Section 14.3 Arc Length and Curvature


 Augustine Boyd
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Section 4.3 Arc Length nd Curvture Clculus on Curves in Spce In this section, we ly the foundtions for describing the movement of n object in spce.. Vector Function Bsics In Clc, formul for rc length in terms of prmetric equtions (in spce) ws determined. A similr formul holds for 3spce. Result.. If r(t) = f(t) i + g(t) j + h(t) k defines smooth curve C nd f (t), g (t) nd h (t) re ll continuous, then the rc length long the portion of the curve with t b (provided it is trversed only is) is given by the formul or L = b [f (t)] + [g (t)] + [h (t)] dt L = b r (t) dt. The formul is stright forwrd to work with: Exmple.. Find the length of for t. r(t) = i + t j + t 3 k This is stright forwrd clcultions: L = + 4t + 9t 4 dt = t 4 + 9t dt. Substituting u = 4 + 9t, we hve du/dt = 8t, dt = du/8t, nd when t =, u = 4, nd t = gives u = 3, t t dt = t u 4 8t du = 3 [ ] 3 udu = u 3 4 = 7 [ Often we re not interested in specific distnce prticle hs trveled, but rther formul to determine how fr prticle hs trveled in terms of me vrible (this is useful in things like irline flight or spce trvel), we need to determine wy to do this. Suppose r(u) is vector function for curve C which trverses C only once for u t ].
2 (notice we hve chnged the prmeter to u nd we re using t s time vrible ). We define the rclength function s for C by r (u) du = [f (u)] + [g (u)] + [h (u)] du. Notice tht the integrl defines function in the vrible t. Al note tht by the fundmentl Theorem of Clculus, this implies ds dt = r (t). The function s(t) mesures the distnce from the point r() to the point r(t), s on s we plug in vlue for t, it will provide us with this numericl distnce. We illustrte. Exmple.3. Find the distnce formul for r(u) = u i + ( 3u) j + (5 + 4u) k from u =. Use the formul to determine the distnce trveled fter seconds, nd how long it tkes for the prticle to trvel 8 units. The formul is stright forwrd: + ( 3) + 4 du = 9t This mens fter seconds, the prticle will hve trveled 9 units. In order to trvel 8 units, we need 9t = 8, or t = 9/8.67 seconds. Notice tht in the lst exmple, we obtined formul for s in terms of t. In prticulr, we could lve this formul for t in terms of s, t = s/ 9, nd then subsitute into the originl prmeteriztion for r nd thus we would hve prmeteriztion for r in terms of s insted of t. We cll such prmetriztion prmeteriztion with respect to rclength. This is often preferred method of prmeteriztion since it depends only upon the curve itself (or the length of the curve), nd not prticulr coordinte system. In order to determine prmeteriztion with respect to rclength of curve with vector eqution r(t), we do the following: (i) Solve the distnce formul r (u) du for the prmeteriztion you re given. You should hve function of s in terms of t. (ii) Cn you lve the function s(t) for t? If not, you cnnot reprmeterize this wy. Otherwise, lve for t ( t will be function of s, t(s)).
3 (iii) Substitute the function t(s) in for u (nd renme s s u) in the originl prmetriztion  this is now prmeteriztion with respect to rclength. Exmple.4. Find prmeteriztion with respect to rclength for r(u) = u i + ( 3u) j + (5 + 4u) k from u =. Recll, we hve t = s/ 9. Therefore, + ( 3) + 4 du = 9t r(t) = u ( 3u) (5 + 4u) i + j + k is prmeteriztion with respect to rclength.. Curvture Recll tht if C is smooth curve defined by the vector function r(t), nd r (t), then the unit tngent vector is given by T(t) = r(t)/ r (t) which indictes the direction of the curve. Since T(t) provides the direction of r(t), the rte of chnge of T with respect to s, the distnce function, mesures how quickly the direction of C is chnging (see figure below)  when d T/ds is lrge, it mens the direction of C is chnging quickly over distnce, nd when it is smll, it mens it is not chnging drmticlly. 3 This motivtes the following definition: Definition.. The curvture of curve is κ = d T ds where T is the unit tngent vector with prmeteriztion with respect to rclength s. By the wy we hve defined κ, it seems difficult to clculte  first we need to determine the prmeteriztion with respect to rclength of T (which s we sw previously, is not esy). However, by using the chin rule, we cn void doing this.
