Suppose we want to find the area under the parabola and above the x axis, between the lines x = 2 and x = -2.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Suppose we want to find the area under the parabola and above the x axis, between the lines x = 2 and x = -2."

Transcription

1 Mth 43 Section 6. Section 6.: Definite Integrl Suppose we wnt to find the re of region tht is not so nicely shped. For exmple, consider the function shown elow. The re elow the curve nd ove the x xis cnnot e determined y known formul, so we ll need method for pproximting the re. Suppose we wnt to find the re under the prol nd ove the x xis, etween the lines x = 2 nd x = -2. We cn pproximte the re under the curve y sudividing the intervl [-2, 2] into smller intervls nd then drw rectngles extending from the x xis up to the curve. Suppose we divide the region into two prts nd drw two rectngles. We cn find the re of ech rectngle nd dd them together. Tht will give us n pproximtion of the re under the curve. This would not give very good pproximtion, s lrge region in Qudrnt 2 will e left out in the pproximtion of the re, nd lrge region in Qudrnt will e included nd should not e. Now suppose we increse the numer of rectngles tht we drw to four. We ll find the re of ech of the four rectngles nd dd them up. Here s the grph for this sitution.

2 Mth 43 Section 6. The pproximtion will e more ccurte, ut it still isn t perfect. Let s increse the numer of rectngles to 8: As we dd more nd more rectngles, the ccurcy improves. We re still not to n exct re, ut the re we d find using more rectngles is clerly more ccurte thn the re we d find if we just used 2 rectngles. Suppose we let the numer of rectngles increse without ound. If we do this, the width of ech rectngle ecomes smller nd smller, s the numer of rectngles pproches infinity, there will e no re tht is included tht shouldn t e nd none left out tht should e included Using left endpoints is not the only option we hve in working these prolems. We cn lso use right endpoints or midpoints. The first grph elow shows the region with eight rectngles, using right endpoints. The second grph elow shows the region with eight rectngles, using midpoints. Right Endpoints Midpoints To get n exct re, we would need to let the numer of rectngles increse without ound: Alim f x f x2 f xn x n This lst computtion is quite difficult, we will not work prolem of this type. Insted, we will use limited numer of rectngles in the prolems tht we work. The process we re using to pproximte the re under the curve is clled finding Riemnn sum. These sums re nmed fter the Germn mthemticin who developed them. 2

3 Mth 43 Section 6. Approximting the re under curve given the type of Riemnn sums. Strt y finding the width of ech rectngle. A prtition of closed intervl, is finite suset of, tht contins the points nd. The lengths of these suintervls my or my not e equl. If the lengths re equl, it is clled regulr prtition nd x. n 2. Now find the height of the rectngles. Use the pproprite point in ech suintervl to compute the vlue of the function t ech of these points (gives the heights of the rectngles). 3. Find the re of ech rectngle nd dd them up. S* P f xx f x2x 2... f xn xn Exmple : For ech prolem, pproximte the re under the curve over the given intervl, with the given numer of prtitions nd type of Riemnn sums. x. Given f x, use left endpoints from, 2 with n = 4. 3

4 Mth 43 Section 6. Now try it gin, ut use the right endpoints of ech sudivision. 2. Given f x 0.x, use midpoints from 0,3 with n = 3. We cn lso pproximte this re y using Upper Sums or Lower Sums. Upper Sums nd Lower Sums Let f e continuous function on, nd P x x x e prtition of,,,..., n 0 The upper sum of f is f n n. U P M x M x M x M x. The vlue M i is the mximum vlue of the function for prtition. L P mx m x m x m x. The vlue m i is the The lower sum of f is minimum vlue of the function for prtition. f n n 4

5 Mth 43 Section 6. Exmple 2: Find the upper sum for f (x) = - x 2, x [, ] if the prtition is 3 P,,, 4 2. Keep in mind tht the mx or min does not hve to hppen t n endpoint of sudivision. You ll need to grph the originl function to figure this out.

6 Mth 43 Section 6. Exmple 3: Find Lf ( P ) given f ( x) sinx over 0, nd 2 P 0,,,

7 Mth 43 Section 6. As the numer of prtitions re dded, the upper sum tends to get smller. As the numer of prtitions re dded, the lower sum tends to get igger. The numer they meet t is clled the definite integrl. For function f which is continuous on,, there is one nd only one numer tht stisfies the inequlity, for ll prtitions P of L f P I U f P,. This unique numer I is clled the definite integrl (or just the integrl) of f from to nd is denoted y f () xdx. We red f () xdx s: the integrl from to of f with respect to x. The component prts hve these nmes: : the integrl sign : lower limit of integrtion : upper limit of integrtion f x : integrnd dx indictes the independent vrile in discussion nd denotes the widths re getting smller. The procedure of clculting the integrl is clled integrtion. In generl, the integrl cn e negtive, positive or zero. 7

8 Mth 43 Section 6. Importnt Properties of Definite Integrl Assume tht f nd g re continuous functions.. f () x dx 0 2. f () xdx f() xdx When we defined the definite integrl () f xdx. However, the integrl mkes sense even if integrte from right to left., we ssumed tht. We cn f x g x dx f x dx g x dx kf x dx k f x dx, where k is constnt numer. 8

