Mthemtics FRDIS MENDELU Simon Fišnrová Brno 1 Motivtion  re under curve Suppose, for simplicity, tht y = f(x) is nonnegtive nd continuous function defined on [, b]. Wht is the re of the
More informationSection 4.8. D v(t j 1 ) t. (4.8.1) j=1
Difference Equtions to Differentil Equtions Section.8 Distnce, Position, nd the Length of Curves Although we motivted the definition of the definite integrl with the notion of re, there re mny pplictions
More informationMath 231E, Lecture 33. Parametric Calculus
Mth 31E, Lecture 33. Prmetric Clculus 1 Derivtives 1.1 First derivtive Now, let us sy tht we wnt the slope t point on prmetric curve. Recll the chin rule: which exists s long s /. = / / Exmple 1.1. Reconsider
More informationDefinite integral. Mathematics FRDIS MENDELU. Simona Fišnarová (Mendel University) Definite integral MENDELU 1 / 30
Definite integrl Mthemtics FRDIS MENDELU Simon Fišnrová (Mendel University) Definite integrl MENDELU / Motivtion  re under curve Suppose, for simplicity, tht y = f(x) is nonnegtive nd continuous function
More informationGoals: Determine how to calculate the area described by a function. Define the definite integral. Explore the relationship between the definite
Unit #8 : The Integrl Gols: Determine how to clculte the re described by function. Define the definite integrl. Eplore the reltionship between the definite integrl nd re. Eplore wys to estimte the definite
More informationIntegration Techniques
Integrtion Techniques. Integrtion of Trigonometric Functions Exmple. Evlute cos x. Recll tht cos x = cos x. Hence, cos x Exmple. Evlute = ( + cos x) = (x + sin x) + C = x + 4 sin x + C. cos 3 x. Let u
More informationu(t)dt + i a f(t)dt f(t) dt b f(t) dt (2) With this preliminary step in place, we are ready to define integration on a general curve in C.
Lecture 4 Complex Integrtion MATHGA 2451.001 Complex Vriles 1 Construction 1.1 Integrting complex function over curve in C A nturl wy to construct the integrl of complex function over curve in the complex
More informationChapter 0. What is the Lebesgue integral about?
Chpter 0. Wht is the Lebesgue integrl bout? The pln is to hve tutoril sheet ech week, most often on Fridy, (to be done during the clss) where you will try to get used to the ides introduced in the previous
More informationThe Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus MATH 151 Clculus for Mngement J. Robert Buchnn Deprtment of Mthemtics Fll 2018 Objectives Define nd evlute definite integrls using the concept of re. Evlute definite integrls
More informationp(t) dt + i 1 re it ireit dt =
Note: This mteril is contined in Kreyszig, Chpter 13. Complex integrtion We will define integrls of complex functions long curves in C. (This is bit similr to [relvlued] line integrls P dx + Q dy in R2.)
More information5.4, 6.1, 6.2 Handout. As we ve discussed, the integral is in some way the opposite of taking a derivative. The exact relationship
5.4, 6.1, 6.2 Hnout As we ve iscusse, the integrl is in some wy the opposite of tking erivtive. The exct reltionship is given by the Funmentl Theorem of Clculus: The Funmentl Theorem of Clculus: If f is
More informationf (x)dx = f(b) f(a). a b f (x)dx is the limit of sums
Green s Theorem If f is funtion of one vrible x with derivtive f x) or df dx to the Fundmentl Theorem of lulus, nd [, b] is given intervl then, ording This is not trivil result, onsidering tht b b f x)dx
More information38 Riemann sums and existence of the definite integral.