4 4 Result.. κ(t) cn be clculted using the following formul: κ(t) = T (t) r (t). Observe tht this completely voids hving to find s. We illustrte. Exmple.3. Find the curvture of r(t) = 3t i+4 sin (t) j +4 cos (t) k. First we find the unit norml vector, T(t) = r (t) r (t) = 3 i + 4 cos(t) j 4 sin (t) k (3 + 4 ) Then we hve Then we hve T (t) = 4 5 sin (t) j 4 5 cos (t) k. = 3 5 i+ 4 5 cos (t) j 4 5 sin (t) k. κ(t) = 4 sin (t) j 4 cos (t) 4 k i + 4 cos (t) j 4 sin(t) k = 5 5 = 4 5. Notice tht this is constnt (it does not depend upon t) which mens tht the curvture is constnt. This is l pprent from the grph below where we cn see the tngent vectors re chnging t constnt rte: There re other wys to clculte curvture which do not rely upon finding the tngent vector nd insted use crossproduct. Result.4. The curvture of the curve C given by r(t) is κ(t) = r (t) r (t) r (t) 3. Exmple.5. Find the curvture of r(t) = t i + e t j + e t k. We shll pply the recent formul: we hve r (t) = i + e t j e t j, nd r (t) = e t j + e t k, r (t) r (t) = i e t j + e t k r (t) r (t) = 4 + e t + e t = (e t + e t ) = (e t + e t )
5 We l hve r (t) 3 = (4 + e t + e t ) 3/ = ( (e t + e t )) 3 κ(t) = (e t + e t ). For the specil cse of plne curve y = f(x), ( dimensionl curve), the zcoordinte is lwys zero, we cn tke the prmeter to be x vector eqution will be Then we shll hve r(x) = x i + f(x) j. r (x) r (x) = ( i + f (x) j) (f (x) j) = f (x) k = f (x), nd r (x) 3 = ( i + f (x) j) 3 = + (f (x)) 3 = + (f (x)) 3/. Thus we hve Result.6. If y = f(x), then the curvture t ny point x is given by the formul f (x) κ(x) = + (f (x)) 3 Exmple.7. Find the curvture of y = x 3 t (, ). We just pply the formul, κ() = 6 3/ 3. Norml nd Binorml Vectors We hve lredy seen tht t ny point on curve, there is vector clled the unit tngent vector which tells us the direction the curve is going. There re two other vectors closely relted to this vector which l provide informtion bout the curve C. Specificlly, provided the unit tngent vector is nonzero, we cn find two other vectors which re perpendiculr to it nd re mutully perpendiculr to ech other (giving mething like coordinte xis t the point). We define them s follows: Definition 3.. Suppose C is curve with vector eqution r(t) nd let T(t) be its unit tngent vector defined s Then we define: T(t) = r (t) r (t). 5
6 6 (i) The principl unit norml vector N(t) defined s N(t) = T (t) T (t). (ii) The binorml vector B(t) defined s B(t) = T(t) B(t). All three vectors re mutully perpendiculr. Clcultion of these vectors though cumberme, is firly stright forwrd. We give n exmple. Exmple 3.. Find the vectors T, N nd B for r(t) = t i+t 3 /3 j+t k t the point (, /3, ). We hve T(t) = t i + t j + k (4t4 + 4t + = t i + t j + k (t + ) To clculte T (t), we use the generlized product rule: = t i + t j + k. (t + ) T 4t (t) = (t + ) (t i + t j + k) + (t + ) ( i + 4t j) = i + 8t 3 j + 4t (t + ) k) + + ) i + (8t 3 + 4t) j) (8t (t + ) ((4t = (t + ) (( 4t ) i+4t j 4t k) = Then we l hve N(t) = T (t) = (t + ) (( t ) i+t j t k). (t + ) ( 4t + 4t 4 + 4t + 4t ) = (t +) (( t ) i + t j t k) (t +) At (, /3, ) we hve t =, T() = i + j + k 9 = (t + ) t + (( t ) i+t j t k). = 3 i + 3 j + 3 k nd N() = 3 i + 3 j 3 k, B() = ( 3 i + 3 j + 3 k) ( 3 i + 3 j 3 k) = 3 i + 3 j + 3 k.
