MA123, Chapter 10: Formulas for integrals: integrals, antiderivatives, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (pp.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "MA123, Chapter 10: Formulas for integrals: integrals, antiderivatives, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (pp."

Transcription

1 MA123, Chpter 1: Formuls for integrls: integrls, ntiderivtives, nd the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus (pp , Gootmn) Chpter Gols: Assignments: Understnd the sttement of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus. Lern how to compute the ntiderivtive of some sic functions. Lern how to use the sustitution method to compute the ntiderivtive of more complex functions. Lern how to solve re nd distnce trveled prolems y mens of ntiderivtives. Assignment 22 Assignment 23 Assignment 24 (Review) So fr we hve lerned out the ide of the integrl, nd wht is ment y computing the definite integrl of function f(x) over the intervl [,]. As in the cse of derivtives, we now study procedures for computing the definite integrl of function f(x) over the intervl [,] tht re esier thn computing limits of Riemnn sums. As with derivtives, however, the definition is importnt ecuse it is only through the definition tht we cn understnd why the integrl gives the nswers to prticulr prolems. Ide of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus: The esiest procedure for computing definite integrls is not y computing limit of Riemnn sum, ut y relting integrls to (nti)derivtives. This reltionship is so importnt in Clculus tht the theorem tht descries the reltionships is clled the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus. Computing some ntiderivtives: In previous chpters we were given function f(x) nd we found the derivtive f (x). In this section, we will do the reverse. We will e given function f(x) tht is the derivtive of nother function F(x) nd will compute F(x). In other words find function F(x) such tht F (x) = f(x). F(x) is clled n ntiderivtive of f(x). For exmple (x 3 ) = 3x 2 so n ntiderivtive of f(x) = 3x 2 is F(x) = x 3. Note tht F(x) = x 3 +2 is lso n ntiderivtive of f(x) = 3x 2 ecuse (x 3 +2) = 3x 2. In generl, if F(x) is n ntiderivtive of f(x), then so is F(x)+C where C is ny constnt. This leds to the following nottion. Definition of the indefinite integrl: The indefinite integrl of f(x), denoted y f(x)dx without limits of integrtion, is the generl ntiderivtive of f(x). For exmple, it is esy to check tht 3t 2 dt = t 3 +c, where c is ny constnt. Recll tht the power rule for derivtives gives us (x n ) = nx n 1. We multiply y n nd sutrct 1 from the exponent. Since ntiderivtives re the reverse of derivtives, to compute n the ntiderivtive we first increse the power y 1, then divide y the new power. 15

2 The formuls elow cn e verified y differentiting the righthnd side of ech expression. Some sic indefinite integrls: 1. x n dx = 1 n+1 xn+1 +C n 1 2. e x dx = e x +C n = 1 in formul 1 leds to division y zero, ut for this specil cse we my use (ln(x)) = 1 x : 1 3. dx = ln x +C x Rules for indefinite integrls: ( ) ( A. cf(x)dx = c f(x)dx B. (f(x)±g(x))dx = f(x)dx ± Exmple 1: Evlute the indefinite integrl (t 3 +3t 2 +4t+9)dt. ) g(x) dx Exmple 2: Evlute the indefinite integrl 6 t dt. Wrning: We do not hve simple derivtive rules for products nd quotients, so we should not expect simple integrl rules for products nd quotients. Exmple 3: Evlute the indefinite integrl t 3 (t+2)dt. 16

3 Exmple 4: Evlute the indefinite integrl 2 +9 dx. x 2 We now hve some experience computing ntiderivtives. We will now see how ntiderivtives give us n elegnt method for finding res under curves. Exmple 5: Find formul for A(x) = 1 (4t + 2)dt, tht is, evlute the definite integrl of the function f(t) = 4t+2 over the intervl [1,x] inside [1,1]. (Hint: think of this definite integrl s n re.) Find the vlues A(5), A(1), A(1). Wht is the derivtive of A(x) with respect to x? y f(t) = 4t+2 6 A(x) 1 x 1 t Oservtions: There re two importnt things to notice out the function A(x) nlyzed in Exmple 1: A(1) = 1 1 (4t+2)dt = A (x) = d ( ) (4t+2)dt = 4x+2. dx 1 }{{} A(x) Notice wht the lst equlity sys: The instntneous rte of chnge of the re under the curve y = 4t+2 t t = x is simply equl to the vlue of the curve evluted t t = x. Why? A(x) mesures the re of some geometric figure. As x increses, the width of the figure increses, nd so the re increses. A (x) mesures the rte of increse of the figure. Now, s x increses, the right wll of the figure sweeps out dditionl re, so the rte t which the re increses should e equl to the height of the right wll. The following pges will mke this ide more precise. 17

4 Ide: Suppose tht for ny function f(t) it were true tht the re function A(x) = A() = f(t)dt = A (x) = d dx ( ) f(t)dt = f(x). f(t) dt stisfies Moreover, suppose tht F(x) is ny ndtiderivtive of f(x) (i.e., F (x) = f(x) = A (x).) By The Constnt Function Theorem (Chpter 6), there exists constnt vlue c such tht F(x) = A(x)+c. All these fcts put together help us esily evlute f(t) dt. Indeed, f(t)dt = A() = A() = A() A() = F() F() = [A()+c] [A()+c] The ove specultions re ctully true for ny continuous function on the intervl over which we re integrting. These results re stted in the following theorem, which is divided into two prts: The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus: PART I: Let f(t) e continuous function on the intervl [,]. Then the function A(x), defined y the formul A(x) = f(t)dt for ll x in the intervl [,], is n ntiderivtive of f(x), tht is A (x) = d ( ) f(t)dt = f(x) dx for ll x in the intervl [,]. PART II: Let F(x) e ny ntiderivtive of f(x) on [,], so tht F (x) = f(x) for ll x in the intervl [,]. Then f(x)dx = F() F(). Specil nottions: The ove theorem tells us tht evluting definite integrl is two-step process: find ny ntiderivtive F(x) of the function f(x) nd then compute the difference F() F(). A nottion hs een devised to seprte the two steps of this process: F(x) stnds for the difference F() F(). Thus f(x)dx = F(x) = F() F(). 18