38 Riemnn sums nd existence of the definite integrl. In the clcultion of the re of the region X bounded by the grph of g(x) = x 2, the xxis nd 0 x b, two sums ppered: ( n (k 1) 2) b 3 n 3 re(x) ( n These
More informationSummary: Method of Separation of Variables
Physics 246 Electricity nd Mgnetism I, Fll 26, Lecture 22 1 Summry: Method of Seprtion of Vribles 1. Seprtion of Vribles in Crtesin Coordintes 2. Fourier Series Suggested Reding: Griffiths: Chpter 3, Section
More informationNote 16. Stokes theorem Differential Geometry, 2005
Note 16. Stokes theorem ifferentil Geometry, 2005 Stokes theorem is the centrl result in the theory of integrtion on mnifolds. It gives the reltion between exterior differentition (see Note 14) nd integrtion
More informationWeek 10: Riemann integral and its properties
Clculus nd Liner Algebr for Biomedicl Engineering Week 10: Riemnn integrl nd its properties H. Führ, Lehrstuhl A für Mthemtik, RWTH Achen, WS 07 Motivtion: Computing flow from flow rtes 1 We observe the
More informationNotes on length and conformal metrics
Notes on length nd conforml metrics We recll how to mesure the Eucliden distnce of n rc in the plne. Let α : [, b] R 2 be smooth (C ) rc. Tht is α(t) (x(t), y(t)) where x(t) nd y(t) re smooth rel vlued
More informationODE: Existence and Uniqueness of a Solution
Mth 22 Fll 213 Jerry Kzdn ODE: Existence nd Uniqueness of Solution The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus tells us how to solve the ordinry differentil eqution (ODE) du = f(t) dt with initil condition u() =
More informationLecture 3: Curves in Calculus. Table of contents
Mth 348 Fll 7 Lecture 3: Curves in Clculus Disclimer. As we hve textook, this lecture note is for guidnce nd supplement only. It should not e relied on when prepring for exms. In this lecture we set up
More informationComplex variables lecture 5: Complex integration
omplex vribles lecture 5: omplex integrtion HyoSung Ahn School of Mechtronics Gwngju Institute of Science nd Technology (GIST) 1 Oryongdong, Bukgu, Gwngju, Kore Advnced Engineering Mthemtics omplex
More informationChapter 6 Notes, Larson/Hostetler 3e
Contents 6. Antiderivtives nd the Rules of Integrtion.......................... 6. Are nd the Definite Integrl.................................. 6.. Are............................................ 6. Reimnn
More informationINTRODUCTION TO INTEGRATION
INTRODUCTION TO INTEGRATION 5.1 Ares nd Distnces Assume f(x) 0 on the intervl [, b]. Let A be the re under the grph of f(x). b We will obtin n pproximtion of A in the following three steps. STEP 1: Divide
More informationWeek 10: Line Integrals
Week 10: Line Integrls Introduction In this finl week we return to prmetrised curves nd consider integrtion long such curves. We lredy sw this in Week 2 when we integrted long curve to find its length.
More information1 The fundamental theorems of calculus.
The fundmentl theorems of clculus. The fundmentl theorems of clculus. Evluting definite integrls. The indefinite integrl new nme for ntiderivtive. Differentiting integrls. Tody we provide the connection
More informationSection 6: Area, Volume, and Average Value
Chpter The Integrl Applied Clculus Section 6: Are, Volume, nd Averge Vlue Are We hve lredy used integrls to find the re etween the grph of function nd the horizontl xis. Integrls cn lso e used to find
More informationPhysics 116C Solution of inhomogeneous ordinary differential equations using Green s functions
Physics 6C Solution of inhomogeneous ordinry differentil equtions using Green s functions Peter Young November 5, 29 Homogeneous Equtions We hve studied, especilly in long HW problem, second order liner
More informationAnonymous Math 361: Homework 5. x i = 1 (1 u i )
Anonymous Mth 36: Homewor 5 Rudin. Let I be the set of ll u (u,..., u ) R with u i for ll i; let Q be the set of ll x (x,..., x ) R with x i, x i. (I is the unit cube; Q is the stndrd simplex in R ). Define
More informationSections 5.2: The Definite Integral
Sections 5.2: The Definite Integrl In this section we shll formlize the ides from the lst section to functions in generl. We strt with forml definition.. The Definite Integrl Definition.. Suppose f(x)
More informationMain topics for the First Midterm
Min topics for the First Midterm The Midterm will cover Section 1.8, Chpters 23, Sections 4.14.8, nd Sections 5.15.3 (essentilly ll of the mteril covered in clss). Be sure to know the results of the
More informationn f(x i ) x. i=1 In section 4.2, we defined the definite integral of f from x = a to x = b as n f(x i ) x; f(x) dx = lim i=1
The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus As we continue to study the re problem, let s think bck to wht we know bout computing res of regions enclosed by curves. If we wnt to find the re of the region below the
More informationINDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BOMBAY MA205 Complex Analysis Autumn 2012
Lecture 6: Line Integrls INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BOMBAY MA205 Complex Anlysis Autumn 2012 August 8, 2012 Lecture 6: Line Integrls Lecture 6: Line Integrls Lecture 6: Line Integrls Integrls of complex
More informationAdvanced Calculus: MATH 410 Notes on Integrals and Integrability Professor David Levermore 17 October 2004
Advnced Clculus: MATH 410 Notes on Integrls nd Integrbility Professor Dvid Levermore 17 October 2004 1. Definite Integrls In this section we revisit the definite integrl tht you were introduced to when
More informationMath 32B Discussion Session Session 7 Notes August 28, 2018
Mth 32B iscussion ession ession 7 Notes August 28, 28 In tody s discussion we ll tlk bout surfce integrls both of sclr functions nd of vector fields nd we ll try to relte these to the mny other integrls
More informationHomework 4. (1) If f R[a, b], show that f 3 R[a, b]. If f + (x) = max{f(x), 0}, is f + R[a, b]? Justify your answer.
Homework 4 (1) If f R[, b], show tht f 3 R[, b]. If f + (x) = mx{f(x), 0}, is f + R[, b]? Justify your nswer. (2) Let f be continuous function on [, b] tht is strictly positive except finitely mny points
More informationand that at t = 0 the object is at position 5. Find the position of the object at t = 2.
7.2 The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus 49 re mny, mny problems tht pper much different on the surfce but tht turn out to be the sme s these problems, in the sense tht when we try to pproimte solutions we
More informationStuff You Need to Know From Calculus
Stuff You Need to Know From Clculus For the first time in the semester, the stuff we re doing is finlly going to look like clculus (with vector slnt, of course). This mens tht in order to succeed, you
More informationSection 14.3 Arc Length and Curvature
Section 4.3 Arc Length nd Curvture Clculus on Curves in Spce In this section, we ly the foundtions for describing the movement of n object in spce.. Vector Function Bsics In Clc, formul for rc length in
More informationMath 554 Integration
Mth 554 Integrtion Hndout #9 4/12/96 Defn. A collection of n + 1 distinct points of the intervl [, b] P := {x 0 = < x 1 < < x i 1 < x i < < b =: x n } is clled prtition of the intervl. In this cse, we
More information1 The Riemann Integral
The Riemnn Integrl. An exmple leding to the notion of integrl (res) We know how to find (i.e. define) the re of rectngle (bse height), tringle ( (sum of res of tringles). But how do we find/define n re
More informationContents. 4.1 Line Integrals. Calculus III (part 4): Vector Calculus (by Evan Dummit, 2018, v. 3.00) 4 Vector Calculus
lculus III prt 4): Vector lculus by Evn Dummit, 8, v. 3.) ontents 4 Vector lculus 4. Line Integrls................................................. 4. Surfces nd Surfce Integrls........................................
More informationRiemann Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Riemnn Integrls nd the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus Jmes K. Peterson Deprtment of Biologicl Sciences nd Deprtment of Mthemticl Sciences Clemson University September 16, 2013 Outline Grphing Riemnn Sums
More informationUNIFORM CONVERGENCE. Contents 1. Uniform Convergence 1 2. Properties of uniform convergence 3
UNIFORM CONVERGENCE Contents 1. Uniform Convergence 1 2. Properties of uniform convergence 3 Suppose f n : Ω R or f n : Ω C is sequence of rel or complex functions, nd f n f s n in some sense. Furthermore,
More informationReview of basic calculus
Review of bsic clculus This brief review reclls some of the most importnt concepts, definitions, nd theorems from bsic clculus. It is not intended to tech bsic clculus from scrtch. If ny of the items below
More informationThe First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. If f(x) is continuous on [a, b] and F (x) is any antiderivative. f(x) dx = F (b) F (a).
The Fundmentl Theorems of Clculus Mth 4, Section 0, Spring 009 We now know enough bout definite integrls to give precise formultions of the Fundmentl Theorems of Clculus. We will lso look t some bsic emples
More informationReview of Riemann Integral
1 Review of Riemnn Integrl In this chpter we review the definition of Riemnn integrl of bounded function f : [, b] R, nd point out its limittions so s to be convinced of the necessity of more generl integrl.