7 Recll tht given pir of (nonprllel) vectors nd point, there is plne which contins both vectors nd the point. The plnes scited to the vectors we hve introduced bove provide useful informtion bout curve C with vector r(t), we introduce me terminology for these plnes: Definition 3.3. Suppose tht r(t) is vector eqution for curve C. For fixed vlue, t =, we define the following: (i) The plne contining the point r() nd vectors N nd B is clled the norml plne to C t P = r(). It contins ll vectors orthogonl to C t t =. (ii) The plne contining the point r() nd vectors N nd T is clled the osculting plne to C t P = r(). It is the plne which C most closely lies in t P. Exmple 3.4. Find the equtions for the norml plne nd the osculting plne to r(t) = t i + t 3 /3 j + t k t the point (, /3, ). We hve lredy determined the three required vectors: T() = 3 i + 3 j + 3 k 7 nd nd N() = 3 i + 3 j 3 k, B() = 3 i + 3 j + 3 k. The norml plne contins B nd N, norml vector to the plne will be T (which is perpendiculr to both B nd N). This n eqution will be 3 (x ) + 3 (y 3 ) + (z ) =. 3 The osculting plne will hve B s norml vector, will hve eqution 3 (x ) + 3 (y 3 ) + (z ) =. 3
( dg. ) 2 dt. + dt. dt j + dh. + dt. r(t) dt. Comparing this equation with the one listed above for the length of see that
Arc Length of Curves in Three Dimensionl Spce If the vector function r(t) f(t) i + g(t) j + h(t) k trces out the curve C s t vries, we cn mesure distnces long C using formul nerly identicl to one tht we
More informationReview: Velocity: v( t) r '( t) speed = v( t) Initial speed v, initial height h, launching angle : 1 Projectile motion: r( ) j v r
13.3 Arc Length Review: curve in spce: r t f t i g t j h t k Tngent vector: r '( t ) f ' t i g ' t j h' t k Tngent line t t t : s r( t ) sr '( t ) Velocity: v( t) r '( t) speed = v( t) Accelertion ( t)
More informationSection 17.2 Line Integrals
Section 7. Line Integrls Integrting Vector Fields nd Functions long urve In this section we consider the problem of integrting functions, both sclr nd vector (vector fields) long curve in the plne. We
More informationCurves. Differential Geometry Lia Vas
Differentil Geometry Li Vs Curves Differentil Geometry Introduction. Differentil geometry is mthemticl discipline tht uses methods of multivrible clculus nd liner lgebr to study problems in geometry. In
More informationWeek 10: Line Integrals
Week 10: Line Integrls Introduction In this finl week we return to prmetrised curves nd consider integrtion long such curves. We lredy sw this in Week 2 when we integrted long curve to find its length.
More informationdt. However, we might also be curious about dy
Section 0. The Clculus of Prmetric Curves Even though curve defined prmetricly my not be function, we cn still consider concepts such s rtes of chnge. However, the concepts will need specil tretment. For
More informationThe Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. The Total Change Theorem and the Area Under a Curve.
Clculus Li Vs The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus. The Totl Chnge Theorem nd the Are Under Curve. Recll the following fct from Clculus course. If continuous function f(x) represents the rte of chnge of F
More informationA REVIEW OF CALCULUS CONCEPTS FOR JDEP 384H. Thomas Shores Department of Mathematics University of Nebraska Spring 2007
A REVIEW OF CALCULUS CONCEPTS FOR JDEP 384H Thoms Shores Deprtment of Mthemtics University of Nebrsk Spring 2007 Contents Rtes of Chnge nd Derivtives 1 Dierentils 4 Are nd Integrls 5 Multivrite Clculus
More informationWe partition C into n small arcs by forming a partition of [a, b] by picking s i as follows: a = s 0 < s 1 < < s n = b.
Mth 255  Vector lculus II Notes 4.2 Pth nd Line Integrls We begin with discussion of pth integrls (the book clls them sclr line integrls). We will do this for function of two vribles, but these ides cn
More informationLecture 3: Curves in Calculus. Table of contents
Mth 348 Fll 7 Lecture 3: Curves in Clculus Disclimer. As we hve textook, this lecture note is for guidnce nd supplement only. It should not e relied on when prepring for exms. In this lecture we set up
More informationProperties of Integrals, Indefinite Integrals. Goals: Definition of the Definite Integral Integral Calculations using Antiderivatives
Block #6: Properties of Integrls, Indefinite Integrls Gols: Definition of the Definite Integrl Integrl Clcultions using Antiderivtives Properties of Integrls The Indefinite Integrl 1 Riemnn Sums  1 Riemnn
More informationJim Lambers MAT 280 Spring Semester Lecture 17 Notes. These notes correspond to Section 13.2 in Stewart and Section 7.2 in Marsden and Tromba.
Jim Lmbers MAT 28 Spring Semester 29 Lecture 7 Notes These notes correspond to Section 3.2 in Stewrt nd Section 7.2 in Mrsden nd Tromb. Line Integrls Recll from singlevrible clclus tht if constnt force
More informationMath 231E, Lecture 33. Parametric Calculus
Mth 31E, Lecture 33. Prmetric Clculus 1 Derivtives 1.1 First derivtive Now, let us sy tht we wnt the slope t point on prmetric curve. Recll the chin rule: which exists s long s /. = / / Exmple 1.1. Reconsider
More informationMath Calculus with Analytic Geometry II
orem of definite Mth 5.0 with Anlytic Geometry II Jnury 4, 0 orem of definite If < b then b f (x) dx = ( under f bove xxis) ( bove f under xxis) Exmple 8 0 3 9 x dx = π 3 4 = 9π 4 orem of definite Problem
More informationWe divide the interval [a, b] into subintervals of equal length x = b a n
Arc Length Given curve C defined by function f(x), we wnt to find the length of this curve between nd b. We do this by using process similr to wht we did in defining the Riemnn Sum of definite integrl:
More information1 The fundamental theorems of calculus.
The fundmentl theorems of clculus. The fundmentl theorems of clculus. Evluting definite integrls. The indefinite integrl new nme for ntiderivtive. Differentiting integrls. Tody we provide the connection
More informationSpace Curves. Recall the parametric equations of a curve in xyplane and compare them with parametric equations of a curve in space.
Clculus 3 Li Vs Spce Curves Recll the prmetric equtions of curve in xyplne nd compre them with prmetric equtions of curve in spce. Prmetric curve in plne x = x(t) y = y(t) Prmetric curve in spce x = x(t)
More informationa < a+ x < a+2 x < < a+n x = b, n A i n f(x i ) x. i=1 i=1
Mth 33 Volume Stewrt 5.2 Geometry of integrls. In this section, we will lern how to compute volumes using integrls defined by slice nlysis. First, we recll from Clculus I how to compute res. Given the
More informationRecitation 3: More Applications of the Derivative
Mth 1c TA: Pdric Brtlett Recittion 3: More Applictions of the Derivtive Week 3 Cltech 2012 1 Rndom Question Question 1 A grph consists of the following: A set V of vertices. A set E of edges where ech
More informationGoals: Determine how to calculate the area described by a function. Define the definite integral. Explore the relationship between the definite
Unit #8 : The Integrl Gols: Determine how to clculte the re described by function. Define the definite integrl. Eplore the reltionship between the definite integrl nd re. Eplore wys to estimte the definite
More information7.1 Integral as Net Change and 7.2 Areas in the Plane Calculus
7.1 Integrl s Net Chnge nd 7. Ares in the Plne Clculus 7.1 INTEGRAL AS NET CHANGE Notecrds from 7.1: Displcement vs Totl Distnce, Integrl s Net Chnge We hve lredy seen how the position of n oject cn e
More informationMath 20C Multivariable Calculus Lecture 5 1. Lines and planes. Equations of lines (Vector, parametric, and symmetric eqs.). Equations of lines
Mt 2C Multivrible Clculus Lecture 5 1 Lines nd plnes Slide 1 Equtions of lines (Vector, prmetric, nd symmetric eqs.). Equtions of plnes. Distnce from point to plne. Equtions of lines Slide 2 Definition
More informationx = b a n x 2 e x dx. cdx = c(b a), where c is any constant. a b
CHAPTER 5. INTEGRALS 61 where nd x = b n x i = 1 (x i 1 + x i ) = midpoint of [x i 1, x i ]. Problem 168 (Exercise 1, pge 377). Use the Midpoint Rule with the n = 4 to pproximte 5 1 x e x dx. Some quick
More information7.2 The Definite Integral
7.2 The Definite Integrl the definite integrl In the previous section, it ws found tht if function f is continuous nd nonnegtive, then the re under the grph of f on [, b] is given by F (b) F (), where
More informationODE: Existence and Uniqueness of a Solution
Mth 22 Fll 213 Jerry Kzdn ODE: Existence nd Uniqueness of Solution The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus tells us how to solve the ordinry differentil eqution (ODE) du = f(t) dt with initil condition u() =
More informationLecture XVII. Vector functions, vector and scalar fields Definition 1 A vectorvalued function is a map associating vectors to real numbers, that is
Lecture XVII Abstrct We introduce the concepts of vector functions, sclr nd vector fields nd stress their relevnce in pplied sciences. We study curves in threedimensionl Eucliden spce nd introduce the
More informationLine and Surface Integrals: An Intuitive Understanding
Line nd Surfce Integrls: An Intuitive Understnding Joseph Breen Introduction Multivrible clculus is ll bout bstrcting the ides of differentition nd integrtion from the fmilir single vrible cse to tht of
More informationDefinition of Continuity: The function f(x) is continuous at x = a if f(a) exists and lim
Mth 9 Course Summry/Study Guide Fll, 2005 [1] Limits Definition of Limit: We sy tht L is the limit of f(x) s x pproches if f(x) gets closer nd closer to L s x gets closer nd closer to. We write lim f(x)
More informationDefinite integral. Mathematics FRDIS MENDELU
Definite integrl Mthemtics FRDIS MENDELU Simon Fišnrová Brno 1 Motivtion  re under curve Suppose, for simplicity, tht y = f(x) is nonnegtive nd continuous function defined on [, b]. Wht is the re of the
More informationPartial Derivatives. Limits. For a single variable function f (x), the limit lim
Limits Prtil Derivtives For single vrible function f (x), the limit lim x f (x) exists only if the righthnd side limit equls to the lefthnd side limit, i.e., lim f (x) = lim f (x). x x + For two vribles
More informationMATH 13 FINAL STUDY GUIDE, WINTER 2012
MATH 13 FINAL TUY GUI, WINTR 2012 This is ment to be quick reference guide for the topics you might wnt to know for the finl. It probbly isn t comprehensive, but should cover most of wht we studied in
More informationConservation Law. Chapter Goal. 5.2 Theory
Chpter 5 Conservtion Lw 5.1 Gol Our long term gol is to understnd how mny mthemticl models re derived. We study how certin quntity chnges with time in given region (sptil domin). We first derive the very
More informationDefinite integral. Mathematics FRDIS MENDELU. Simona Fišnarová (Mendel University) Definite integral MENDELU 1 / 30
Definite integrl Mthemtics FRDIS MENDELU Simon Fišnrová (Mendel University) Definite integrl MENDELU / Motivtion  re under curve Suppose, for simplicity, tht y = f(x) is nonnegtive nd continuous function
More informationBasics of space and vectors. Points and distance. Vectors
Bsics of spce nd vectors Points nd distnce One wy to describe our position in three dimensionl spce is using Crtesin coordintes x, y, z) where we hve fixed three orthogonl directions nd we move x units
More informationThe Regulated and Riemann Integrals
Chpter 1 The Regulted nd Riemnn Integrls 1.1 Introduction We will consider severl different pproches to defining the definite integrl f(x) dx of function f(x). These definitions will ll ssign the sme vlue
More informationn f(x i ) x. i=1 In section 4.2, we defined the definite integral of f from x = a to x = b as n f(x i ) x; f(x) dx = lim i=1
The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus As we continue to study the re problem, let s think bck to wht we know bout computing res of regions enclosed by curves. If we wnt to find the re of the region below the
More informationStudent Handbook for MATH 3300
Student Hndbook for MATH 3300 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 If people do not believe tht mthemtics is simple, it is only becuse they do not relize how complicted life is. John Louis
More informationMath 32B Discussion Session Session 7 Notes August 28, 2018
Mth 32B iscussion ession ession 7 Notes August 28, 28 In tody s discussion we ll tlk bout surfce integrls both of sclr functions nd of vector fields nd we ll try to relte these to the mny other integrls
More informationMathematics. Area under Curve.
Mthemtics Are under Curve www.testprepkrt.com Tle of Content 1. Introduction.. Procedure of Curve Sketching. 3. Sketching of Some common Curves. 4. Are of Bounded Regions. 5. Sign convention for finding
More informationMath Advanced Calculus II
Mth 452  Advnced Clculus II Line Integrls nd Green s Theorem The min gol of this chpter is to prove Stoke s theorem, which is the multivrible version of the fundmentl theorem of clculus. We will be focused
More informationMATH Summary of Chapter 13
MATH 21259 ummry of hpter 13 1. Vector Fields re vector functions of two or three vribles. Typiclly, vector field is denoted by F(x, y, z) = P (x, y, z)i+q(x, y, z)j+r(x, y, z)k where P, Q, R re clled
More informationOverview of Calculus I
Overview of Clculus I Prof. Jim Swift Northern Arizon University There re three key concepts in clculus: The limit, the derivtive, nd the integrl. You need to understnd the definitions of these three things,
More informationPolynomial Approximations for the Natural Logarithm and Arctangent Functions. Math 230
Polynomil Approimtions for the Nturl Logrithm nd Arctngent Functions Mth 23 You recll from first semester clculus how one cn use the derivtive to find n eqution for the tngent line to function t given
More informationp(t) dt + i 1 re it ireit dt =
Note: This mteril is contined in Kreyszig, Chpter 13. Complex integrtion We will define integrls of complex functions long curves in C. (This is bit similr to [relvlued] line integrls P dx + Q dy in R2.)
More informationalong the vector 5 a) Find the plane s coordinate after 1 hour. b) Find the plane s coordinate after 2 hours. c) Find the plane s coordinate
L8 VECTOR EQUATIONS OF LINES HL Mth  Sntowski Vector eqution of line 1 A plne strts journey t the point (4,1) moves ech hour long the vector. ) Find the plne s coordinte fter 1 hour. b) Find the plne
More informationChapters 4 & 5 Integrals & Applications
Contents Chpters 4 & 5 Integrls & Applictions Motivtion to Chpters 4 & 5 2 Chpter 4 3 Ares nd Distnces 3. VIDEO  Ares Under Functions............................................ 3.2 VIDEO  Applictions
More informationMath 1102: Calculus I (Math/Sci majors) MWF 3pm, Fulton Hall 230 Homework 2 solutions
Mth 1102: Clculus I (Mth/Sci mjors) MWF 3pm, Fulton Hll 230 Homework 2 solutions Plese write netly, nd show ll work. Cution: An nswer with no work is wrong! Do the following problems from Chpter III: 6,
More informationMath 113 Exam 1Review
Mth 113 Exm 1Review September 26, 2016 Exm 1 covers 6.17.3 in the textbook. It is dvisble to lso review the mteril from 5.3 nd 5.5 s this will be helpful in solving some of the problems. 6.1 Are Between
More informationMath 8 Winter 2015 Applications of Integration
Mth 8 Winter 205 Applictions of Integrtion Here re few importnt pplictions of integrtion. The pplictions you my see on n exm in this course include only the Net Chnge Theorem (which is relly just the Fundmentl
More informationSection 5.1 #7, 10, 16, 21, 25; Section 5.2 #8, 9, 15, 20, 27, 30; Section 5.3 #4, 6, 9, 13, 16, 28, 31; Section 5.4 #7, 18, 21, 23, 25, 29, 40
Mth B Prof. Audrey Terrs HW # Solutions by Alex Eustis Due Tuesdy, Oct. 9 Section 5. #7,, 6,, 5; Section 5. #8, 9, 5,, 7, 3; Section 5.3 #4, 6, 9, 3, 6, 8, 3; Section 5.4 #7, 8,, 3, 5, 9, 4 5..7 Since
More informationMA123, Chapter 10: Formulas for integrals: integrals, antiderivatives, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (pp.
MA123, Chpter 1: Formuls for integrls: integrls, ntiderivtives, nd the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus (pp. 27233, Gootmn) Chpter Gols: Assignments: Understnd the sttement of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus.
More informationAbstract inner product spaces
WEEK 4 Abstrct inner product spces Definition An inner product spce is vector spce V over the rel field R equipped with rule for multiplying vectors, such tht the product of two vectors is sclr, nd the
More informationTopics Covered AP Calculus AB
Topics Covered AP Clculus AB ) Elementry Functions ) Properties of Functions i) A function f is defined s set of ll ordered pirs (, y), such tht for ech element, there corresponds ectly one element y.
More informationMath 6455 Oct 10, Differential Geometry I Fall 2006, Georgia Tech
Mth 6455 Oct 10, 2006 1 Differentil Geometry I Fll 2006, Georgi Tech Lecture Notes 12 Riemnnin Metrics 0.1 Definition If M is smooth mnifold then by Riemnnin metric g on M we men smooth ssignment of n
More informationUS01CMTH02 UNIT Curvature
Stu mteril of BSc(Semester  I) US1CMTH (Rdius of Curvture nd Rectifiction) Prepred by Nilesh Y Ptel Hed,Mthemtics Deprtment,VPnd RPTPScience College US1CMTH UNIT 1 Curvture Let f : I R be sufficiently
More informationAPPLICATIONS OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL
APPLICATIONS OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL. Volume: Slicing, disks nd wshers.. Volumes by Slicing. Suppose solid object hs boundries extending from x =, to x = b, nd tht its crosssection in plne pssing through
More informationChapter 4 Contravariance, Covariance, and Spacetime Diagrams
Chpter 4 Contrvrince, Covrince, nd Spcetime Digrms 4. The Components of Vector in Skewed Coordintes We hve seen in Chpter 3; figure 3.9, tht in order to show inertil motion tht is consistent with the Lorentz
More informationdf dt f () b f () a dt
Vector lculus 16.7 tokes Theorem Nme: toke's Theorem is higher dimensionl nlogue to Green's Theorem nd the Fundmentl Theorem of clculus. Why, you sk? Well, let us revisit these theorems. Fundmentl Theorem
More informationINTRODUCTION TO INTEGRATION
INTRODUCTION TO INTEGRATION 5.1 Ares nd Distnces Assume f(x) 0 on the intervl [, b]. Let A be the re under the grph of f(x). b We will obtin n pproximtion of A in the following three steps. STEP 1: Divide
More information4. Calculus of Variations
4. Clculus of Vritions Introduction  Typicl Problems The clculus of vritions generlises the theory of mxim nd minim. Exmple (): Shortest distnce between two points. On given surfce (e.g. plne), nd the
More informationA. Limits  L Hopital s Rule. x c. x c. f x. g x. x c 0 6 = 1 6. D. 1 E. nonexistent. ln ( x 1 ) 1 x 2 1. ( x 2 1) 2. 2x x 1.
A. Limits  L Hopitl s Rule Wht you re finding: L Hopitl s Rule is used to find limits of the form f ( ) lim where lim f or lim f limg. c g = c limg( ) = c = c = c How to find it: Try nd find limits by
More informationLine Integrals. Partitioning the Curve. Estimating the Mass
Line Integrls Suppose we hve curve in the xy plne nd ssocite density δ(p ) = δ(x, y) t ech point on the curve. urves, of course, do not hve density or mss, but it my sometimes be convenient or useful to
More informationCMDA 4604: Intermediate Topics in Mathematical Modeling Lecture 19: Interpolation and Quadrature
CMDA 4604: Intermedite Topics in Mthemticl Modeling Lecture 19: Interpoltion nd Qudrture In this lecture we mke brief diversion into the res of interpoltion nd qudrture. Given function f C[, b], we sy
More informationLine Integrals. Chapter Definition
hpter 2 Line Integrls 2.1 Definition When we re integrting function of one vrible, we integrte long n intervl on one of the xes. We now generlize this ide by integrting long ny curve in the xyplne. It
More informationReview of Calculus, cont d
Jim Lmbers MAT 460 Fll Semester 200910 Lecture 3 Notes These notes correspond to Section 1.1 in the text. Review of Clculus, cont d Riemnn Sums nd the Definite Integrl There re mny cses in which some
More information10 Vector Integral Calculus
Vector Integrl lculus Vector integrl clculus extends integrls s known from clculus to integrls over curves ("line integrls"), surfces ("surfce integrls") nd solids ("volume integrls"). These integrls hve
More informationSYDE 112, LECTURES 3 & 4: The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
SYDE 112, LECTURES & 4: The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus So fr we hve introduced two new concepts in this course: ntidifferentition nd Riemnn sums. It turns out tht these quntities re relted, but it is
More informationA. Limits  L Hopital s Rule ( ) How to find it: Try and find limits by traditional methods (plugging in). If you get 0 0 or!!, apply C.! 1 6 C.
A. Limits  L Hopitl s Rule Wht you re finding: L Hopitl s Rule is used to find limits of the form f ( x) lim where lim f x x! c g x ( ) = or lim f ( x) = limg( x) = ". ( ) x! c limg( x) = 0 x! c x! c
More informationMORE FUNCTION GRAPHING; OPTIMIZATION. (Last edited October 28, 2013 at 11:09pm.)
MORE FUNCTION GRAPHING; OPTIMIZATION FRI, OCT 25, 203 (Lst edited October 28, 203 t :09pm.) Exercise. Let n be n rbitrry positive integer. Give n exmple of function with exctly n verticl symptotes. Give
More informationFundamental Theorem of Calculus
Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus Recll tht if f is nonnegtive nd continuous on [, ], then the re under its grph etween nd is the definite integrl A= f() d Now, for in the intervl [, ], let A() e the re under
More information1 The fundamental theorems of calculus.
The fundmentl theorems of clculus. The fundmentl theorems of clculus. Evluting definite integrls. The indefinite integrl new nme for ntiderivtive. Differentiting integrls. Theorem Suppose f is continuous
More informationIndefinite Integral. Chapter Integration  reverse of differentiation
Chpter Indefinite Integrl Most of the mthemticl opertions hve inverse opertions. The inverse opertion of differentition is clled integrtion. For exmple, describing process t the given moment knowing the
More informationW. We shall do so one by one, starting with I 1, and we shall do it greedily, trying
Vitli covers 1 Definition. A Vitli cover of set E R is set V of closed intervls with positive length so tht, for every δ > 0 nd every x E, there is some I V with λ(i ) < δ nd x I. 2 Lemm (Vitli covering)
More informationMath 113 Fall Final Exam Review. 2. Applications of Integration Chapter 6 including sections and section 6.8
Mth 3 Fll 0 The scope of the finl exm will include: Finl Exm Review. Integrls Chpter 5 including sections 5. 5.7, 5.0. Applictions of Integrtion Chpter 6 including sections 6. 6.5 nd section 6.8 3. Infinite
More informationTHE EXISTENCEUNIQUENESS THEOREM FOR FIRSTORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
THE EXISTENCEUNIQUENESS THEOREM FOR FIRSTORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS RADON ROSBOROUGH https://intuitiveexplntionscom/picrdlindeloftheorem/ This document is proof of the existenceuniqueness theorem
More informationIntegrals  Motivation
Integrls  Motivtion When we looked t function s rte of chnge If f(x) is liner, the nswer is esy slope If f(x) is nonliner, we hd to work hrd limits derivtive A relted question is the re under f(x) (but
More informationTHREEDIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS OF RIGID BODIES
THREEDIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS OF RIGID BODIES 1. TRANSLATION Figure shows rigid body trnslting in threedimensionl spce. Any two points in the body, such s A nd B, will move long prllel stright lines if
More informationThe First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. If f(x) is continuous on [a, b] and F (x) is any antiderivative. f(x) dx = F (b) F (a).
The Fundmentl Theorems of Clculus Mth 4, Section 0, Spring 009 We now know enough bout definite integrls to give precise formultions of the Fundmentl Theorems of Clculus. We will lso look t some bsic emples
More informationF (x) dx = F (x)+c = u + C = du,
35. The Substitution Rule An indefinite integrl of the derivtive F (x) is the function F (x) itself. Let u = F (x), where u is new vrible defined s differentible function of x. Consider the differentil
More informationChapter 6 Notes, Larson/Hostetler 3e
Contents 6. Antiderivtives nd the Rules of Integrtion.......................... 6. Are nd the Definite Integrl.................................. 6.. Are............................................ 6. Reimnn
More informationMA 124 January 18, Derivatives are. Integrals are.