9 Mth 43 Section 6. Exmple 4: Given the following integrls f x dx f x dx0, gx dx 4, f x dx 6, f x dx 8. Evlute. 2 f x g x dx 6 c. f x dx d. gx dx 9

10 Mth 43 Section 6. Are Under the Grph of Nonnegtive Function If y f x is nonnegtive nd integrle over the intervl,, then the re under the curve y f x over, is given y f xdx 0. If the curve is sometimes negtive, then one cn split the region into pieces using the roots of the function s the limits of the integrl. Consider the function whose grph is given elow: Theorem: If f is continuous on, nd if c For the function shown ove, Are of f ( xdx ) nd c. Are of 2 f ( xdx ) f( xdx ) c c c f x dx f x dx f x dx, then 0

11 Mth 43 Section 6. Exmple : Given the grph of f, if the re of is 2 nd re of 2 is 8, find c f xdx. Exmple 6: Given f x dx, f x dx 2, the curve nd the x-xis from x = - to x =. 4 4 f x dx 4. Find the re etween

12 Mth 43 Section 6. Other Properties of Definite Integrl Assume tht f nd g re continuous functions., where k is constnt numer.. kdx k 2. If f x gx over,, then f x dx g x dx. 3. If m f x M over,, then m f xdx M f x dx f x dx. 4.. If f is n odd function, then f xdx 0.. If f is n even function, then 2 f x dx f x dx. 0 2

13 Mth 43 Section 6. Try this one: Find the lower sum for f (x) = x 2, x [, ] if the prtition is 3 P,,,, Try this one: Estimte 6 2 3x dx 0 y using left endpoint estimtes, where n = 6. Try this one: 3 6 Given f( x) dx 3, f( x) dx, f( x) dx 9, find f( x) dx

Section 6.1 Definite Integral

Section 6.1 Definite Integral Section 6.1 Definite Integrl Suppose we wnt to find the re of region tht is not so nicely shped. For exmple, consider the function shown elow. The re elow the curve nd ove the x xis cnnot e determined

More information

Definite Integrals. The area under a curve can be approximated by adding up the areas of rectangles = 1 1 +

Definite Integrals. The area under a curve can be approximated by adding up the areas of rectangles = 1 1 + Definite Integrls --5 The re under curve cn e pproximted y dding up the res of rectngles. Exmple. Approximte the re under y = from x = to x = using equl suintervls nd + x evluting the function t the left-hnd

More information

Sections 5.2: The Definite Integral

Sections 5.2: The Definite Integral Sections 5.2: The Definite Integrl In this section we shll formlize the ides from the lst section to functions in generl. We strt with forml definition.. The Definite Integrl Definition.. Suppose f(x)

More information

Math 1431 Section 6.1. f x dx, find f. Question 22: If. a. 5 b. π c. π-5 d. 0 e. -5. Question 33: Choose the correct statement given that

Math 1431 Section 6.1. f x dx, find f. Question 22: If. a. 5 b. π c. π-5 d. 0 e. -5. Question 33: Choose the correct statement given that Mth 43 Section 6 Question : If f d nd f d, find f 4 d π c π- d e - Question 33: Choose the correct sttement given tht 7 f d 8 nd 7 f d3 7 c d f d3 f d f d f d e None of these Mth 43 Section 6 Are Under

More information

Section 6: Area, Volume, and Average Value

Section 6: Area, Volume, and Average Value Chpter The Integrl Applied Clculus Section 6: Are, Volume, nd Averge Vlue Are We hve lredy used integrls to find the re etween the grph of function nd the horizontl xis. Integrls cn lso e used to find

More information

Math 1431 Section M TH 4:00 PM 6:00 PM Susan Wheeler Office Hours: Wed 6:00 7:00 PM Online ***NOTE LABS ARE MON AND WED

Math 1431 Section M TH 4:00 PM 6:00 PM Susan Wheeler Office Hours: Wed 6:00 7:00 PM Online ***NOTE LABS ARE MON AND WED Mth 43 Section 4839 M TH 4: PM 6: PM Susn Wheeler swheeler@mth.uh.edu Office Hours: Wed 6: 7: PM Online ***NOTE LABS ARE MON AND WED t :3 PM to 3: pm ONLINE Approimting the re under curve given the type

More information

Goals: Determine how to calculate the area described by a function. Define the definite integral. Explore the relationship between the definite

Goals: Determine how to calculate the area described by a function. Define the definite integral. Explore the relationship between the definite Unit #8 : The Integrl Gols: Determine how to clculte the re described by function. Define the definite integrl. Eplore the reltionship between the definite integrl nd re. Eplore wys to estimte the definite

More information

Definite integral. Mathematics FRDIS MENDELU

Definite integral. Mathematics FRDIS MENDELU Definite integrl Mthemtics FRDIS MENDELU Simon Fišnrová Brno 1 Motivtion - re under curve Suppose, for simplicity, tht y = f(x) is nonnegtive nd continuous function defined on [, b]. Wht is the re of the

More information

5.1 How do we Measure Distance Traveled given Velocity? Student Notes

5.1 How do we Measure Distance Traveled given Velocity? Student Notes . How do we Mesure Distnce Trveled given Velocity? Student Notes EX ) The tle contins velocities of moving cr in ft/sec for time t in seconds: time (sec) 3 velocity (ft/sec) 3 A) Lel the x-xis & y-xis

More information

Properties of Integrals, Indefinite Integrals. Goals: Definition of the Definite Integral Integral Calculations using Antiderivatives

Properties of Integrals, Indefinite Integrals. Goals: Definition of the Definite Integral Integral Calculations using Antiderivatives Block #6: Properties of Integrls, Indefinite Integrls Gols: Definition of the Definite Integrl Integrl Clcultions using Antiderivtives Properties of Integrls The Indefinite Integrl 1 Riemnn Sums - 1 Riemnn

More information

Definite integral. Mathematics FRDIS MENDELU. Simona Fišnarová (Mendel University) Definite integral MENDELU 1 / 30

Definite integral. Mathematics FRDIS MENDELU. Simona Fišnarová (Mendel University) Definite integral MENDELU 1 / 30 Definite integrl Mthemtics FRDIS MENDELU Simon Fišnrová (Mendel University) Definite integrl MENDELU / Motivtion - re under curve Suppose, for simplicity, tht y = f(x) is nonnegtive nd continuous function

More information

1 The Riemann Integral

1 The Riemann Integral The Riemnn Integrl. An exmple leding to the notion of integrl (res) We know how to find (i.e. define) the re of rectngle (bse height), tringle ( (sum of res of tringles). But how do we find/define n re

More information

APPROXIMATE INTEGRATION

APPROXIMATE INTEGRATION APPROXIMATE INTEGRATION. Introduction We hve seen tht there re functions whose nti-derivtives cnnot be expressed in closed form. For these resons ny definite integrl involving these integrnds cnnot be

More information

INTRODUCTION TO INTEGRATION

INTRODUCTION TO INTEGRATION INTRODUCTION TO INTEGRATION 5.1 Ares nd Distnces Assume f(x) 0 on the intervl [, b]. Let A be the re under the grph of f(x). b We will obtin n pproximtion of A in the following three steps. STEP 1: Divide

More information

38 Riemann sums and existence of the definite integral.

38 Riemann sums and existence of the definite integral. 38 Riemnn sums nd existence of the definite integrl. In the clcultion of the re of the region X bounded by the grph of g(x) = x 2, the x-xis nd 0 x b, two sums ppered: ( n (k 1) 2) b 3 n 3 re(x) ( n These

More information

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus MATH 151 Clculus for Mngement J. Robert Buchnn Deprtment of Mthemtics Fll 2018 Objectives Define nd evlute definite integrls using the concept of re. Evlute definite integrls

More information

The Riemann Integral

The Riemann Integral Deprtment of Mthemtics King Sud University 2017-2018 Tble of contents 1 Anti-derivtive Function nd Indefinite Integrls 2 3 4 5 Indefinite Integrls & Anti-derivtive Function Definition Let f : I R be function

More information

5: The Definite Integral

5: The Definite Integral 5: The Definite Integrl 5.: Estimting with Finite Sums Consider moving oject its velocity (meters per second) t ny time (seconds) is given y v t = t+. Cn we use this informtion to determine the distnce

More information

Evaluating Definite Integrals. There are a few properties that you should remember in order to assist you in evaluating definite integrals.

Evaluating Definite Integrals. There are a few properties that you should remember in order to assist you in evaluating definite integrals. Evluting Definite Integrls There re few properties tht you should rememer in order to ssist you in evluting definite integrls. f x dx= ; where k is ny rel constnt k f x dx= k f x dx ± = ± f x g x dx f

More information

Z b. f(x)dx. Yet in the above two cases we know what f(x) is. Sometimes, engineers want to calculate an area by computing I, but...

Z b. f(x)dx. Yet in the above two cases we know what f(x) is. Sometimes, engineers want to calculate an area by computing I, but... Chpter 7 Numericl Methods 7. Introduction In mny cses the integrl f(x)dx cn be found by finding function F (x) such tht F 0 (x) =f(x), nd using f(x)dx = F (b) F () which is known s the nlyticl (exct) solution.

More information

Riemann Sums and Riemann Integrals

Riemann Sums and Riemann Integrals Riemnn Sums nd Riemnn Integrls Jmes K. Peterson Deprtment of Biologicl Sciences nd Deprtment of Mthemticl Sciences Clemson University August 26, 2013 Outline 1 Riemnn Sums 2 Riemnn Integrls 3 Properties

More information

Riemann Sums and Riemann Integrals

Riemann Sums and Riemann Integrals Riemnn Sums nd Riemnn Integrls Jmes K. Peterson Deprtment of Biologicl Sciences nd Deprtment of Mthemticl Sciences Clemson University August 26, 203 Outline Riemnn Sums Riemnn Integrls Properties Abstrct

More information

The area under the graph of f and above the x-axis between a and b is denoted by. f(x) dx. π O

The area under the graph of f and above the x-axis between a and b is denoted by. f(x) dx. π O 1 Section 5. The Definite Integrl Suppose tht function f is continuous nd positive over n intervl [, ]. y = f(x) x The re under the grph of f nd ove the x-xis etween nd is denoted y f(x) dx nd clled the

More information

The Regulated and Riemann Integrals

The Regulated and Riemann Integrals Chpter 1 The Regulted nd Riemnn Integrls 1.1 Introduction We will consider severl different pproches to defining the definite integrl f(x) dx of function f(x). These definitions will ll ssign the sme vlue

More information

Improper Integrals. The First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, as we ve discussed in class, goes as follows:

Improper Integrals. The First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, as we ve discussed in class, goes as follows: Improper Integrls The First Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus, s we ve discussed in clss, goes s follows: If f is continuous on the intervl [, ] nd F is function for which F t = ft, then ftdt = F F. An integrl

More information

10. AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

10. AREAS BETWEEN CURVES . AREAS BETWEEN CURVES.. Ares etween curves So res ove the x-xis re positive nd res elow re negtive, right? Wrong! We lied! Well, when you first lern out integrtion it s convenient fiction tht s true in

More information

Review of Calculus, cont d

Review of Calculus, cont d Jim Lmbers MAT 460 Fll Semester 2009-10 Lecture 3 Notes These notes correspond to Section 1.1 in the text. Review of Clculus, cont d Riemnn Sums nd the Definite Integrl There re mny cses in which some

More information

Section Areas and Distances. Example 1: Suppose a car travels at a constant 50 miles per hour for 2 hours. What is the total distance traveled?

Section Areas and Distances. Example 1: Suppose a car travels at a constant 50 miles per hour for 2 hours. What is the total distance traveled? Section 5. - Ares nd Distnces Exmple : Suppose cr trvels t constnt 5 miles per hour for 2 hours. Wht is the totl distnce trveled? Exmple 2: Suppose cr trvels 75 miles per hour for the first hour, 7 miles

More information

AP Calculus AB Unit 5 (Ch. 6): The Definite Integral: Day 12 Chapter 6 Review

AP Calculus AB Unit 5 (Ch. 6): The Definite Integral: Day 12 Chapter 6 Review AP Clculus AB Unit 5 (Ch. 6): The Definite Integrl: Dy Nme o Are Approximtions Riemnn Sums: LRAM, MRAM, RRAM Chpter 6 Review Trpezoidl Rule: T = h ( y + y + y +!+ y + y 0 n n) **Know how to find rectngle

More information

Midpoint Approximation

Midpoint Approximation Midpoint Approximtion Sometimes, we need to pproximte n integrl of the form R b f (x)dx nd we cnnot find n ntiderivtive in order to evlute the integrl. Also we my need to evlute R b f (x)dx where we do

More information

DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB MATHEMATICAL ROUTINES

DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB MATHEMATICAL ROUTINES DOIG PHYSICS WITH MATLAB MATHEMATICAL ROUTIES COMPUTATIO OF OE-DIMESIOAL ITEGRALS In Cooper School of Physics, University of Sydney in.cooper@sydney.edu.u DOWLOAD DIRECTORY FOR MATLAB SCRIPTS mth_integrtion_1d.m

More information

Unit Six AP Calculus Unit 6 Review Definite Integrals. Name Period Date NON-CALCULATOR SECTION

Unit Six AP Calculus Unit 6 Review Definite Integrals. Name Period Date NON-CALCULATOR SECTION Unit Six AP Clculus Unit 6 Review Definite Integrls Nme Period Dte NON-CALCULATOR SECTION Voculry: Directions Define ech word nd give n exmple. 1. Definite Integrl. Men Vlue Theorem (for definite integrls)

More information

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. The Total Change Theorem and the Area Under a Curve.

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. The Total Change Theorem and the Area Under a Curve. Clculus Li Vs The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus. The Totl Chnge Theorem nd the Are Under Curve. Recll the following fct from Clculus course. If continuous function f(x) represents the rte of chnge of F

More information

MAT137 Calculus! Lecture 27

MAT137 Calculus! Lecture 27 MAT37 Clculus! Lecture 7 Tody: More out Integrls (Rest of the Videos) Antiderivtives Next: Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus NEW office hours: T & R @ BA 4 officil wesite http://uoft.me/mat37 Betriz Nvrro-Lmed

More information

Lecture 3 ( ) (translated and slightly adapted from lecture notes by Martin Klazar)

Lecture 3 ( ) (translated and slightly adapted from lecture notes by Martin Klazar) Lecture 3 (5.3.2018) (trnslted nd slightly dpted from lecture notes by Mrtin Klzr) Riemnn integrl Now we define precisely the concept of the re, in prticulr, the re of figure U(, b, f) under the grph of

More information

1 Error Analysis of Simple Rules for Numerical Integration

1 Error Analysis of Simple Rules for Numerical Integration cs41: introduction to numericl nlysis 11/16/10 Lecture 19: Numericl Integrtion II Instructor: Professor Amos Ron Scries: Mrk Cowlishw, Nthnel Fillmore 1 Error Anlysis of Simple Rules for Numericl Integrtion

More information

Chapters 4 & 5 Integrals & Applications

Chapters 4 & 5 Integrals & Applications Contents Chpters 4 & 5 Integrls & Applictions Motivtion to Chpters 4 & 5 2 Chpter 4 3 Ares nd Distnces 3. VIDEO - Ares Under Functions............................................ 3.2 VIDEO - Applictions

More information

2.4 Linear Inequalities and Interval Notation

2.4 Linear Inequalities and Interval Notation .4 Liner Inequlities nd Intervl Nottion We wnt to solve equtions tht hve n inequlity symol insted of n equl sign. There re four inequlity symols tht we will look t: Less thn , Less thn or

More information

( ) Same as above but m = f x = f x - symmetric to y-axis. find where f ( x) Relative: Find where f ( x) x a + lim exists ( lim f exists.

( ) Same as above but m = f x = f x - symmetric to y-axis. find where f ( x) Relative: Find where f ( x) x a + lim exists ( lim f exists. AP Clculus Finl Review Sheet solutions When you see the words This is wht you think of doing Find the zeros Set function =, fctor or use qudrtic eqution if qudrtic, grph to find zeros on clcultor Find

More information

Math 1B, lecture 4: Error bounds for numerical methods

Math 1B, lecture 4: Error bounds for numerical methods Mth B, lecture 4: Error bounds for numericl methods Nthn Pflueger 4 September 0 Introduction The five numericl methods descried in the previous lecture ll operte by the sme principle: they pproximte the

More information

Week 10: Riemann integral and its properties

Week 10: Riemann integral and its properties Clculus nd Liner Algebr for Biomedicl Engineering Week 10: Riemnn integrl nd its properties H. Führ, Lehrstuhl A für Mthemtik, RWTH Achen, WS 07 Motivtion: Computing flow from flow rtes 1 We observe the

More information

Unit #9 : Definite Integral Properties; Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

Unit #9 : Definite Integral Properties; Fundamental Theorem of Calculus Unit #9 : Definite Integrl Properties; Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus Gols: Identify properties of definite integrls Define odd nd even functions, nd reltionship to integrl vlues Introduce the Fundmentl

More information

4.4 Areas, Integrals and Antiderivatives

4.4 Areas, Integrals and Antiderivatives . res, integrls nd ntiderivtives 333. Ares, Integrls nd Antiderivtives This section explores properties of functions defined s res nd exmines some connections mong res, integrls nd ntiderivtives. In order

More information

Chapter 8.2: The Integral

Chapter 8.2: The Integral Chpter 8.: The Integrl You cn think of Clculus s doule-wide triler. In one width of it lives differentil clculus. In the other hlf lives wht is clled integrl clculus. We hve lredy eplored few rooms in

More information

Calculus and linear algebra for biomedical engineering Week 11: The Riemann integral and its properties

Calculus and linear algebra for biomedical engineering Week 11: The Riemann integral and its properties Clculus nd liner lgebr for biomedicl engineering Week 11: The Riemnn integrl nd its properties Hrtmut Führ fuehr@mth.rwth-chen.de Lehrstuhl A für Mthemtik, RWTH Achen Jnury 9, 2009 Overview 1 Motivtion:

More information

Calculus Module C21. Areas by Integration. Copyright This publication The Northern Alberta Institute of Technology All Rights Reserved.

Calculus Module C21. Areas by Integration. Copyright This publication The Northern Alberta Institute of Technology All Rights Reserved. Clculus Module C Ares Integrtion Copright This puliction The Northern Alert Institute of Technolog 7. All Rights Reserved. LAST REVISED Mrch, 9 Introduction to Ares Integrtion Sttement of Prerequisite

More information

7.1 Integral as Net Change Calculus. What is the total distance traveled? What is the total displacement?

7.1 Integral as Net Change Calculus. What is the total distance traveled? What is the total displacement? 7.1 Integrl s Net Chnge Clculus 7.1 INTEGRAL AS NET CHANGE Distnce versus Displcement We hve lredy seen how the position of n oject cn e found y finding the integrl of the velocity function. The chnge

More information

2 b. , a. area is S= 2π xds. Again, understand where these formulas came from (pages ).

2 b. , a. area is S= 2π xds. Again, understand where these formulas came from (pages ). AP Clculus BC Review Chpter 8 Prt nd Chpter 9 Things to Know nd Be Ale to Do Know everything from the first prt of Chpter 8 Given n integrnd figure out how to ntidifferentite it using ny of the following

More information

7.1 Integral as Net Change and 7.2 Areas in the Plane Calculus

7.1 Integral as Net Change and 7.2 Areas in the Plane Calculus 7.1 Integrl s Net Chnge nd 7. Ares in the Plne Clculus 7.1 INTEGRAL AS NET CHANGE Notecrds from 7.1: Displcement vs Totl Distnce, Integrl s Net Chnge We hve lredy seen how the position of n oject cn e

More information

n f(x i ) x. i=1 In section 4.2, we defined the definite integral of f from x = a to x = b as n f(x i ) x; f(x) dx = lim i=1

n f(x i ) x. i=1 In section 4.2, we defined the definite integral of f from x = a to x = b as n f(x i ) x; f(x) dx = lim i=1 The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus As we continue to study the re problem, let s think bck to wht we know bout computing res of regions enclosed by curves. If we wnt to find the re of the region below the

More information

Lecture 14: Quadrature

Lecture 14: Quadrature Lecture 14: Qudrture This lecture is concerned with the evlution of integrls fx)dx 1) over finite intervl [, b] The integrnd fx) is ssumed to be rel-vlues nd smooth The pproximtion of n integrl by numericl

More information

7.2 Riemann Integrable Functions

7.2 Riemann Integrable Functions 7.2 Riemnn Integrble Functions Theorem 1. If f : [, b] R is step function, then f R[, b]. Theorem 2. If f : [, b] R is continuous on [, b], then f R[, b]. Theorem 3. If f : [, b] R is bounded nd continuous

More information

Topics Covered AP Calculus AB

Topics Covered AP Calculus AB Topics Covered AP Clculus AB ) Elementry Functions ) Properties of Functions i) A function f is defined s set of ll ordered pirs (, y), such tht for ech element, there corresponds ectly one element y.

More information

Properties of the Riemann Integral

Properties of the Riemann Integral Properties of the Riemnn Integrl Jmes K. Peterson Deprtment of Biologicl Sciences nd Deprtment of Mthemticl Sciences Clemson University Februry 15, 2018 Outline 1 Some Infimum nd Supremum Properties 2

More information

Chapter 0. What is the Lebesgue integral about?

Chapter 0. What is the Lebesgue integral about? Chpter 0. Wht is the Lebesgue integrl bout? The pln is to hve tutoril sheet ech week, most often on Fridy, (to be done during the clss) where you will try to get used to the ides introduced in the previous

More information

Math 120 Answers for Homework 13

Math 120 Answers for Homework 13 Mth 12 Answers for Homework 13 1. In this problem we will use the fct tht if m f(x M on n intervl [, b] (nd if f is integrble on [, b] then (* m(b f dx M(b. ( The function f(x = 1 + x 3 is n incresing

More information

Section 7.1 Integration by Substitution

Section 7.1 Integration by Substitution Section 7. Integrtion by Substitution Evlute ech of the following integrls. Keep in mind tht using substitution my not work on some problems. For one of the definite integrls, it is not possible to find

More information

Math& 152 Section Integration by Parts

Math& 152 Section Integration by Parts Mth& 5 Section 7. - Integrtion by Prts Integrtion by prts is rule tht trnsforms the integrl of the product of two functions into other (idelly simpler) integrls. Recll from Clculus I tht given two differentible

More information

MA123, Chapter 10: Formulas for integrals: integrals, antiderivatives, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (pp.

MA123, Chapter 10: Formulas for integrals: integrals, antiderivatives, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (pp. MA123, Chpter 1: Formuls for integrls: integrls, ntiderivtives, nd the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus (pp. 27-233, Gootmn) Chpter Gols: Assignments: Understnd the sttement of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus.

More information

Time in Seconds Speed in ft/sec (a) Sketch a possible graph for this function.

Time in Seconds Speed in ft/sec (a) Sketch a possible graph for this function. 4. Are under Curve A cr is trveling so tht its speed is never decresing during 1-second intervl. The speed t vrious moments in time is listed in the tle elow. Time in Seconds 3 6 9 1 Speed in t/sec 3 37

More information

6.5 Numerical Approximations of Definite Integrals

6.5 Numerical Approximations of Definite Integrals Arknss Tech University MATH 94: Clculus II Dr. Mrcel B. Finn 6.5 Numericl Approximtions of Definite Integrls Sometimes the integrl of function cnnot be expressed with elementry functions, i.e., polynomil,

More information

ACCESS TO SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND AGRICULTURE: MATHEMATICS 1 MATH00030 SEMESTER /2019

ACCESS TO SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND AGRICULTURE: MATHEMATICS 1 MATH00030 SEMESTER /2019 ACCESS TO SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND AGRICULTURE: MATHEMATICS MATH00030 SEMESTER 208/209 DR. ANTHONY BROWN 7.. Introduction to Integrtion. 7. Integrl Clculus As ws the cse with the chpter on differentil

More information

Integration Techniques

Integration Techniques Integrtion Techniques. Integrtion of Trigonometric Functions Exmple. Evlute cos x. Recll tht cos x = cos x. Hence, cos x Exmple. Evlute = ( + cos x) = (x + sin x) + C = x + 4 sin x + C. cos 3 x. Let u

More information

Interpreting Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem

Interpreting Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem Interpreting Integrls nd the Fundmentl Theorem Tody, we go further in interpreting the mening of the definite integrl. Using Units to Aid Interprettion We lredy know tht if f(t) is the rte of chnge of

More information

( ) as a fraction. Determine location of the highest

( ) as a fraction. Determine location of the highest AB Clculus Exm Review Sheet - Solutions A. Preclculus Type prolems A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 This is wht you think of doing Find the zeros of f ( x). Set function equl to 0. Fctor or use qudrtic eqution if

More information

( ) where f ( x ) is a. AB Calculus Exam Review Sheet. A. Precalculus Type problems. Find the zeros of f ( x).

( ) where f ( x ) is a. AB Calculus Exam Review Sheet. A. Precalculus Type problems. Find the zeros of f ( x). AB Clculus Exm Review Sheet A. Preclculus Type prolems A1 Find the zeros of f ( x). This is wht you think of doing A2 A3 Find the intersection of f ( x) nd g( x). Show tht f ( x) is even. A4 Show tht f

More information

Chapter 6 Notes, Larson/Hostetler 3e

Chapter 6 Notes, Larson/Hostetler 3e Contents 6. Antiderivtives nd the Rules of Integrtion.......................... 6. Are nd the Definite Integrl.................................. 6.. Are............................................ 6. Reimnn

More information

Chapter 7 Notes, Stewart 8e. 7.1 Integration by Parts Trigonometric Integrals Evaluating sin m x cos n (x) dx...