More informationl 2 p2 n 4n 2, the total surface area of the
Week 6 Lectures Sections 7.5, 7.6 Section 7.5: Surfce re of Revolution Surfce re of Cone: Let C be circle of rdius r. Let P n be n nsided regulr polygon of perimeter p n with vertices on C. Form cone
More informationRiemann is the Mann! (But Lebesgue may besgue to differ.)
Riemnn is the Mnn! (But Lebesgue my besgue to differ.) Leo Livshits My 2, 2008 1 For finite intervls in R We hve seen in clss tht every continuous function f : [, b] R hs the property tht for every ɛ >
More informationCHAPTER 10 PARAMETRIC, VECTOR, AND POLAR FUNCTIONS. dy dx
CHAPTER 0 PARAMETRIC, VECTOR, AND POLAR FUNCTIONS 0.. PARAMETRIC FUNCTIONS A) Recll tht for prmetric equtions,. B) If the equtions x f(t), nd y g(t) define y s twicedifferentile function of x, then t
More informationMath 1B, lecture 4: Error bounds for numerical methods
Mth B, lecture 4: Error bounds for numericl methods Nthn Pflueger 4 September 0 Introduction The five numericl methods descried in the previous lecture ll operte by the sme principle: they pproximte the
More informationPartial Derivatives. Limits. For a single variable function f (x), the limit lim
Limits Prtil Derivtives For single vrible function f (x), the limit lim x f (x) exists only if the righthnd side limit equls to the lefthnd side limit, i.e., lim f (x) = lim f (x). x x + For two vribles
More information4. Calculus of Variations
4. Clculus of Vritions Introduction  Typicl Problems The clculus of vritions generlises the theory of mxim nd minim. Exmple (): Shortest distnce between two points. On given surfce (e.g. plne), nd the
More informationThe Riemann Integral
Deprtment of Mthemtics King Sud University 20172018 Tble of contents 1 Antiderivtive Function nd Indefinite Integrls 2 3 4 5 Indefinite Integrls & Antiderivtive Function Definition Let f : I R be function
More information1. On some properties of definite integrals. We prove
This short collection of notes is intended to complement the textbook Anlisi Mtemtic 2 by Crl Mdern, published by Città Studi Editore, [M]. We refer to [M] for nottion nd the logicl stremline of the rguments.
More informationarxiv: v1 [math.ca] 11 Jul 2011
rxiv:1107.1996v1 [mth.ca] 11 Jul 2011 Existence nd computtion of Riemnn Stieltjes integrls through Riemnn integrls July, 2011 Rodrigo López Pouso Deprtmento de Análise Mtemátic Fcultde de Mtemátics, Universidde
More informationIntegrals  Motivation
Integrls  Motivtion When we looked t function s rte of chnge If f(x) is liner, the nswer is esy slope If f(x) is nonliner, we hd to work hrd limits derivtive A relted question is the re under f(x) (but
More information5.2 Volumes: Disks and Washers
4 pplictions of definite integrls 5. Volumes: Disks nd Wshers In the previous section, we computed volumes of solids for which we could determine the re of crosssection or slice. In this section, we restrict
More information7.6 The Use of Definite Integrals in Physics and Engineering
Arknss Tech University MATH 94: Clculus II Dr. Mrcel B. Finn 7.6 The Use of Definite Integrls in Physics nd Engineering It hs been shown how clculus cn be pplied to find solutions to geometric problems
More informationMath 120 Answers for Homework 13
Mth 12 Answers for Homework 13 1. In this problem we will use the fct tht if m f(x M on n intervl [, b] (nd if f is integrble on [, b] then (* m(b f dx M(b. ( The function f(x = 1 + x 3 is n incresing
More informationMAA 4212 Improper Integrals
Notes by Dvid Groisser, Copyright c 1995; revised 2002, 2009, 2014 MAA 4212 Improper Integrls The Riemnn integrl, while perfectly welldefined, is too restrictive for mny purposes; there re functions which
More informationExam 2, Mathematics 4701, Section ETY6 6:05 pm 7:40 pm, March 31, 2016, IH1105 Instructor: Attila Máté 1
Exm, Mthemtics 471, Section ETY6 6:5 pm 7:4 pm, Mrch 1, 16, IH115 Instructor: Attil Máté 1 17 copies 1. ) Stte the usul sufficient condition for the fixedpoint itertion to converge when solving the eqution
More informationReview on Integration (Secs ) Review: Sec Origins of Calculus. Riemann Sums. New functions from old ones.
Mth 20B Integrl Clculus Lecture Review on Integrtion (Secs. 5.  5.3) Remrks on the course. Slide Review: Sec. 5.5.3 Origins of Clculus. Riemnn Sums. New functions from old ones. A mthemticl description
More informationMath 426: Probability Final Exam Practice
Mth 46: Probbility Finl Exm Prctice. Computtionl problems 4. Let T k (n) denote the number of prtitions of the set {,..., n} into k nonempty subsets, where k n. Argue tht T k (n) kt k (n ) + T k (n ) by
More informationI. INTEGRAL THEOREMS. A. Introduction
1 U Deprtment of Physics 301A Mechnics  I. INTEGRAL THEOREM A. Introduction The integrl theorems of mthemticl physics ll hve their origin in the ordinry fundmentl theorem of clculus, i.e. xb x df dx dx
More informationWe know that if f is a continuous nonnegative function on the interval [a, b], then b
1 Ares Between Curves c 22 Donld Kreider nd Dwight Lhr We know tht if f is continuous nonnegtive function on the intervl [, b], then f(x) dx is the re under the grph of f nd bove the intervl. We re going
More informationFINAL REVIEW. 1. Vector Fields, Work, and Flux Suggested Problems:
FINAL EVIEW 1. Vector Fields, Work, nd Flux uggested Problems: { 14.1 7, 13, 16 14.2 17, 25, 27, 29, 36, 45 We dene vector eld F (x, y) to be vector vlued function tht mps ech point in the plne to two
More informationII. Integration and Cauchy s Theorem
MTH6111 Complex Anlysis 200910 Lecture Notes c Shun Bullett QMUL 2009 II. Integrtion nd Cuchy s Theorem 1. Pths nd integrtion Wrning Different uthors hve different definitions for terms like pth nd curve.
More informationg i fφdx dx = x i i=1 is a Hilbert space. We shall, henceforth, abuse notation and write g i f(x) = f
1. Appliction of functionl nlysis to PEs 1.1. Introduction. In this section we give little introduction to prtil differentil equtions. In prticulr we consider the problem u(x) = f(x) x, u(x) = x (1) where
More informationMapping the delta function and other Radon measures
Mpping the delt function nd other Rdon mesures Notes for Mth583A, Fll 2008 November 25, 2008 Rdon mesures Consider continuous function f on the rel line with sclr vlues. It is sid to hve bounded support
More informationImproper Integrals. Type I Improper Integrals How do we evaluate an integral such as
Improper Integrls Two different types of integrls cn qulify s improper. The first type of improper integrl (which we will refer to s Type I) involves evluting n integrl over n infinite region. In the grph
More informationLecture 3 ( ) (translated and slightly adapted from lecture notes by Martin Klazar)
Lecture 3 (5.3.2018) (trnslted nd slightly dpted from lecture notes by Mrtin Klzr) Riemnn integrl Now we define precisely the concept of the re, in prticulr, the re of figure U(, b, f) under the grph of
More informationMA123, Chapter 10: Formulas for integrals: integrals, antiderivatives, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (pp.
MA123, Chpter 1: Formuls for integrls: integrls, ntiderivtives, nd the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus (pp. 27233, Gootmn) Chpter Gols: Assignments: Understnd the sttement of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus.
More informationEuler, Ioachimescu and the trapezium rule. G.J.O. Jameson (Math. Gazette 96 (2012), )
Euler, Iochimescu nd the trpezium rule G.J.O. Jmeson (Mth. Gzette 96 (0), 36 4) The following results were estblished in recent Gzette rticle [, Theorems, 3, 4]. Given > 0 nd 0 < s
More informationROB EBY Blinn College Mathematics Department
ROB EBY Blinn College Mthemtics Deprtment Mthemtics Deprtment 5.1, 5.2 Are, Definite Integrls MATH 2413 Rob EbyFll 26 Weknowthtwhengiventhedistncefunction, wecnfindthevelocitytnypointbyfindingthederivtiveorinstntneous
More informationFundamental Theorem of Calculus
Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus Recll tht if f is nonnegtive nd continuous on [, ], then the re under its grph etween nd is the definite integrl A= f() d Now, for in the intervl [, ], let A() e the re under
More information