MA 124 Jnury 18, 2018 Prof PB s oneminute introduction to clculus Derivtives re. Integrls re. In Clculus 1, we lern limits, derivtives, some pplictions of derivtives, indefinite integrls, definite integrls,
More informationImproper Integrals. Type I Improper Integrals How do we evaluate an integral such as
Improper Integrls Two different types of integrls cn qulify s improper. The first type of improper integrl (which we will refer to s Type I) involves evluting n integrl over n infinite region. In the grph
More informationThomas Whitham Sixth Form
Thoms Whithm Sith Form Pure Mthemtics Unit C Alger Trigonometry Geometry Clculus Vectors Trigonometry Compound ngle formule sin sin cos cos Pge A B sin Acos B cos Asin B A B sin Acos B cos Asin B A B cos
More informationBest Approximation. Chapter The General Case
Chpter 4 Best Approximtion 4.1 The Generl Cse In the previous chpter, we hve seen how n interpolting polynomil cn be used s n pproximtion to given function. We now wnt to find the best pproximtion to given
More informationSection 4.8. D v(t j 1 ) t. (4.8.1) j=1
Difference Equtions to Differentil Equtions Section.8 Distnce, Position, nd the Length of Curves Although we motivted the definition of the definite integrl with the notion of re, there re mny pplictions
More informationState space systems analysis (continued) Stability. A. Definitions A system is said to be Asymptotically Stable (AS) when it satisfies
Stte spce systems nlysis (continued) Stbility A. Definitions A system is sid to be Asymptoticlly Stble (AS) when it stisfies ut () = 0, t > 0 lim xt () 0. t A system is AS if nd only if the impulse response
More information1 Line Integrals in Plane.
MA213 thye Brief Notes on hpter 16. 1 Line Integrls in Plne. 1.1 Introduction. 1.1.1 urves. A piece of smooth curve is ssumed to be given by vector vlued position function P (t) (or r(t) ) s the prmeter
More information4.4 Areas, Integrals and Antiderivatives
. res, integrls nd ntiderivtives 333. Ares, Integrls nd Antiderivtives This section explores properties of functions defined s res nd exmines some connections mong res, integrls nd ntiderivtives. In order
More informationConducting Ellipsoid and Circular Disk
1 Problem Conducting Ellipsoid nd Circulr Disk Kirk T. McDonld Joseph Henry Lbortories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (September 1, 00) Show tht the surfce chrge density σ on conducting ellipsoid,
More informationThings to Memorize: A Partial List. January 27, 2017
Things to Memorize: A Prtil List Jnury 27, 2017 Chpter 2 Vectors  Bsic Fcts A vector hs mgnitude (lso clled size/length/norm) nd direction. It does not hve fixed position, so the sme vector cn e moved
More informationUnit #9 : Definite Integral Properties; Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Unit #9 : Definite Integrl Properties; Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus Gols: Identify properties of definite integrls Define odd nd even functions, nd reltionship to integrl vlues Introduce the Fundmentl
More informationHigher Checklist (Unit 3) Higher Checklist (Unit 3) Vectors
Vectors Skill Achieved? Know tht sclr is quntity tht hs only size (no direction) Identify rellife exmples of sclrs such s, temperture, mss, distnce, time, speed, energy nd electric chrge Know tht vector
More informationRiemann is the Mann! (But Lebesgue may besgue to differ.)
Riemnn is the Mnn! (But Lebesgue my besgue to differ.) Leo Livshits My 2, 2008 1 For finite intervls in R We hve seen in clss tht every continuous function f : [, b] R hs the property tht for every ɛ >
More informationStuff You Need to Know From Calculus
Stuff You Need to Know From Clculus For the first time in the semester, the stuff we re doing is finlly going to look like clculus (with vector slnt, of course). This mens tht in order to succeed, you
More informationP 3 (x) = f(0) + f (0)x + f (0) 2. x 2 + f (0) . In the problem set, you are asked to show, in general, the n th order term is a n = f (n) (0)
1 Tylor polynomils In Section 3.5, we discussed how to pproximte function f(x) round point in terms of its first derivtive f (x) evluted t, tht is using the liner pproximtion f() + f ()(x ). We clled this
More informationMath 116 Calculus II
Mth 6 Clculus II Contents 5 Exponentil nd Logrithmic functions 5. Review........................................... 5.. Exponentil functions............................... 5.. Logrithmic functions...............................
More informationLecture 20: Numerical Integration III
cs4: introduction to numericl nlysis /8/0 Lecture 0: Numericl Integrtion III Instructor: Professor Amos Ron Scribes: Mrk Cowlishw, Yunpeng Li, Nthnel Fillmore For the lst few lectures we hve discussed
More informationSections 5.2: The Definite Integral
Sections 5.2: The Definite Integrl In this section we shll formlize the ides from the lst section to functions in generl. We strt with forml definition.. The Definite Integrl Definition.. Suppose f(x)
More informationFirst midterm topics Second midterm topics End of quarter topics. Math 3B Review. Steve. 18 March 2009
Mth 3B Review Steve 18 Mrch 2009 About the finl Fridy Mrch 20, 3pm6pm, Lkretz 110 No notes, no book, no clcultor Ten questions Five review questions (Chpters 6,7,8) Five new questions (Chpters 9,10) No
More informationARITHMETIC OPERATIONS. The real numbers have the following properties: a b c ab ac
REVIEW OF ALGEBRA Here we review the bsic rules nd procedures of lgebr tht you need to know in order to be successful in clculus. ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS The rel numbers hve the following properties: b b
More information