Chapter 7 Notes, Stewart 8e. 7.1 Integration by Parts Trigonometric Integrals Evaluating sin m x cos n (x) dx... Contents 7.1 Integrtion by Prts................................... 2 7.2 Trigonometric Integrls.................................. 8 7.2.1 Evluting sin m x cos n (x)......................... 8 7.2.2 Evluting

More information

cos 3 (x) sin(x) dx 3y + 4 dy Math 1206 Calculus Sec. 5.6: Substitution and Area Between Curves

cos 3 (x) sin(x) dx 3y + 4 dy Math 1206 Calculus Sec. 5.6: Substitution and Area Between Curves Mth 126 Clculus Sec. 5.6: Substitution nd Are Between Curves I. U-Substitution for Definite Integrls A. Th m 6-Substitution in Definite Integrls: If g (x) is continuous on [,b] nd f is continuous on the

More information

Lecture 20: Numerical Integration III

Lecture 20: Numerical Integration III cs4: introduction to numericl nlysis /8/0 Lecture 0: Numericl Integrtion III Instructor: Professor Amos Ron Scribes: Mrk Cowlishw, Yunpeng Li, Nthnel Fillmore For the lst few lectures we hve discussed

More information

The Trapezoidal Rule

The Trapezoidal Rule _.qd // : PM Pge 9 SECTION. Numericl Integrtion 9 f Section. The re of the region cn e pproimted using four trpezoids. Figure. = f( ) f( ) n The re of the first trpezoid is f f n. Figure. = Numericl Integrtion

More information

Math 8 Winter 2015 Applications of Integration

Math 8 Winter 2015 Applications of Integration Mth 8 Winter 205 Applictions of Integrtion Here re few importnt pplictions of integrtion. The pplictions you my see on n exm in this course include only the Net Chnge Theorem (which is relly just the Fundmentl

More information

Math 131. Numerical Integration Larson Section 4.6

Math 131. Numerical Integration Larson Section 4.6 Mth. Numericl Integrtion Lrson Section. This section looks t couple of methods for pproimting definite integrls numericlly. The gol is to get good pproimtion of the definite integrl in problems where n

More information

MAT 168: Calculus II with Analytic Geometry. James V. Lambers

MAT 168: Calculus II with Analytic Geometry. James V. Lambers MAT 68: Clculus II with Anlytic Geometry Jmes V. Lmbers Februry 7, Contents Integrls 5. Introduction............................ 5.. Differentil Clculus nd Quotient Formuls...... 5.. Integrl Clculus nd

More information

Improper Integrals. Introduction. Type 1: Improper Integrals on Infinite Intervals. When we defined the definite integral.

Improper Integrals. Introduction. Type 1: Improper Integrals on Infinite Intervals. When we defined the definite integral. Improper Integrls Introduction When we defined the definite integrl f d we ssumed tht f ws continuous on [, ] where [, ] ws finite, closed intervl There re t lest two wys this definition cn fil to e stisfied:

More information

Chapter 7: Applications of Integrals

Chapter 7: Applications of Integrals Chpter 7: Applictions of Integrls 78 Chpter 7 Overview: Applictions of Integrls Clculus, like most mthemticl fields, egn with tring to solve everd prolems. The theor nd opertions were formlized lter. As

More information

Numerical Integration

Numerical Integration Chpter 1 Numericl Integrtion Numericl differentition methods compute pproximtions to the derivtive of function from known vlues of the function. Numericl integrtion uses the sme informtion to compute numericl

More information

5.7 Improper Integrals

5.7 Improper Integrals 458 pplictions of definite integrls 5.7 Improper Integrls In Section 5.4, we computed the work required to lift pylod of mss m from the surfce of moon of mss nd rdius R to height H bove the surfce of the

More information

Numerical Analysis: Trapezoidal and Simpson s Rule

Numerical Analysis: Trapezoidal and Simpson s Rule nd Simpson s Mthemticl question we re interested in numericlly nswering How to we evlute I = f (x) dx? Clculus tells us tht if F(x) is the ntiderivtive of function f (x) on the intervl [, b], then I =

More information

Section 6.1 INTRO to LAPLACE TRANSFORMS

Section 6.1 INTRO to LAPLACE TRANSFORMS Section 6. INTRO to LAPLACE TRANSFORMS Key terms: Improper Integrl; diverge, converge A A f(t)dt lim f(t)dt Piecewise Continuous Function; jump discontinuity Function of Exponentil Order Lplce Trnsform

More information

An Overview of Integration

An Overview of Integration An Overview of Integrtion S. F. Ellermeyer July 26, 2 The Definite Integrl of Function f Over n Intervl, Suppose tht f is continuous function defined on n intervl,. The definite integrl of f from to is

More information

Polynomials and Division Theory

Polynomials and Division Theory Higher Checklist (Unit ) Higher Checklist (Unit ) Polynomils nd Division Theory Skill Achieved? Know tht polynomil (expression) is of the form: n x + n x n + n x n + + n x + x + 0 where the i R re the

More information

Improper Integrals, and Differential Equations

Improper Integrals, and Differential Equations Improper Integrls, nd Differentil Equtions October 22, 204 5.3 Improper Integrls Previously, we discussed how integrls correspond to res. More specificlly, we sid tht for function f(x), the region creted

More information

Math 554 Integration

Math 554 Integration Mth 554 Integrtion Hndout #9 4/12/96 Defn. A collection of n + 1 distinct points of the intervl [, b] P := {x 0 = < x 1 < < x i 1 < x i < < b =: x n } is clled prtition of the intervl. In this cse, we

More information

Section 7.1 Area of a Region Between Two Curves

Section 7.1 Area of a Region Between Two Curves Section 7.1 Are of Region Between Two Curves White Bord Chllenge The circle elow is inscried into squre: Clcultor 0 cm Wht is the shded re? 400 100 85.841cm White Bord Chllenge Find the re of the region

More information

AB Calculus Review Sheet

AB Calculus Review Sheet AB Clculus Review Sheet Legend: A Preclculus, B Limits, C Differentil Clculus, D Applictions of Differentil Clculus, E Integrl Clculus, F Applictions of Integrl Clculus, G Prticle Motion nd Rtes This is

More information

KEY CONCEPTS. satisfies the differential equation da. = 0. Note : If F (x) is any integral of f (x) then, x a

KEY CONCEPTS. satisfies the differential equation da. = 0. Note : If F (x) is any integral of f (x) then, x a KEY CONCEPTS THINGS TO REMEMBER :. The re ounded y the curve y = f(), the -is nd the ordintes t = & = is given y, A = f () d = y d.. If the re is elow the is then A is negtive. The convention is to consider

More information

Main topics for the First Midterm

Main topics for the First Midterm Min topics for the First Midterm The Midterm will cover Section 1.8, Chpters 2-3, Sections 4.1-4.8, nd Sections 5.1-5.3 (essentilly ll of the mteril covered in clss). Be sure to know the results of the

More information

Anti-derivatives/Indefinite Integrals of Basic Functions

Anti-derivatives/Indefinite Integrals of Basic Functions Anti-derivtives/Indefinite Integrls of Bsic Functions Power Rule: In prticulr, this mens tht x n+ x n n + + C, dx = ln x + C, if n if n = x 0 dx = dx = dx = x + C nd x (lthough you won t use the second

More information

10 Vector Integral Calculus

10 Vector Integral Calculus Vector Integrl lculus Vector integrl clculus extends integrls s known from clculus to integrls over curves ("line integrls"), surfces ("surfce integrls") nd solids ("volume integrls"). These integrls hve

More information

Riemann Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

Riemann Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus Riemnn Integrls nd the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus Jmes K. Peterson Deprtment of Biologicl Sciences nd Deprtment of Mthemticl Sciences Clemson University September 16, 2013 Outline Grphing Riemnn Sums

More information

5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums Calculus

5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums Calculus 5.1 ESTIMATING WITH FINITE SUMS Emple: Suppose from the nd to 4 th hour of our rod trip, ou trvel with the cruise control set to ectl 70 miles per hour for tht two hour stretch. How fr hve ou trveled during

More information

Big idea in Calculus: approximation

Big idea in Calculus: approximation Big ide in Clculus: pproximtion Derivtive: f (x) = df dx f f(x +h) f(x) =, x h rte of chnge is pproximtely the rtio of chnges in the function vlue nd in the vrible in very short time Liner pproximtion:

More information

Lab 11 Approximate Integration

Lab 11 Approximate Integration Nme Student ID # Instructor L Period Dte Due L 11 Approximte Integrtion Ojectives 1. To ecome fmilir with the right endpoint rule, the trpezoidl rule, nd Simpson's rule. 2. To compre nd contrst the properties

More information

Advanced Calculus: MATH 410 Notes on Integrals and Integrability Professor David Levermore 17 October 2004

Advanced Calculus: MATH 410 Notes on Integrals and Integrability Professor David Levermore 17 October 2004 Advnced Clculus: MATH 410 Notes on Integrls nd Integrbility Professor Dvid Levermore 17 October 2004 1. Definite Integrls In this section we revisit the definite integrl tht you were introduced to when

More information

Farey Fractions. Rickard Fernström. U.U.D.M. Project Report 2017:24. Department of Mathematics Uppsala University

Farey Fractions. Rickard Fernström. U.U.D.M. Project Report 2017:24. Department of Mathematics Uppsala University U.U.D.M. Project Report 07:4 Frey Frctions Rickrd Fernström Exmensrete i mtemtik, 5 hp Hledre: Andres Strömergsson Exmintor: Jörgen Östensson Juni 07 Deprtment of Mthemtics Uppsl University Frey Frctions

More information

Mathematics. Area under Curve.

Mathematics. Area under Curve. Mthemtics Are under Curve www.testprepkrt.com Tle of Content 1. Introduction.. Procedure of Curve Sketching. 3. Sketching of Some common Curves. 4. Are of Bounded Regions. 5. Sign convention for finding

More information

Unit #10 De+inite Integration & The Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus

Unit #10 De+inite Integration & The Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus Unit # De+inite Integrtion & The Fundmentl Theorem Of Clculus. Find the re of the shded region ove nd explin the mening of your nswer. (squres re y units) ) The grph to the right is f(x) = -x + 8x )Use

More information

NUMERICAL INTEGRATION. The inverse process to differentiation in calculus is integration. Mathematically, integration is represented by.

NUMERICAL INTEGRATION. The inverse process to differentiation in calculus is integration. Mathematically, integration is represented by. NUMERICAL INTEGRATION 1 Introduction The inverse process to differentition in clculus is integrtion. Mthemticlly, integrtion is represented by f(x) dx which stnds for the integrl of the function f(x) with

More information