5 Some properties of definite integrls: f(x)dx = 2. ( (f(x)±g(x))dx = f(x)dx+ c f(x)dx = ) ( f(x)dx ± c ) g(x) dx f(x)dx If m f(x) M on [,] then m( ) Geometric illustrtion of some of the ove properties: f(x)dx M( ) kf(x)dx = k f(x)dx = f(x)dx f(x)dx Property 3. sys tht if f nd g re positive vlued Property 4. sys tht if f(x) is positive vlued functions with f greter thn g. Then function then the re underneth the grph of f(x) y y etween nd plus f (f(x) g(x))dx the re underneth gives the re etween the grph of f(x) etween nd c equls the grphs of f nd g the re underneth g f(x)dx g(x) dx the grph of f(x) x x etween nd c. c Property 5. follows from Properties 4. nd 1. y letting c =. Alterntively, the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus gives us f(x)dx = F(x) = F() F() = [F() F()] = F(x) = f(x)dx. Property 6. is illustrted in the picture tht ccompnies the proof of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus. An ide of the proof of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus: We lredy gve n explntion of why the second prt of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus follows from the first one. To prove the first prt we need to use the definition of the derivtive. More precisely, we must show tht A A(x+h) A(x) (x) = lim = f(x). h h For convenience, let us ssume tht f is positive vlued function. Given tht A(x) is defined y quotient is f(t)dt, the numertor of the ove difference M m y h A(x+h) A(x) = +h f(t)dt f(t)dt. Using properties 4. nd 5. of definite integrls, the ove difference equls +h x x x+h f(t)dt. As the function f is continuous over the intervl [x,x +h], the Extreme Vlue Theorem sys tht there re vlues c 1 nd c 2 in [x,x+h] wheref ttins theminimumndmximumvlues, sy mndm, respectively. Thus m f(t) M on [x,x+h]. As the length of the intervl [x,x+h] is h, y property 6. of definite integrls we hve tht t f(c 1 )h = mh +h x f(t)dt Mh = f(c 2 )h or, equivlently, f(c 1 ) +h x f(t)dt h f(c 2 ). Finlly, s f is continuous we hve tht lim h f(c 1 ) = f(x) = lim h f(c 2 ). This concludes the proof. 19

6 Exmples illustrting the First Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus: Exmple 6: Compute the derivtive of F(x) if F(x) = 2 (t 4 +t 3 +t+9)dt. Exmple 7: Compute the derivtive of g(s) if g(s) = s 5 8 u 2 +u+2 du. Exmple 8: Suppose f(x) = 1 t 2 7t+12.25dt. For which positive vlue of x does f (x) equl? Exmple 9: Find the vlue of x t which F(x) = intervl [3,1]. The vlue of x tht gives minimum of F(x) is. 3 (t 8 +t 6 +t 4 +t 2 +1)dt tkes its minimum on the 11

7 Exmple 1: Find the vlue of x t which G(x) = [ 5,1]. The vlue of x tht gives mximum of G(x) is. 5 ( t +2)dt tkes its mximum on the intervl Exmples illustrting the Second Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus: Exmple 11: Evlute the integrl 5 (t 2 +1)dt. Exmple 12: Evlute the integrl 5 7 ( ) 1 2 dt. t Exmple 13: Evlute the integrl 2 e x dx. 111

8 Exmple 14: Evlute the integrl 2 2 (t 5 +t 4 +t 3 +t 2 +t+1)dt. Exmple 15: Evlute the integrl 12 6 t dt. Exmple 16: Evlute the integrl 5 2 ( 3u ) du. u Exmple 17: Suppose Evlute the integrl 5 f(x)dx. 2x, x 2; f(x) = 8 x, x >

9 The sustitution rule for integrls: suintervl I nd f is continuous on I, then In cse of definite integrls the sustitution rule ecomes Exmple 18: Evlute the integrl If u = g(t) is differentile function whose rnge is f(g(t))g (t)dt = f(u)du. (t+9) 2 dt. f(g(t))g (t)dt = g() g() f(u)du. Exmple 19: Evlute the integrl 3t+7dt. Exmple 2: Evlute the integrl 1 (5t+4) 2 dt. Exmple 21: Evlute the integrl 5 2t+1dt. 113

10 Exmple 22: Evlute the integrl 1 5e 5x+1 dx Exmple 23: Evlute the integrl 3 2x x 2 +1 dx. Exmple 24: Compute the derivtive of F(x) if F(x) = (Hint: Write F(x) = g(f(x)) where f(x) = x 2 nd g(x) = 2 2tdt. 2tdt nd use the chin rule to find F (x).) Generl formul: If F(x) = f(x) H(t)dt then F (x) = d dx f(x) H(t)dt = H(f(x)) f (x). 114

11 Word prolems: If the velocity v(t) of n oject t time t is lwys positive, then the re underneth the grph of the velocity function nd lyingove thet-xis represents thetotl distnce trveled y theoject from t = to t =. Exmple 25: A trin trvels long trck nd its velocity (in miles per hour) is given y v(t) = 76t for the first hlf hour of trvel. Its velocity is constnt nd equl to v(t) = 76/2 fter the first hlf hour. Here time t is mesured in hours. How fr (in miles) does the trin trvel in the second hour of trvel? Exmple 26: A trin trvels long trck nd its velocity (in miles per hour) is given y v(t) = 76t for the first hlf hour of trvel. Its velocity is constnt nd equl to v(t) = 76/2 fter the first hlf hour. Here time t is mesured in hours. How fr (in miles) does the trin trvel in the first hour of trvel? Exmple 27: A rock is dropped from height of 21 feet. Its velocity in feet per second t time t fter it is dropped is given y v(t) = 32t where time t is mesured in seconds. How fr is the rock from the ground one second fter it is dropped? 115

12 Exmple 28: Suppose n oject is thrown down from cliff with n initil speed of 5 feet per sec, nd its speed in ft/sec fter t seconds is given y s(t) = 1t+5. If the oject lnds fter 7 seconds, how high (in ft) is the cliff? (Hint: how fr did the oject trvel?) Exmple 29: A cr is trveling due est. Its velocity (in miles per hour) t time t hours is given y v(t) = 2.5t 2 +1t+5. How fr did the cr trvel during the first five hours of the trip? Averge Vlues: The verge of finitely mny numers y 1,y 2,...,y n is y ve = y 1 +y 2 + +y n. Wht n if we re deling with infinitely mny vlues? More generlly, how cn we compute the verge of function f defined on n intervl? Averge of function: Theverge offunctionf onnintervl [,] y equls the integrl of f over the intervl divided y thelength of the intervl: Geometric mening: f(x)dx f ve =. x If f is positive vlued function, f ve is tht numer such tht the rectngle with se [,] nd height f ve hs the sme re s the region underneth the grph of f from to. Exmple 3: Wht is the verge of f(x) = x 2 over the intervl [,6]? f ve 116

13 117

x = b a n x 2 e x dx. cdx = c(b a), where c is any constant. a b

x = b a n x 2 e x dx. cdx = c(b a), where c is any constant. a b CHAPTER 5. INTEGRALS 61 where nd x = b n x i = 1 (x i 1 + x i ) = midpoint of [x i 1, x i ]. Problem 168 (Exercise 1, pge 377). Use the Midpoint Rule with the n = 4 to pproximte 5 1 x e x dx. Some quick

More information

Interpreting Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem

Interpreting Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem Interpreting Integrls nd the Fundmentl Theorem Tody, we go further in interpreting the mening of the definite integrl. Using Units to Aid Interprettion We lredy know tht if f(t) is the rte of chnge of

More information

Big idea in Calculus: approximation

Big idea in Calculus: approximation Big ide in Clculus: pproximtion Derivtive: f (x) = df dx f f(x +h) f(x) =, x h rte of chnge is pproximtely the rtio of chnges in the function vlue nd in the vrible in very short time Liner pproximtion:

More information

Math Calculus with Analytic Geometry II

Math Calculus with Analytic Geometry II orem of definite Mth 5.0 with Anlytic Geometry II Jnury 4, 0 orem of definite If < b then b f (x) dx = ( under f bove x-xis) ( bove f under x-xis) Exmple 8 0 3 9 x dx = π 3 4 = 9π 4 orem of definite Problem

More information

Section 4: Integration ECO4112F 2011

Section 4: Integration ECO4112F 2011 Reding: Ching Chpter Section : Integrtion ECOF Note: These notes do not fully cover the mteril in Ching, ut re ment to supplement your reding in Ching. Thus fr the optimistion you hve covered hs een sttic

More information

5: The Definite Integral

5: The Definite Integral 5: The Definite Integrl 5.: Estimting with Finite Sums Consider moving oject its velocity (meters per second) t ny time (seconds) is given y v t = t+. Cn we use this informtion to determine the distnce

More information

2 b. , a. area is S= 2π xds. Again, understand where these formulas came from (pages ).

2 b. , a. area is S= 2π xds. Again, understand where these formulas came from (pages ). AP Clculus BC Review Chpter 8 Prt nd Chpter 9 Things to Know nd Be Ale to Do Know everything from the first prt of Chpter 8 Given n integrnd figure out how to ntidifferentite it using ny of the following

More information

(0.0)(0.1)+(0.3)(0.1)+(0.6)(0.1)+ +(2.7)(0.1) = 1.35

(0.0)(0.1)+(0.3)(0.1)+(0.6)(0.1)+ +(2.7)(0.1) = 1.35 7 Integrtion º½ ÌÛÓ Ü ÑÔÐ Up to now we hve been concerned with extrcting informtion bout how function chnges from the function itself. Given knowledge bout n object s position, for exmple, we wnt to know

More information

Unit #10 De+inite Integration & The Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus

Unit #10 De+inite Integration & The Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus Unit # De+inite Integrtion & The Fundmentl Theorem Of Clculus. Find the re of the shded region ove nd explin the mening of your nswer. (squres re y units) ) The grph to the right is f(x) = -x + 8x )Use

More information

Section 4.8. D v(t j 1 ) t. (4.8.1) j=1

Section 4.8. D v(t j 1 ) t. (4.8.1) j=1 Difference Equtions to Differentil Equtions Section.8 Distnce, Position, nd the Length of Curves Although we motivted the definition of the definite integrl with the notion of re, there re mny pplictions

More information

Week 10: Riemann integral and its properties

Week 10: Riemann integral and its properties Clculus nd Liner Algebr for Biomedicl Engineering Week 10: Riemnn integrl nd its properties H. Führ, Lehrstuhl A für Mthemtik, RWTH Achen, WS 07 Motivtion: Computing flow from flow rtes 1 We observe the

More information

The First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. If f(x) is continuous on [a, b] and F (x) is any antiderivative. f(x) dx = F (b) F (a).

The First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. If f(x) is continuous on [a, b] and F (x) is any antiderivative. f(x) dx = F (b) F (a). The Fundmentl Theorems of Clculus Mth 4, Section 0, Spring 009 We now know enough bout definite integrls to give precise formultions of the Fundmentl Theorems of Clculus. We will lso look t some bsic emples

More information

Distance And Velocity

Distance And Velocity Unit #8 - The Integrl Some problems nd solutions selected or dpted from Hughes-Hllett Clculus. Distnce And Velocity. The grph below shows the velocity, v, of n object (in meters/sec). Estimte the totl

More information

Section 6.1 Definite Integral

Section 6.1 Definite Integral Section 6.1 Definite Integrl Suppose we wnt to find the re of region tht is not so nicely shped. For exmple, consider the function shown elow. The re elow the curve nd ove the x xis cnnot e determined

More information

Improper Integrals. Introduction. Type 1: Improper Integrals on Infinite Intervals. When we defined the definite integral.

Improper Integrals. Introduction. Type 1: Improper Integrals on Infinite Intervals. When we defined the definite integral. Improper Integrls Introduction When we defined the definite integrl f d we ssumed tht f ws continuous on [, ] where [, ] ws finite, closed intervl There re t lest two wys this definition cn fil to e stisfied:

More information

Continuous Random Variables Class 5, Jeremy Orloff and Jonathan Bloom

Continuous Random Variables Class 5, Jeremy Orloff and Jonathan Bloom Lerning Gols Continuous Rndom Vriles Clss 5, 8.05 Jeremy Orloff nd Jonthn Bloom. Know the definition of continuous rndom vrile. 2. Know the definition of the proility density function (pdf) nd cumultive

More information

Calculus Module C21. Areas by Integration. Copyright This publication The Northern Alberta Institute of Technology All Rights Reserved.

Calculus Module C21. Areas by Integration. Copyright This publication The Northern Alberta Institute of Technology All Rights Reserved. Clculus Module C Ares Integrtion Copright This puliction The Northern Alert Institute of Technolog 7. All Rights Reserved. LAST REVISED Mrch, 9 Introduction to Ares Integrtion Sttement of Prerequisite

More information

63. Representation of functions as power series Consider a power series. ( 1) n x 2n for all 1 < x < 1

63. Representation of functions as power series Consider a power series. ( 1) n x 2n for all 1 < x < 1 3 9. SEQUENCES AND SERIES 63. Representtion of functions s power series Consider power series x 2 + x 4 x 6 + x 8 + = ( ) n x 2n It is geometric series with q = x 2 nd therefore it converges for ll q =

More information

Improper Integrals. The First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, as we ve discussed in class, goes as follows:

Improper Integrals. The First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, as we ve discussed in class, goes as follows: Improper Integrls The First Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus, s we ve discussed in clss, goes s follows: If f is continuous on the intervl [, ] nd F is function for which F t = ft, then ftdt = F F. An integrl

More information

MORE FUNCTION GRAPHING; OPTIMIZATION. (Last edited October 28, 2013 at 11:09pm.)

MORE FUNCTION GRAPHING; OPTIMIZATION. (Last edited October 28, 2013 at 11:09pm.) MORE FUNCTION GRAPHING; OPTIMIZATION FRI, OCT 25, 203 (Lst edited October 28, 203 t :09pm.) Exercise. Let n be n rbitrry positive integer. Give n exmple of function with exctly n verticl symptotes. Give

More information

Math 8 Winter 2015 Applications of Integration

Math 8 Winter 2015 Applications of Integration Mth 8 Winter 205 Applictions of Integrtion Here re few importnt pplictions of integrtion. The pplictions you my see on n exm in this course include only the Net Chnge Theorem (which is relly just the Fundmentl

More information

Math 113 Exam 1-Review

Math 113 Exam 1-Review Mth 113 Exm 1-Review September 26, 2016 Exm 1 covers 6.1-7.3 in the textbook. It is dvisble to lso review the mteril from 5.3 nd 5.5 s this will be helpful in solving some of the problems. 6.1 Are Between

More information

38 Riemann sums and existence of the definite integral.

38 Riemann sums and existence of the definite integral. 38 Riemnn sums nd existence of the definite integrl. In the clcultion of the re of the region X bounded by the grph of g(x) = x 2, the x-xis nd 0 x b, two sums ppered: ( n (k 1) 2) b 3 n 3 re(x) ( n These

More information

10. AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

10. AREAS BETWEEN CURVES . AREAS BETWEEN CURVES.. Ares etween curves So res ove the x-xis re positive nd res elow re negtive, right? Wrong! We lied! Well, when you first lern out integrtion it s convenient fiction tht s true in

More information

What Is Calculus? 42 CHAPTER 1 Limits and Their Properties

What Is Calculus? 42 CHAPTER 1 Limits and Their Properties 60_00.qd //0 : PM Pge CHAPTER Limits nd Their Properties The Mistress Fellows, Girton College, Cmridge Section. STUDY TIP As ou progress through this course, rememer tht lerning clculus is just one of

More information

Math 360: A primitive integral and elementary functions

Math 360: A primitive integral and elementary functions Mth 360: A primitive integrl nd elementry functions D. DeTurck University of Pennsylvni October 16, 2017 D. DeTurck Mth 360 001 2017C: Integrl/functions 1 / 32 Setup for the integrl prtitions Definition:

More information

UNIFORM CONVERGENCE MA 403: REAL ANALYSIS, INSTRUCTOR: B. V. LIMAYE

UNIFORM CONVERGENCE MA 403: REAL ANALYSIS, INSTRUCTOR: B. V. LIMAYE UNIFORM CONVERGENCE MA 403: REAL ANALYSIS, INSTRUCTOR: B. V. LIMAYE 1. Pointwise Convergence of Sequence Let E be set nd Y be metric spce. Consider functions f n : E Y for n = 1, 2,.... We sy tht the sequence

More information

Sections 5.2: The Definite Integral

Sections 5.2: The Definite Integral Sections 5.2: The Definite Integrl In this section we shll formlize the ides from the lst section to functions in generl. We strt with forml definition.. The Definite Integrl Definition.. Suppose f(x)

More information

STEP FUNCTIONS, DELTA FUNCTIONS, AND THE VARIATION OF PARAMETERS FORMULA. 0 if t < 0, 1 if t > 0.

STEP FUNCTIONS, DELTA FUNCTIONS, AND THE VARIATION OF PARAMETERS FORMULA. 0 if t < 0, 1 if t > 0. STEP FUNCTIONS, DELTA FUNCTIONS, AND THE VARIATION OF PARAMETERS FORMULA STEPHEN SCHECTER. The unit step function nd piecewise continuous functions The Heviside unit step function u(t) is given by if t

More information

Section 5.1 #7, 10, 16, 21, 25; Section 5.2 #8, 9, 15, 20, 27, 30; Section 5.3 #4, 6, 9, 13, 16, 28, 31; Section 5.4 #7, 18, 21, 23, 25, 29, 40

Section 5.1 #7, 10, 16, 21, 25; Section 5.2 #8, 9, 15, 20, 27, 30; Section 5.3 #4, 6, 9, 13, 16, 28, 31; Section 5.4 #7, 18, 21, 23, 25, 29, 40 Mth B Prof. Audrey Terrs HW # Solutions by Alex Eustis Due Tuesdy, Oct. 9 Section 5. #7,, 6,, 5; Section 5. #8, 9, 5,, 7, 3; Section 5.3 #4, 6, 9, 3, 6, 8, 3; Section 5.4 #7, 8,, 3, 5, 9, 4 5..7 Since

More information

Section 6.1 INTRO to LAPLACE TRANSFORMS

Section 6.1 INTRO to LAPLACE TRANSFORMS Section 6. INTRO to LAPLACE TRANSFORMS Key terms: Improper Integrl; diverge, converge A A f(t)dt lim f(t)dt Piecewise Continuous Function; jump discontinuity Function of Exponentil Order Lplce Trnsform

More information

Test 3 Review. Jiwen He. I will replace your lowest test score with the percentage grade from the final exam (provided it is higher).

Test 3 Review. Jiwen He. I will replace your lowest test score with the percentage grade from the final exam (provided it is higher). Test 3 Review Jiwen He Test 3 Test 3: Dec. 4-6 in CASA Mteril - Through 6.3. No Homework (Thnksgiving) No homework this week! Hve GREAT Thnksgiving! Finl Exm Finl Exm: Dec. 14-17 in CASA You Might Be Interested

More information

different methods (left endpoint, right endpoint, midpoint, trapezoid, Simpson s).

different methods (left endpoint, right endpoint, midpoint, trapezoid, Simpson s). Mth 1A with Professor Stnkov Worksheet, Discussion #41; Wednesdy, 12/6/217 GSI nme: Roy Zho Problems 1. Write the integrl 3 dx s limit of Riemnn sums. Write it using 2 intervls using the 1 x different

More information

u(t)dt + i a f(t)dt f(t) dt b f(t) dt (2) With this preliminary step in place, we are ready to define integration on a general curve in C.

u(t)dt + i a f(t)dt f(t) dt b f(t) dt (2) With this preliminary step in place, we are ready to define integration on a general curve in C. Lecture 4 Complex Integrtion MATH-GA 2451.001 Complex Vriles 1 Construction 1.1 Integrting complex function over curve in C A nturl wy to construct the integrl of complex function over curve in the complex

More information

Math 554 Integration

Math 554 Integration Mth 554 Integrtion Hndout #9 4/12/96 Defn. A collection of n + 1 distinct points of the intervl [, b] P := {x 0 = < x 1 < < x i 1 < x i < < b =: x n } is clled prtition of the intervl. In this cse, we

More information

Calculus and linear algebra for biomedical engineering Week 11: The Riemann integral and its properties

Calculus and linear algebra for biomedical engineering Week 11: The Riemann integral and its properties Clculus nd liner lgebr for biomedicl engineering Week 11: The Riemnn integrl nd its properties Hrtmut Führ fuehr@mth.rwth-chen.de Lehrstuhl A für Mthemtik, RWTH Achen Jnury 9, 2009 Overview 1 Motivtion:

More information

Chapter 9 Definite Integrals

Chapter 9 Definite Integrals Chpter 9 Definite Integrls In the previous chpter we found how to tke n ntiderivtive nd investigted the indefinite integrl. In this chpter the connection etween ntiderivtives nd definite integrls is estlished

More information

Chapter 7 Notes, Stewart 8e. 7.1 Integration by Parts Trigonometric Integrals Evaluating sin m x cos n (x) dx...

Chapter 7 Notes, Stewart 8e. 7.1 Integration by Parts Trigonometric Integrals Evaluating sin m x cos n (x) dx... Contents 7.1 Integrtion by Prts................................... 2 7.2 Trigonometric Integrls.................................. 8 7.2.1 Evluting sin m x cos n (x)......................... 8 7.2.2 Evluting

More information

dx dt dy = G(t, x, y), dt where the functions are defined on I Ω, and are locally Lipschitz w.r.t. variable (x, y) Ω.

dx dt dy = G(t, x, y), dt where the functions are defined on I Ω, and are locally Lipschitz w.r.t. variable (x, y) Ω. Chpter 8 Stility theory We discuss properties of solutions of first order two dimensionl system, nd stility theory for specil clss of liner systems. We denote the independent vrile y t in plce of x, nd

More information

Riemann Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

Riemann Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus Riemnn Integrls nd the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus Jmes K. Peterson Deprtment of Biologicl Sciences nd Deprtment of Mthemticl Sciences Clemson University September 16, 2013 Outline Grphing Riemnn Sums

More information

x = a To determine the volume of the solid, we use a definite integral to sum the volumes of the slices as we let!x " 0 :

x = a To determine the volume of the solid, we use a definite integral to sum the volumes of the slices as we let!x  0 : Clculus II MAT 146 Integrtion Applictions: Volumes of 3D Solids Our gol is to determine volumes of vrious shpes. Some of the shpes re the result of rotting curve out n xis nd other shpes re simply given

More information

1 Error Analysis of Simple Rules for Numerical Integration

1 Error Analysis of Simple Rules for Numerical Integration cs41: introduction to numericl nlysis 11/16/10 Lecture 19: Numericl Integrtion II Instructor: Professor Amos Ron Scries: Mrk Cowlishw, Nthnel Fillmore 1 Error Anlysis of Simple Rules for Numericl Integrtion

More information

Section 14.3 Arc Length and Curvature

Section 14.3 Arc Length and Curvature Section 4.3 Arc Length nd Curvture Clculus on Curves in Spce In this section, we ly the foundtions for describing the movement of n object in spce.. Vector Function Bsics In Clc, formul for rc length in

More information

Math 100 Review Sheet

Math 100 Review Sheet Mth 100 Review Sheet Joseph H. Silvermn December 2010 This outline of Mth 100 is summry of the mteril covered in the course. It is designed to be study id, but it is only n outline nd should be used s

More information

Chapter 6. Riemann Integral

Chapter 6. Riemann Integral Introduction to Riemnn integrl Chpter 6. Riemnn Integrl Won-Kwng Prk Deprtment of Mthemtics, The College of Nturl Sciences Kookmin University Second semester, 2015 1 / 41 Introduction to Riemnn integrl

More information

Section 7.1 Area of a Region Between Two Curves

Section 7.1 Area of a Region Between Two Curves Section 7.1 Are of Region Between Two Curves White Bord Chllenge The circle elow is inscried into squre: Clcultor 0 cm Wht is the shded re? 400 100 85.841cm White Bord Chllenge Find the re of the region

More information

x ) dx dx x sec x over the interval (, ).

x ) dx dx x sec x over the interval (, ). Curve on 6 For -, () Evlute the integrl, n (b) check your nswer by ifferentiting. ( ). ( ). ( ).. 6. sin cos 7. sec csccot 8. sec (sec tn ) 9. sin csc. Evlute the integrl sin by multiplying the numertor

More information

Math 113 Exam 2 Practice

Math 113 Exam 2 Practice Mth Em Prctice Februry, 8 Em will cover sections 6.5, 7.-7.5 nd 7.8. This sheet hs three sections. The first section will remind you bout techniques nd formuls tht you should know. The second gives number

More information

5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums Calculus

5.1 Estimating with Finite Sums Calculus 5.1 ESTIMATING WITH FINITE SUMS Emple: Suppose from the nd to 4 th hour of our rod trip, ou trvel with the cruise control set to ectl 70 miles per hour for tht two hour stretch. How fr hve ou trveled during

More information

Lecture 1. Functional series. Pointwise and uniform convergence.

Lecture 1. Functional series. Pointwise and uniform convergence. 1 Introduction. Lecture 1. Functionl series. Pointwise nd uniform convergence. In this course we study mongst other things Fourier series. The Fourier series for periodic function f(x) with period 2π is

More information

5.5 The Substitution Rule

5.5 The Substitution Rule 5.5 The Substitution Rule Given the usefulness of the Fundmentl Theorem, we wnt some helpful methods for finding ntiderivtives. At the moment, if n nti-derivtive is not esily recognizble, then we re in

More information

We know that if f is a continuous nonnegative function on the interval [a, b], then b

We know that if f is a continuous nonnegative function on the interval [a, b], then b 1 Ares Between Curves c 22 Donld Kreider nd Dwight Lhr We know tht if f is continuous nonnegtive function on the intervl [, b], then f(x) dx is the re under the grph of f nd bove the intervl. We re going

More information

20 MATHEMATICS POLYNOMIALS

20 MATHEMATICS POLYNOMIALS 0 MATHEMATICS POLYNOMIALS.1 Introduction In Clss IX, you hve studied polynomils in one vrible nd their degrees. Recll tht if p(x) is polynomil in x, the highest power of x in p(x) is clled the degree of

More information

MA Handout 2: Notation and Background Concepts from Analysis

MA Handout 2: Notation and Background Concepts from Analysis MA350059 Hndout 2: Nottion nd Bckground Concepts from Anlysis This hndout summrises some nottion we will use nd lso gives recp of some concepts from other units (MA20023: PDEs nd CM, MA20218: Anlysis 2A,

More information

Integrals along Curves.

Integrals along Curves. Integrls long Curves. 1. Pth integrls. Let : [, b] R n be continuous function nd let be the imge ([, b]) of. We refer to both nd s curve. If we need to distinguish between the two we cll the function the

More information

4.1. Probability Density Functions

4.1. Probability Density Functions STT 1 4.1-4. 4.1. Proility Density Functions Ojectives. Continuous rndom vrile - vers - discrete rndom vrile. Proility density function. Uniform distriution nd its properties. Expected vlue nd vrince of

More information

The Trapezoidal Rule

The Trapezoidal Rule _.qd // : PM Pge 9 SECTION. Numericl Integrtion 9 f Section. The re of the region cn e pproimted using four trpezoids. Figure. = f( ) f( ) n The re of the first trpezoid is f f n. Figure. = Numericl Integrtion

More information

Lecture 3. Limits of Functions and Continuity

Lecture 3. Limits of Functions and Continuity Lecture 3 Limits of Functions nd Continuity Audrey Terrs April 26, 21 1 Limits of Functions Notes I m skipping the lst section of Chpter 6 of Lng; the section bout open nd closed sets We cn probbly live

More information

How do we solve these things, especially when they get complicated? How do we know when a system has a solution, and when is it unique?

How do we solve these things, especially when they get complicated? How do we know when a system has a solution, and when is it unique? XII. LINEAR ALGEBRA: SOLVING SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS Tody we re going to tlk out solving systems of liner equtions. These re prolems tht give couple of equtions with couple of unknowns, like: 6= x + x 7=

More information

The final exam will take place on Friday May 11th from 8am 11am in Evans room 60.

The final exam will take place on Friday May 11th from 8am 11am in Evans room 60. Mth 104: finl informtion The finl exm will tke plce on Fridy My 11th from 8m 11m in Evns room 60. The exm will cover ll prts of the course with equl weighting. It will cover Chpters 1 5, 7 15, 17 21, 23

More information

NUMERICAL INTEGRATION. The inverse process to differentiation in calculus is integration. Mathematically, integration is represented by.

NUMERICAL INTEGRATION. The inverse process to differentiation in calculus is integration. Mathematically, integration is represented by. NUMERICAL INTEGRATION 1 Introduction The inverse process to differentition in clculus is integrtion. Mthemticlly, integrtion is represented by f(x) dx which stnds for the integrl of the function f(x) with

More information

Line Integrals. Partitioning the Curve. Estimating the Mass

Line Integrals. Partitioning the Curve. Estimating the Mass Line Integrls Suppose we hve curve in the xy plne nd ssocite density δ(p ) = δ(x, y) t ech point on the curve. urves, of course, do not hve density or mss, but it my sometimes be convenient or useful to

More information

Homework 4. (1) If f R[a, b], show that f 3 R[a, b]. If f + (x) = max{f(x), 0}, is f + R[a, b]? Justify your answer.

Homework 4. (1) If f R[a, b], show that f 3 R[a, b]. If f + (x) = max{f(x), 0}, is f + R[a, b]? Justify your answer. Homework 4 (1) If f R[, b], show tht f 3 R[, b]. If f + (x) = mx{f(x), 0}, is f + R[, b]? Justify your nswer. (2) Let f be continuous function on [, b] tht is strictly positive except finitely mny points

More information

Line and Surface Integrals: An Intuitive Understanding

Line and Surface Integrals: An Intuitive Understanding Line nd Surfce Integrls: An Intuitive Understnding Joseph Breen Introduction Multivrible clculus is ll bout bstrcting the ides of differentition nd integrtion from the fmilir single vrible cse to tht of

More information

The Trapezoidal Rule

The Trapezoidal Rule SECTION. Numericl Integrtion 9 f Section. The re of the region cn e pproimted using four trpezoids. Figure. = f( ) f( ) n The re of the first trpezoid is f f n. Figure. = Numericl Integrtion Approimte

More information

F is n ntiderivtive èor èindeæniteè integrlè off if F 0 èxè =fèxè. Nottion: F èxè = ; it mens F 0 èxè=fèxè ëthe integrl of f of x dee x" Bsic list: xn

F is n ntiderivtive èor èindeæniteè integrlè off if F 0 èxè =fèxè. Nottion: F èxè = ; it mens F 0 èxè=fèxè ëthe integrl of f of x dee x Bsic list: xn Mth 70 Topics for third exm Chpter 3: Applictions of Derivtives x7: Liner pproximtion nd diæerentils Ide: The tngent line to grph of function mkes good pproximtion to the function, ner the point of tngency.

More information

Summer MTH142 College Calculus 2. Section J. Lecture Notes. Yin Su University at Buffalo

Summer MTH142 College Calculus 2. Section J. Lecture Notes. Yin Su University at Buffalo Summer 6 MTH4 College Clculus Section J Lecture Notes Yin Su University t Bufflo yinsu@bufflo.edu Contents Bsic techniques of integrtion 3. Antiderivtive nd indefinite integrls..............................................

More information

Math 107H Topics for the first exam. csc 2 x dx = cot x + C csc x cotx dx = csc x + C tan x dx = ln secx + C cot x dx = ln sinx + C e x dx = e x + C

Math 107H Topics for the first exam. csc 2 x dx = cot x + C csc x cotx dx = csc x + C tan x dx = ln secx + C cot x dx = ln sinx + C e x dx = e x + C Integrtion Mth 07H Topics for the first exm Bsic list: x n dx = xn+ + C (provided n ) n + sin(kx) dx = cos(kx) + C k sec x dx = tnx + C sec x tnx dx = sec x + C /x dx = ln x + C cos(kx) dx = sin(kx) +

More information

A. Limits - L Hopital s Rule ( ) How to find it: Try and find limits by traditional methods (plugging in). If you get 0 0 or!!, apply C.! 1 6 C.

A. Limits - L Hopital s Rule ( ) How to find it: Try and find limits by traditional methods (plugging in). If you get 0 0 or!!, apply C.! 1 6 C. A. Limits - L Hopitl s Rule Wht you re finding: L Hopitl s Rule is used to find limits of the form f ( x) lim where lim f x x! c g x ( ) = or lim f ( x) = limg( x) = ". ( ) x! c limg( x) = 0 x! c x! c

More information

If u = g(x) is a differentiable function whose range is an interval I and f is continuous on I, then f(g(x))g (x) dx = f(u) du

If u = g(x) is a differentiable function whose range is an interval I and f is continuous on I, then f(g(x))g (x) dx = f(u) du Integrtion by Substitution: The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus demonstrted the importnce of being ble to find nti-derivtives. We now introduce some methods for finding ntiderivtives: If u = g(x) is differentible

More information

FINALTERM EXAMINATION 2011 Calculus &. Analytical Geometry-I

FINALTERM EXAMINATION 2011 Calculus &. Analytical Geometry-I FINALTERM EXAMINATION 011 Clculus &. Anlyticl Geometry-I Question No: 1 { Mrks: 1 ) - Plese choose one If f is twice differentible function t sttionry point x 0 x 0 nd f ''(x 0 ) > 0 then f hs reltive...

More information

New Expansion and Infinite Series

New Expansion and Infinite Series Interntionl Mthemticl Forum, Vol. 9, 204, no. 22, 06-073 HIKARI Ltd, www.m-hikri.com http://dx.doi.org/0.2988/imf.204.4502 New Expnsion nd Infinite Series Diyun Zhng College of Computer Nnjing University

More information

Best Approximation. Chapter The General Case

Best Approximation. Chapter The General Case Chpter 4 Best Approximtion 4.1 The Generl Cse In the previous chpter, we hve seen how n interpolting polynomil cn be used s n pproximtion to given function. We now wnt to find the best pproximtion to given

More information

For a continuous function f : [a; b]! R we wish to define the Riemann integral

For a continuous function f : [a; b]! R we wish to define the Riemann integral Supplementry Notes for MM509 Topology II 2. The Riemnn Integrl Andrew Swnn For continuous function f : [; b]! R we wish to define the Riemnn integrl R b f (x) dx nd estblish some of its properties. This

More information

set is not closed under matrix [ multiplication, ] and does not form a group.

set is not closed under matrix [ multiplication, ] and does not form a group. Prolem 2.3: Which of the following collections of 2 2 mtrices with rel entries form groups under [ mtrix ] multipliction? i) Those of the form for which c d 2 Answer: The set of such mtrices is not closed

More information

1 i n x i x i 1. Note that kqk kp k. In addition, if P and Q are partition of [a, b], P Q is finer than both P and Q.

1 i n x i x i 1. Note that kqk kp k. In addition, if P and Q are partition of [a, b], P Q is finer than both P and Q. Chpter 6 Integrtion In this chpter we define the integrl. Intuitively, it should be the re under curve. Not surprisingly, fter mny exmples, counter exmples, exceptions, generliztions, the concept of the

More information

Best Approximation in the 2-norm

Best Approximation in the 2-norm Jim Lmbers MAT 77 Fll Semester 1-11 Lecture 1 Notes These notes correspond to Sections 9. nd 9.3 in the text. Best Approximtion in the -norm Suppose tht we wish to obtin function f n (x) tht is liner combintion

More information

Mapping the delta function and other Radon measures

Mapping the delta function and other Radon measures Mpping the delt function nd other Rdon mesures Notes for Mth583A, Fll 2008 November 25, 2008 Rdon mesures Consider continuous function f on the rel line with sclr vlues. It is sid to hve bounded support

More information

Summary of Elementary Calculus

Summary of Elementary Calculus Summry of Elementry Clculus Notes by Wlter Noll (1971) 1 The rel numbers The set of rel numbers is denoted by R. The set R is often visulized geometriclly s number-line nd its elements re often referred

More information

The Definite Integral

The Definite Integral Chpter 4 The Definite Integrl 4. Determining distnce trveled from velocity Motivting Questions In this section, we strive to understnd the ides generted by the following importnt questions: If we know

More information

The Definite Integral

The Definite Integral CHAPTER 3 The Definite Integrl Key Words nd Concepts: Definite Integrl Questions to Consider: How do we use slicing to turn problem sttement into definite integrl? How re definite nd indefinite integrls

More information

SOLUTIONS FOR ADMISSIONS TEST IN MATHEMATICS, COMPUTER SCIENCE AND JOINT SCHOOLS WEDNESDAY 5 NOVEMBER 2014

SOLUTIONS FOR ADMISSIONS TEST IN MATHEMATICS, COMPUTER SCIENCE AND JOINT SCHOOLS WEDNESDAY 5 NOVEMBER 2014 SOLUTIONS FOR ADMISSIONS TEST IN MATHEMATICS, COMPUTER SCIENCE AND JOINT SCHOOLS WEDNESDAY 5 NOVEMBER 014 Mrk Scheme: Ech prt of Question 1 is worth four mrks which re wrded solely for the correct nswer.

More information

RAM RAJYA MORE, SIWAN. XI th, XII th, TARGET IIT-JEE (MAIN + ADVANCE) & COMPATETIVE EXAM FOR XII (PQRS) INDEFINITE INTERATION & Their Properties

RAM RAJYA MORE, SIWAN. XI th, XII th, TARGET IIT-JEE (MAIN + ADVANCE) & COMPATETIVE EXAM FOR XII (PQRS) INDEFINITE INTERATION & Their Properties M.Sc. (Mths), B.Ed, M.Phil (Mths) MATHEMATICS Mob. : 947084408 9546359990 M.Sc. (Mths), B.Ed, M.Phil (Mths) RAM RAJYA MORE, SIWAN XI th, XII th, TARGET IIT-JEE (MAIN + ADVANCE) & COMPATETIVE EXAM FOR XII

More information

Section 3.1: Exponent Properties

Section 3.1: Exponent Properties Section.1: Exponent Properties Ojective: Simplify expressions using the properties of exponents. Prolems with exponents cn often e simplied using few sic exponent properties. Exponents represent repeted

More information

MATH 1080: Calculus of One Variable II Fall 2017 Textbook: Single Variable Calculus: Early Transcendentals, 7e, by James Stewart.

MATH 1080: Calculus of One Variable II Fall 2017 Textbook: Single Variable Calculus: Early Transcendentals, 7e, by James Stewart. MATH 1080: Clculus of One Vrile II Fll 2017 Textook: Single Vrile Clculus: Erly Trnscendentls, 7e, y Jmes Stewrt Unit 2 Skill Set Importnt: Students should expect test questions tht require synthesis of

More information

The Wave Equation I. MA 436 Kurt Bryan

The Wave Equation I. MA 436 Kurt Bryan 1 Introduction The Wve Eqution I MA 436 Kurt Bryn Consider string stretching long the x xis, of indeterminte (or even infinite!) length. We wnt to derive n eqution which models the motion of the string

More information

More Properties of the Riemann Integral

More Properties of the Riemann Integral More Properties of the Riemnn Integrl Jmes K. Peterson Deprtment of Biologil Sienes nd Deprtment of Mthemtil Sienes Clemson University Februry 15, 2018 Outline More Riemnn Integrl Properties The Fundmentl

More information

7 - Continuous random variables

7 - Continuous random variables 7-1 Continuous rndom vribles S. Lll, Stnford 2011.01.25.01 7 - Continuous rndom vribles Continuous rndom vribles The cumultive distribution function The uniform rndom vrible Gussin rndom vribles The Gussin

More information

MTH 122 Fall 2008 Essex County College Division of Mathematics Handout Version 10 1 October 14, 2008

MTH 122 Fall 2008 Essex County College Division of Mathematics Handout Version 10 1 October 14, 2008 MTH 22 Fll 28 Essex County College Division of Mthemtics Hndout Version October 4, 28 Arc Length Everyone should be fmilir with the distnce formul tht ws introduced in elementry lgebr. It is bsic formul

More information

Chapter 6 Continuous Random Variables and Distributions

Chapter 6 Continuous Random Variables and Distributions Chpter 6 Continuous Rndom Vriles nd Distriutions Mny economic nd usiness mesures such s sles investment consumption nd cost cn hve the continuous numericl vlues so tht they cn not e represented y discrete

More information

MTH 505: Number Theory Spring 2017

MTH 505: Number Theory Spring 2017 MTH 505: Numer Theory Spring 207 Homework 2 Drew Armstrong The Froenius Coin Prolem. Consider the eqution x ` y c where,, c, x, y re nturl numers. We cn think of $ nd $ s two denomintions of coins nd $c

More information

Lecture 14: Quadrature

Lecture 14: Quadrature Lecture 14: Qudrture This lecture is concerned with the evlution of integrls fx)dx 1) over finite intervl [, b] The integrnd fx) is ssumed to be rel-vlues nd smooth The pproximtion of n integrl by numericl

More information

Chapter 5 1. = on [ 1, 2] 1. Let gx ( ) e x. . The derivative of g is g ( x) e 1

Chapter 5 1. = on [ 1, 2] 1. Let gx ( ) e x. . The derivative of g is g ( x) e 1 Chpter 5. Let g ( e. on [, ]. The derivtive of g is g ( e ( Write the slope intercept form of the eqution of the tngent line to the grph of g t. (b Determine the -coordinte of ech criticl vlue of g. Show

More information

Farey Fractions. Rickard Fernström. U.U.D.M. Project Report 2017:24. Department of Mathematics Uppsala University

Farey Fractions. