4.4 Areas, Integrals and Antiderivatives


 Nicholas Higgins
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 . res, integrls nd ntiderivtives 333. Ares, Integrls nd Antiderivtives This section explores properties of functions defined s res nd exmines some connections mong res, integrls nd ntiderivtives. In order to focus on these connections nd their geometric mening, ll of the functions in this section re nonnegtive, but in the next section we will generlize (nd prove the results for ll continuous functions. This section lso introduces exmples showing how you cn use the reltionships between res, integrls nd ntiderivtives in vrious pplictions. When f is continuous, nonnegtive function, the re function A(x = f (t dt represents the re of the region bounded by the grph of f, the txis, nd verticl lines t t = nd t = x (see mrgin figure, nd the derivtive of A(x represents the rte of chnge (growth of A(x s the verticl line t = x moves rightwrd. Exmples nd 3 of Section.3 showed tht for certin functions f, A (x = f (x so tht A(x ws n ntiderivtive of f (x. The next theorem sys the result is true for every continuous, nonnegtive function f. The Are Function Is n Antiderivtive If then so f is continuous, nonnegtive function nd A(x = f (t dt for x ( d x f (t dt = A (x = f (x dx A(x is n ntiderivtive of f (x. This result relting integrls nd ntiderivtives is specil cse (for nonnegtive functions f of the first prt of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus (FTC, which we will prove in Section.5. This result is importnt for two resons: It sys tht lrge collection of functions hve ntiderivtives. It leds to n esy wy to exctly evlute definite integrls. Exmple. Define A(x = f (t dt for the function f (t shown in the mrgin. Estimte the vlues of A(x nd A (x for x =, 3, nd 5 nd use these vlues to sketch grph of y = A(x. Solution. Dividing the region into squres nd tringles, it is esy to see tht A( =, A(3 =.5, A( = 7 nd A(5 = 8.5. Becuse A (x = f (x, we know tht A ( = f ( =, A (3 = f (3 = 3, A ( = f ( = nd A (5 = f (5 =. A grph of y = A(x ppers in the mrgin t the top of the next pge.
2 33 the integrl It is importnt to recognize tht f is not differentible t x = or x = 3 but tht the vlues of A chnge smoothly ner x = nd x = 3, nd the function A is differentible t those points nd t every other point between x = nd x = 5. Also note tht f ( = ( f is clerly decresing ner x = but tht A ( = f ( = is positive (the re A is growing even though f is getting smller. Prctice. Let B(x be the re bounded by the horizontl xis, verticl lines t t = nd t = x, nd the grph of f (t shown in the mrgin. Estimte the vlues of B(x nd B (x for x =,, 3, nd 5. Exmple. Let G(x = d ( sin(t dt. Evlute G(x for x = π, π nd 3π. dx Solution. The middle mrgin figure shows A(x = sin(t dt grphiclly. By the theorem, A (x = sin(x, so: ( π ( G = A π ( π = sin ( π ( G = A π ( π = sin = ( ( ( 3π G = A 3π 3π = sin =.77 =.77 The penultimte mrgin figure shows grph of y = A(x nd the bottom mrgin figure shows the grph of y = A (x = G(x. Using Antiderivtives to Evlute f (x dx Now we combine the ides of res nd ntiderivtives to devise technique for evluting definite integrls tht is exct nd often esy. If A(x = A(b = f (t dt, then we know tht A( = f (t dt =, f (t dt nd tht A(x is n ntiderivtive of f, so A (x = f (x. We lso know tht if F(x is ny ntiderivtive of f, then F(x nd A(x hve the sme derivtive so F(x nd A(x re prllel functions nd differ by constnt: F(x = A(x + C for ll x nd some constnt C. As consequence: F(b F( = [A(b + C] [A( + C] = A(b A( = f (t dt f (t dt = f (t dt This result sys tht, to evlute definite integrl A(b = f (t dt, we cn find ny ntiderivtive F of f nd simply evlute F(b F(.
3 . res, integrls nd ntiderivtives 335 This result is specil cse of the second prt of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus (FTC, stted nd proved in Section.5, which you will use hundreds of times over the next severl chpters. Antiderivtives nd Definite Integrls If then f is continuous, nonnegtive function nd F is ny ntiderivtive of f (so tht F (x = f (x on [, b] f (t dt = F(b F( The problem of finding the exct vlue of definite integrl hs been reduced to finding some (ny ntiderivtive F of the integrnd nd then evluting F(b F(. Even finding one ntiderivtive cn be difficult, so for now we will restrict our ttention to functions tht hve esy ntiderivtives. Lter we will explore some methods for finding ntiderivtives of more difficult functions. Becuse n evlution of the form F(b F( will occur quite often, we represent it symboliclly s F(x b ] b [F(x or Exmple 3. Evlute x dx in two wys: ( by sketching grph of y = x nd finding the re represented by the definite integrl. (b by finding n ntiderivtive F(x of f (x = x nd evluting F(3 F(. Solution. ( A grph of y = x ppers in the mrgin; the re of the trpezoidl region in question hs re. (b One ntiderivtive of x is F(x = ( x x (you should check for yourself tht D = x, so: 3 F(x = F(3 F( = (3 ( = 9 = which grees with the re from prt (. If someone chose nother ntiderivtive of x, sy F(x = x + 7 ( x (you should check for yourself tht D + 7 = x, then: 3 [ ] [ ] F(x = F(3 F( = (3 + 7 ( + 7 = 3 5 = No mtter which ntiderivtive F we choose, F(3 F( =.. Prctice. Evlute previous Exmple. (x dx in the two wys specified in the
4 336 the integrl This ntiderivtive method provides n extremely powerful wy to evlute some definite integrls, nd we will use it often. Exmple. Find the re of the region in the first qudrnt bounded by the grph of y = cos(x, the horizontl xis, nd the line x =. Solution. The re we wnt (see mrgin is π cos(x dx so we need n ntiderivtive of f (x = cos(x. F(x = sin(x is one such ntiderivtive (you should check tht D (sin(x = cos(x, so π cos(x dx = sin(x is the re of the region in question. π ( π = sin sin( = = Prctice 3. Find the re of the region bounded by the grph of y = 3x, the horizontl xis nd the verticl lines x = nd x =. Integrls, Antiderivtives nd Applictions The ntiderivtive method for evluting definite integrls cn lso be used when we need to find more generl re, so it is often useful for solving pplied problems. Exmple 5. A robot hs been progrmmed so tht when it strts to move, its velocity fter t seconds will be 3t feet per second. ( How fr will the robot trvel during its first four seconds of movement? (b How fr will the robot trvel during its next four seconds of movement? (c How long will it tke for the robot to move 79 feet from its strting plce? Solution. ( The distnce during the first four seconds will be the re under the grph of the velocity function (see mrgin figure from t = to t =, n re we cn compute with the definite integrl 3t dt. One ntiderivtive of 3t is t 3 so: 3t dt = [t 3] = 3 3 = 6 nd we cn conclude tht the robot will be 6 feet wy from its strting position fter four seconds. (b Proceeding similrly: 8 3t dt = [t 3] 8 = 83 3 = 5 6 = 8 feet
5 . res, integrls nd ntiderivtives 337 (c This question is different from the first two. Here we know the lower integrtion endpoint, t =, nd the totl distnce, 79 feet, nd need to find the upper integrtion endpoint (the time when the robot is 79 feet wy from its strting position. Clling this upper endpoint T, we know tht: 79 = 3t dt = [t 3] T = T3 3 = T 3 so T = 3 79 = 9. The robot is 79 feet wy fter 9 seconds. Prctice. Refer to the robot from the previous Exmple. ( How fr will the robot trvel between t = nd t = 5 seconds? (b How long will it tke for the robot to move 33 feet from its strting plce? Exmple 6. Suppose tht t minutes fter plcing, bcteri on Petri plte the rte of growth of the bcteri popultion is 6t bcteri per minute. ( How mny new bcteri re dded to the popultion during the first seven minutes? (b Wht is the totl popultion fter seven minutes? (c When will the totl popultion rech, bcteri? Solution. ( The number of new bcteri is represented by the re under the rteofgrowth grph (see mrgin nd one ntiderivtive of 6t is 3t (check tht D ( 3t = 6t so: new bcteri = 7 6t dt = [3t ] 7 = 3(7 3( = 7 (b [old popultion] + [new bcteri] = + 7 = 7 bcteri. (c When the totl popultion reches, bcteri, then there re = new bcteri, hence we need to find the time T required for tht mny new bcteri to grow: = 6t dt = [3t ] T = 3(T 3( = 3T so T = T =. After minutes, the totl bcteri popultion will be + =. Prctice 5. Refer to the bcteri popultion from the previous Exmple. ( How mny new bcteri will be dded to the popultion between t = nd t = 8 minutes? (b When will the totl popultion rech,875 bcteri?
6 338 the integrl. Problems In Problems 8, A(x = ( Grph y = A(x for x 5. f (t dt with f (t given. (b Estimte the vlues of A(, A(, A(3 nd A(. (c Estimte A (, A (, A (3 nd A (. In 9, use the given velocity of cr (in feet per second fter t seconds to find: ( how fr the cr trvels during the first seconds. (b how mny seconds it tkes the cr to trvel hlf the distnce in prt (. 9. v(t = t. v(t = 3t. v(t = t Problems 3 give the velocity of cr (in feet per second fter t seconds. ( How mny seconds does it tke for the cr to come to stop (velocity =? (b How fr does the cr trvel before coming to stop? (c How mny seconds does it tke the cr to trvel hlf the distnce in prt (b?. v(t = t 3. v(t = 75 3t 5. f (t = 6. f (t = + t 7. f (t = 6 t 8. f (t = + t In Problems 9 8, use the Antiderivtives nd Definite Integrls Theorem to evlute ech integrl. 9. (. (. (. ( 3. (. ( 5. ( 6. ( 7. ( 8. ( 5 3 x dx 6x dx x dx 3x dx (b (b (b (b (b (b (b 5 dx (b 3x dx (b 3 x dx 6x dx x dx 3x dx (c (c (c (c (c (c (c 5 dx (c 3x dx [ 3x ] dx (b (c 5 3 x dx 6x dx x dx 3x dx 5 dx 3x dx [ 3x ] dx. Find the exct re under hlf of one rch of the sine curve: π sin(x dx. 5. An rtist you know wnts to mke figure consisting of the region between the curve y = x nd the xxis for x 3. ( Where should the rtist divide the region with verticl line (see figure below so tht ech piece hs the sme re? (b Where should she divide the region with verticl lines to get three pieces with equl res?
7 . res, integrls nd ntiderivtives 339. Prctice Answers. B( =.5, B( = 5, B(3 = 8.5, B( =, B(5 =.5 B(x = f (t dt B (x = d ( f (t dt = f (x dx (by the Are Function Is n Antiderivtive Theorem, hence: B ( = f ( =, B ( = f ( = 3, B (3 =, B ( = 3 nd B (5 =.. ( (x dx gives the re of the tringulr region between the grph of y = x nd the xxis for x 3: re = (bse (height = (( = (b F(x = x x is n ntiderivtive of f (x = x so: 3. Are = (x dx = F(3 F( =. ( distnce = 3x dx = x 3 = 3 3 = 8 = 7 5 [ ] [ ] = 3t dt = t 3 5 = 5 = feet. (b We know the strting point is x = nd the totl distnce ( re under the velocity curve is 33 feet. We need to find the time T (see mrgin figure so tht 33 feet = 33 = hence T = 3 33 = 7 seconds. 5. ( new bcteri = 8 3t dt: T 3t dt = t 3 = T 3 = T 3 8 6t dt = 3t = = bcteri. (b We know the totl new popultion ( re under the rteofchnge grph is 875 = 875 so: 875 = T 6t dt = 3t = 3T = 3T T = 65 hence T = 65 = 5 minutes.
Properties of Integrals, Indefinite Integrals. Goals: Definition of the Definite Integral Integral Calculations using Antiderivatives
Block #6: Properties of Integrls, Indefinite Integrls Gols: Definition of the Definite Integrl Integrl Clcultions using Antiderivtives Properties of Integrls The Indefinite Integrl 1 Riemnn Sums  1 Riemnn
More informationThe Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. The Total Change Theorem and the Area Under a Curve.
Clculus Li Vs The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus. The Totl Chnge Theorem nd the Are Under Curve. Recll the following fct from Clculus course. If continuous function f(x) represents the rte of chnge of F
More informationUnit #9 : Definite Integral Properties; Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Unit #9 : Definite Integrl Properties; Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus Gols: Identify properties of definite integrls Define odd nd even functions, nd reltionship to integrl vlues Introduce the Fundmentl
More informationChapters 4 & 5 Integrals & Applications
Contents Chpters 4 & 5 Integrls & Applictions Motivtion to Chpters 4 & 5 2 Chpter 4 3 Ares nd Distnces 3. VIDEO  Ares Under Functions............................................ 3.2 VIDEO  Applictions
More informationInterpreting Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem
Interpreting Integrls nd the Fundmentl Theorem Tody, we go further in interpreting the mening of the definite integrl. Using Units to Aid Interprettion We lredy know tht if f(t) is the rte of chnge of
More informationINTRODUCTION TO INTEGRATION
INTRODUCTION TO INTEGRATION 5.1 Ares nd Distnces Assume f(x) 0 on the intervl [, b]. Let A be the re under the grph of f(x). b We will obtin n pproximtion of A in the following three steps. STEP 1: Divide
More informationn f(x i ) x. i=1 In section 4.2, we defined the definite integral of f from x = a to x = b as n f(x i ) x; f(x) dx = lim i=1
The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus As we continue to study the re problem, let s think bck to wht we know bout computing res of regions enclosed by curves. If we wnt to find the re of the region below the
More informationa < a+ x < a+2 x < < a+n x = b, n A i n f(x i ) x. i=1 i=1
Mth 33 Volume Stewrt 5.2 Geometry of integrls. In this section, we will lern how to compute volumes using integrls defined by slice nlysis. First, we recll from Clculus I how to compute res. Given the
More informationMATH , Calculus 2, Fall 2018
MATH 362, 363 Clculus 2, Fll 28 The FUNdmentl Theorem of Clculus Sections 5.4 nd 5.5 This worksheet focuses on the most importnt theorem in clculus. In fct, the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus (FTC is rgubly
More information1 The fundamental theorems of calculus.
The fundmentl theorems of clculus. The fundmentl theorems of clculus. Evluting definite integrls. The indefinite integrl new nme for ntiderivtive. Differentiting integrls. Theorem Suppose f is continuous
More information5 Accumulated Change: The Definite Integral
5 Accumulted Chnge: The Definite Integrl 5.1 Distnce nd Accumulted Chnge * How To Mesure Distnce Trveled nd Visulize Distnce on the Velocity Grph Distnce = Velocity Time Exmple 1 Suppose tht you trvel
More informationACCESS TO SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND AGRICULTURE: MATHEMATICS 1 MATH00030 SEMESTER /2019
ACCESS TO SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND AGRICULTURE: MATHEMATICS MATH00030 SEMESTER 208/209 DR. ANTHONY BROWN 7.. Introduction to Integrtion. 7. Integrl Clculus As ws the cse with the chpter on differentil
More informationSection 6: Area, Volume, and Average Value
Chpter The Integrl Applied Clculus Section 6: Are, Volume, nd Averge Vlue Are We hve lredy used integrls to find the re etween the grph of function nd the horizontl xis. Integrls cn lso e used to find
More informationx = b a n x 2 e x dx. cdx = c(b a), where c is any constant. a b
CHAPTER 5. INTEGRALS 61 where nd x = b n x i = 1 (x i 1 + x i ) = midpoint of [x i 1, x i ]. Problem 168 (Exercise 1, pge 377). Use the Midpoint Rule with the n = 4 to pproximte 5 1 x e x dx. Some quick
More informationMA123, Chapter 10: Formulas for integrals: integrals, antiderivatives, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (pp.
MA123, Chpter 1: Formuls for integrls: integrls, ntiderivtives, nd the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus (pp. 27233, Gootmn) Chpter Gols: Assignments: Understnd the sttement of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus.
More informationSection 4.8. D v(t j 1 ) t. (4.8.1) j=1
Difference Equtions to Differentil Equtions Section.8 Distnce, Position, nd the Length of Curves Although we motivted the definition of the definite integrl with the notion of re, there re mny pplictions
More informationOverview of Calculus I
Overview of Clculus I Prof. Jim Swift Northern Arizon University There re three key concepts in clculus: The limit, the derivtive, nd the integrl. You need to understnd the definitions of these three things,
More informationThe Regulated and Riemann Integrals
Chpter 1 The Regulted nd Riemnn Integrls 1.1 Introduction We will consider severl different pproches to defining the definite integrl f(x) dx of function f(x). These definitions will ll ssign the sme vlue
More informationSection Areas and Distances. Example 1: Suppose a car travels at a constant 50 miles per hour for 2 hours. What is the total distance traveled?
Section 5.  Ares nd Distnces Exmple : Suppose cr trvels t constnt 5 miles per hour for 2 hours. Wht is the totl distnce trveled? Exmple 2: Suppose cr trvels 75 miles per hour for the first hour, 7 miles
More information5.2 Volumes: Disks and Washers
4 pplictions of definite integrls 5. Volumes: Disks nd Wshers In the previous section, we computed volumes of solids for which we could determine the re of crosssection or slice. In this section, we restrict
More informationThe Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Particle Motion, and Average Value
The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus, Prticle Motion, nd Averge Vlue b Three Things to Alwys Keep In Mind: (1) v( dt p( b) p( ), where v( represents the velocity nd p( represents the position. b (2) v ( dt
More informationSection 5.1 #7, 10, 16, 21, 25; Section 5.2 #8, 9, 15, 20, 27, 30; Section 5.3 #4, 6, 9, 13, 16, 28, 31; Section 5.4 #7, 18, 21, 23, 25, 29, 40
Mth B Prof. Audrey Terrs HW # Solutions by Alex Eustis Due Tuesdy, Oct. 9 Section 5. #7,, 6,, 5; Section 5. #8, 9, 5,, 7, 3; Section 5.3 #4, 6, 9, 3, 6, 8, 3; Section 5.4 #7, 8,, 3, 5, 9, 4 5..7 Since
More informationMath& 152 Section Integration by Parts
Mth& 5 Section 7.  Integrtion by Prts Integrtion by prts is rule tht trnsforms the integrl of the product of two functions into other (idelly simpler) integrls. Recll from Clculus I tht given two differentible
More informationROB EBY Blinn College Mathematics Department
ROB EBY Blinn College Mthemtics Deprtment Mthemtics Deprtment 5.1, 5.2 Are, Definite Integrls MATH 2413 Rob EbyFll 26 Weknowthtwhengiventhedistncefunction, wecnfindthevelocitytnypointbyfindingthederivtiveorinstntneous
More informationReview of Calculus, cont d
Jim Lmbers MAT 460 Fll Semester 200910 Lecture 3 Notes These notes correspond to Section 1.1 in the text. Review of Clculus, cont d Riemnn Sums nd the Definite Integrl There re mny cses in which some
More informationMath 8 Winter 2015 Applications of Integration
Mth 8 Winter 205 Applictions of Integrtion Here re few importnt pplictions of integrtion. The pplictions you my see on n exm in this course include only the Net Chnge Theorem (which is relly just the Fundmentl
More informationThe practical version
Roerto s Notes on Integrl Clculus Chpter 4: Definite integrls nd the FTC Section 7 The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus: The prcticl version Wht you need to know lredy: The theoreticl version of the FTC. Wht
More informationSYDE 112, LECTURES 3 & 4: The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
SYDE 112, LECTURES & 4: The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus So fr we hve introduced two new concepts in this course: ntidifferentition nd Riemnn sums. It turns out tht these quntities re relted, but it is
More informationWe know that if f is a continuous nonnegative function on the interval [a, b], then b
1 Ares Between Curves c 22 Donld Kreider nd Dwight Lhr We know tht if f is continuous nonnegtive function on the intervl [, b], then f(x) dx is the re under the grph of f nd bove the intervl. We re going
More informationMath Calculus with Analytic Geometry II
orem of definite Mth 5.0 with Anlytic Geometry II Jnury 4, 0 orem of definite If < b then b f (x) dx = ( under f bove xxis) ( bove f under xxis) Exmple 8 0 3 9 x dx = π 3 4 = 9π 4 orem of definite Problem
More informationDefinition of Continuity: The function f(x) is continuous at x = a if f(a) exists and lim
Mth 9 Course Summry/Study Guide Fll, 2005 [1] Limits Definition of Limit: We sy tht L is the limit of f(x) s x pproches if f(x) gets closer nd closer to L s x gets closer nd closer to. We write lim f(x)
More informationMA 124 January 18, Derivatives are. Integrals are.
MA 124 Jnury 18, 2018 Prof PB s oneminute introduction to clculus Derivtives re. Integrls re. In Clculus 1, we lern limits, derivtives, some pplictions of derivtives, indefinite integrls, definite integrls,
More informationand that at t = 0 the object is at position 5. Find the position of the object at t = 2.
7.2 The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus 49 re mny, mny problems tht pper much different on the surfce but tht turn out to be the sme s these problems, in the sense tht when we try to pproimte solutions we
More informationThe area under the graph of f and above the xaxis between a and b is denoted by. f(x) dx. π O
1 Section 5. The Definite Integrl Suppose tht function f is continuous nd positive over n intervl [, ]. y = f(x) x The re under the grph of f nd ove the xxis etween nd is denoted y f(x) dx nd clled the
More informationObjectives. Materials
Techer Notes Activity 17 Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus Objectives Explore the connections between n ccumultion function, one defined by definite integrl, nd the integrnd Discover tht the derivtive of the
More information7.2 The Definite Integral
7.2 The Definite Integrl the definite integrl In the previous section, it ws found tht if function f is continuous nd nonnegtive, then the re under the grph of f on [, b] is given by F (b) F (), where
More information1 The fundamental theorems of calculus.
The fundmentl theorems of clculus. The fundmentl theorems of clculus. Evluting definite integrls. The indefinite integrl new nme for ntiderivtive. Differentiting integrls. Tody we provide the connection
More informationHow can we approximate the area of a region in the plane? What is an interpretation of the area under the graph of a velocity function?
Mth 125 Summry Here re some thoughts I ws hving while considering wht to put on the first midterm. The core of your studying should be the ssigned homework problems: mke sure you relly understnd those
More informationDistance And Velocity
Unit #8  The Integrl Some problems nd solutions selected or dpted from HughesHllett Clculus. Distnce And Velocity. The grph below shows the velocity, v, of n object (in meters/sec). Estimte the totl
More informationIntegrals  Motivation
Integrls  Motivtion When we looked t function s rte of chnge If f(x) is liner, the nswer is esy slope If f(x) is nonliner, we hd to work hrd limits derivtive A relted question is the re under f(x) (but
More informationChapter 6 Notes, Larson/Hostetler 3e
Contents 6. Antiderivtives nd the Rules of Integrtion.......................... 6. Are nd the Definite Integrl.................................. 6.. Are............................................ 6. Reimnn
More informationBig idea in Calculus: approximation
Big ide in Clculus: pproximtion Derivtive: f (x) = df dx f f(x +h) f(x) =, x h rte of chnge is pproximtely the rtio of chnges in the function vlue nd in the vrible in very short time Liner pproximtion:
More informationReview of basic calculus
Review of bsic clculus This brief review reclls some of the most importnt concepts, definitions, nd theorems from bsic clculus. It is not intended to tech bsic clculus from scrtch. If ny of the items below
More informationA REVIEW OF CALCULUS CONCEPTS FOR JDEP 384H. Thomas Shores Department of Mathematics University of Nebraska Spring 2007
A REVIEW OF CALCULUS CONCEPTS FOR JDEP 384H Thoms Shores Deprtment of Mthemtics University of Nebrsk Spring 2007 Contents Rtes of Chnge nd Derivtives 1 Dierentils 4 Are nd Integrls 5 Multivrite Clculus
More information1 The Riemann Integral
The Riemnn Integrl. An exmple leding to the notion of integrl (res) We know how to find (i.e. define) the re of rectngle (bse height), tringle ( (sum of res of tringles). But how do we find/define n re
More informationImproper Integrals, and Differential Equations
Improper Integrls, nd Differentil Equtions October 22, 204 5.3 Improper Integrls Previously, we discussed how integrls correspond to res. More specificlly, we sid tht for function f(x), the region creted
More informationAP Calculus AB Unit 5 (Ch. 6): The Definite Integral: Day 12 Chapter 6 Review
AP Clculus AB Unit 5 (Ch. 6): The Definite Integrl: Dy Nme o Are Approximtions Riemnn Sums: LRAM, MRAM, RRAM Chpter 6 Review Trpezoidl Rule: T = h ( y + y + y +!+ y + y 0 n n) **Know how to find rectngle
More informationFinal Exam  Review MATH Spring 2017
Finl Exm  Review MATH 5  Spring 7 Chpter, 3, nd Sections 5.5.5, 5.7 Finl Exm: Tuesdy 5/9, :37:pm The following is list of importnt concepts from the sections which were not covered by Midterm Exm or.
More informationSample Problems for the Final of Math 121, Fall, 2005
Smple Problems for the Finl of Mth, Fll, 5 The following is collection of vrious types of smple problems covering sections.8,.,.5, nd.8 6.5 of the text which constitute only prt of the common Mth Finl.
More informationIndefinite Integral. Chapter Integration  reverse of differentiation
Chpter Indefinite Integrl Most of the mthemticl opertions hve inverse opertions. The inverse opertion of differentition is clled integrtion. For exmple, describing process t the given moment knowing the
More informationGoals: Determine how to calculate the area described by a function. Define the definite integral. Explore the relationship between the definite
Unit #8 : The Integrl Gols: Determine how to clculte the re described by function. Define the definite integrl. Eplore the reltionship between the definite integrl nd re. Eplore wys to estimte the definite
More informationAn Overview of Integration
An Overview of Integrtion S. F. Ellermeyer July 26, 2 The Definite Integrl of Function f Over n Intervl, Suppose tht f is continuous function defined on n intervl,. The definite integrl of f from to is
More informationUnit #10 De+inite Integration & The Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus
Unit # De+inite Integrtion & The Fundmentl Theorem Of Clculus. Find the re of the shded region ove nd explin the mening of your nswer. (squres re y units) ) The grph to the right is f(x) = x + 8x )Use
More informationMORE FUNCTION GRAPHING; OPTIMIZATION. (Last edited October 28, 2013 at 11:09pm.)
MORE FUNCTION GRAPHING; OPTIMIZATION FRI, OCT 25, 203 (Lst edited October 28, 203 t :09pm.) Exercise. Let n be n rbitrry positive integer. Give n exmple of function with exctly n verticl symptotes. Give
More informationReversing the Chain Rule. As we have seen from the Second Fundamental Theorem ( 4.3), the easiest way to evaluate an integral b
Mth 32 Substitution Method Stewrt 4.5 Reversing the Chin Rule. As we hve seen from the Second Fundmentl Theorem ( 4.3), the esiest wy to evlute n integrl b f(x) dx is to find n ntiderivtive, the indefinite
More informationSection 6.1 Definite Integral
Section 6.1 Definite Integrl Suppose we wnt to find the re of region tht is not so nicely shped. For exmple, consider the function shown elow. The re elow the curve nd ove the x xis cnnot e determined
More informationWeek 10: Riemann integral and its properties
Clculus nd Liner Algebr for Biomedicl Engineering Week 10: Riemnn integrl nd its properties H. Führ, Lehrstuhl A für Mthemtik, RWTH Achen, WS 07 Motivtion: Computing flow from flow rtes 1 We observe the
More informationMAT 168: Calculus II with Analytic Geometry. James V. Lambers
MAT 68: Clculus II with Anlytic Geometry Jmes V. Lmbers Februry 7, Contents Integrls 5. Introduction............................ 5.. Differentil Clculus nd Quotient Formuls...... 5.. Integrl Clculus nd
More information38 Riemann sums and existence of the definite integral.
38 Riemnn sums nd existence of the definite integrl. In the clcultion of the re of the region X bounded by the grph of g(x) = x 2, the xxis nd 0 x b, two sums ppered: ( n (k 1) 2) b 3 n 3 re(x) ( n These
More informationMath 190 Chapter 5 Lecture Notes. Professor Miguel Ornelas
Mth 19 Chpter 5 Lecture Notes Professor Miguel Ornels 1 M. Ornels Mth 19 Lecture Notes Section 5.1 Section 5.1 Ares nd Distnce Definition The re A of the region S tht lies under the grph of the continuous
More informationSection 4: Integration ECO4112F 2011
Reding: Ching Chpter Section : Integrtion ECOF Note: These notes do not fully cover the mteril in Ching, ut re ment to supplement your reding in Ching. Thus fr the optimistion you hve covered hs een sttic
More informationdifferent methods (left endpoint, right endpoint, midpoint, trapezoid, Simpson s).
Mth 1A with Professor Stnkov Worksheet, Discussion #41; Wednesdy, 12/6/217 GSI nme: Roy Zho Problems 1. Write the integrl 3 dx s limit of Riemnn sums. Write it using 2 intervls using the 1 x different
More informationNUMERICAL INTEGRATION. The inverse process to differentiation in calculus is integration. Mathematically, integration is represented by.
NUMERICAL INTEGRATION 1 Introduction The inverse process to differentition in clculus is integrtion. Mthemticlly, integrtion is represented by f(x) dx which stnds for the integrl of the function f(x) with
More informationZ b. f(x)dx. Yet in the above two cases we know what f(x) is. Sometimes, engineers want to calculate an area by computing I, but...
Chpter 7 Numericl Methods 7. Introduction In mny cses the integrl f(x)dx cn be found by finding function F (x) such tht F 0 (x) =f(x), nd using f(x)dx = F (b) F () which is known s the nlyticl (exct) solution.
More informationThe Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus Professor Richrd Blecksmith richrd@mth.niu.edu Dept. of Mthemticl Sciences Northern Illinois University http://mth.niu.edu/ richrd/mth229. The Definite Integrl We define
More informationDefinite integral. Mathematics FRDIS MENDELU
Definite integrl Mthemtics FRDIS MENDELU Simon Fišnrová Brno 1 Motivtion  re under curve Suppose, for simplicity, tht y = f(x) is nonnegtive nd continuous function defined on [, b]. Wht is the re of the
More informationSuppose we want to find the area under the parabola and above the x axis, between the lines x = 2 and x = 2.
Mth 43 Section 6. Section 6.: Definite Integrl Suppose we wnt to find the re of region tht is not so nicely shped. For exmple, consider the function shown elow. The re elow the curve nd ove the x xis cnnot
More informationPractice Final. Name: Problem 1. Show all of your work, label your answers clearly, and do not use a calculator.
Nme: MATH 2250 Clculus Eric Perkerson Dte: December 11, 2015 Prctice Finl Show ll of your work, lbel your nswers clerly, nd do not use clcultor. Problem 1 Compute the following limits, showing pproprite
More informationRiemann Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Riemnn Integrls nd the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus Jmes K. Peterson Deprtment of Biologicl Sciences nd Deprtment of Mthemticl Sciences Clemson University September 16, 2013 Outline Grphing Riemnn Sums
More informationDefinite integral. Mathematics FRDIS MENDELU. Simona Fišnarová (Mendel University) Definite integral MENDELU 1 / 30
Definite integrl Mthemtics FRDIS MENDELU Simon Fišnrová (Mendel University) Definite integrl MENDELU / Motivtion  re under curve Suppose, for simplicity, tht y = f(x) is nonnegtive nd continuous function
More informationChapter 0. What is the Lebesgue integral about?
Chpter 0. Wht is the Lebesgue integrl bout? The pln is to hve tutoril sheet ech week, most often on Fridy, (to be done during the clss) where you will try to get used to the ides introduced in the previous
More informationThe First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. If f(x) is continuous on [a, b] and F (x) is any antiderivative. f(x) dx = F (b) F (a).
The Fundmentl Theorems of Clculus Mth 4, Section 0, Spring 009 We now know enough bout definite integrls to give precise formultions of the Fundmentl Theorems of Clculus. We will lso look t some bsic emples
More informationMATH 144: Business Calculus Final Review
MATH 144: Business Clculus Finl Review 1 Skills 1. Clculte severl limits. 2. Find verticl nd horizontl symptotes for given rtionl function. 3. Clculte derivtive by definition. 4. Clculte severl derivtives
More informationMATH 115 FINAL EXAM. April 25, 2005
MATH 115 FINAL EXAM April 25, 2005 NAME: Solution Key INSTRUCTOR: SECTION NO: 1. Do not open this exm until you re told to begin. 2. This exm hs 9 pges including this cover. There re 9 questions. 3. Do
More informationReview on Integration (Secs ) Review: Sec Origins of Calculus. Riemann Sums. New functions from old ones.
Mth 20B Integrl Clculus Lecture Review on Integrtion (Secs. 5.  5.3) Remrks on the course. Slide Review: Sec. 5.5.3 Origins of Clculus. Riemnn Sums. New functions from old ones. A mthemticl description
More informationReview Exercises for Chapter 4
_R.qd // : PM Pge CHAPTER Integrtion Review Eercises for Chpter In Eercises nd, use the grph of to sketch grph of f. To print n enlrged cop of the grph, go to the wesite www.mthgrphs.com... In Eercises
More information(0.0)(0.1)+(0.3)(0.1)+(0.6)(0.1)+ +(2.7)(0.1) = 1.35
7 Integrtion º½ ÌÛÓ Ü ÑÔÐ Up to now we hve been concerned with extrcting informtion bout how function chnges from the function itself. Given knowledge bout n object s position, for exmple, we wnt to know
More informationAB Calculus Review Sheet
AB Clculus Review Sheet Legend: A Preclculus, B Limits, C Differentil Clculus, D Applictions of Differentil Clculus, E Integrl Clculus, F Applictions of Integrl Clculus, G Prticle Motion nd Rtes This is
More informationMATH SS124 Sec 39 Concepts summary with examples
This note is mde for students in MTH124 Section 39 to review most(not ll) topics I think we covered in this semester, nd there s exmples fter these concepts, go over this note nd try to solve those exmples
More informationStuff You Need to Know From Calculus
Stuff You Need to Know From Clculus For the first time in the semester, the stuff we re doing is finlly going to look like clculus (with vector slnt, of course). This mens tht in order to succeed, you
More informationSection 5.4 Fundamental Theorem of Calculus 2 Lectures. Dr. Abdulla Eid. College of Science. MATHS 101: Calculus 1
Section 5.4 Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus 2 Lectures College of Science MATHS : Clculus (University of Bhrin) Integrls / 24 Definite Integrl Recll: The integrl is used to find re under the curve over n
More informationMath 1B, lecture 4: Error bounds for numerical methods
Mth B, lecture 4: Error bounds for numericl methods Nthn Pflueger 4 September 0 Introduction The five numericl methods descried in the previous lecture ll operte by the sme principle: they pproximte the
More information7.2 Riemann Integrable Functions
7.2 Riemnn Integrble Functions Theorem 1. If f : [, b] R is step function, then f R[, b]. Theorem 2. If f : [, b] R is continuous on [, b], then f R[, b]. Theorem 3. If f : [, b] R is bounded nd continuous
More information( ) where f ( x ) is a. AB Calculus Exam Review Sheet. A. Precalculus Type problems. Find the zeros of f ( x).
AB Clculus Exm Review Sheet A. Preclculus Type prolems A1 Find the zeros of f ( x). This is wht you think of doing A2 A3 Find the intersection of f ( x) nd g( x). Show tht f ( x) is even. A4 Show tht f
More informationMath 131. Numerical Integration Larson Section 4.6
Mth. Numericl Integrtion Lrson Section. This section looks t couple of methods for pproimting definite integrls numericlly. The gol is to get good pproimtion of the definite integrl in problems where n
More informationWe divide the interval [a, b] into subintervals of equal length x = b a n
Arc Length Given curve C defined by function f(x), we wnt to find the length of this curve between nd b. We do this by using process similr to wht we did in defining the Riemnn Sum of definite integrl:
More information( ) as a fraction. Determine location of the highest
AB Clculus Exm Review Sheet  Solutions A. Preclculus Type prolems A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 This is wht you think of doing Find the zeros of f ( x). Set function equl to 0. Fctor or use qudrtic eqution if
More informationChapter 5. Numerical Integration
Chpter 5. Numericl Integrtion These re just summries of the lecture notes, nd few detils re included. Most of wht we include here is to be found in more detil in Anton. 5. Remrk. There re two topics with
More information10. AREAS BETWEEN CURVES
. AREAS BETWEEN CURVES.. Ares etween curves So res ove the xxis re positive nd res elow re negtive, right? Wrong! We lied! Well, when you first lern out integrtion it s convenient fiction tht s true in
More information5.7 Improper Integrals
458 pplictions of definite integrls 5.7 Improper Integrls In Section 5.4, we computed the work required to lift pylod of mss m from the surfce of moon of mss nd rdius R to height H bove the surfce of the
More informationUNIFORM CONVERGENCE. Contents 1. Uniform Convergence 1 2. Properties of uniform convergence 3
UNIFORM CONVERGENCE Contents 1. Uniform Convergence 1 2. Properties of uniform convergence 3 Suppose f n : Ω R or f n : Ω C is sequence of rel or complex functions, nd f n f s n in some sense. Furthermore,
More information1 Functions Defined in Terms of Integrals
November 5, 8 MAT86 Week 3 Justin Ko Functions Defined in Terms of Integrls Integrls llow us to define new functions in terms of the bsic functions introduced in Week. Given continuous function f(), consider
More informationThe Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus MATH 151 Clculus for Mngement J. Robert Buchnn Deprtment of Mthemtics Fll 2018 Objectives Define nd evlute definite integrls using the concept of re. Evlute definite integrls
More information7.1 Integral as Net Change and 7.2 Areas in the Plane Calculus
7.1 Integrl s Net Chnge nd 7. Ares in the Plne Clculus 7.1 INTEGRAL AS NET CHANGE Notecrds from 7.1: Displcement vs Totl Distnce, Integrl s Net Chnge We hve lredy seen how the position of n oject cn e
More informationMath 116 Calculus II
Mth 6 Clculus II Contents 5 Exponentil nd Logrithmic functions 5. Review........................................... 5.. Exponentil functions............................... 5.. Logrithmic functions...............................
More informationSections 5.2: The Definite Integral
Sections 5.2: The Definite Integrl In this section we shll formlize the ides from the lst section to functions in generl. We strt with forml definition.. The Definite Integrl Definition.. Suppose f(x)
More informationMath 3B: Lecture 9. Noah White. October 18, 2017
Mth 3B: Lecture 9 Noh White October 18, 2017 The definite integrl Defintion The definite integrl of function f (x) is defined to be where x = b n. f (x) dx = lim n x n f ( + k x) k=1 Properties of definite
More informationMath 1431 Section M TH 4:00 PM 6:00 PM Susan Wheeler Office Hours: Wed 6:00 7:00 PM Online ***NOTE LABS ARE MON AND WED
Mth 43 Section 4839 M TH 4: PM 6: PM Susn Wheeler swheeler@mth.uh.edu Office Hours: Wed 6: 7: PM Online ***NOTE LABS ARE MON AND WED t :3 PM to 3: pm ONLINE Approimting the re under curve given the type
More informationRiemann Sums and Riemann Integrals
Riemnn Sums nd Riemnn Integrls Jmes K. Peterson Deprtment of Biologicl Sciences nd Deprtment of Mthemticl Sciences Clemson University August 26, 2013 Outline 1 Riemnn Sums 2 Riemnn Integrls 3 Properties
More informationLine Integrals. Chapter Definition
hpter 2 Line Integrls 2.1 Definition When we re integrting function of one vrible, we integrte long n intervl on one of the xes. We now generlize this ide by integrting long ny curve in the xyplne. It
More information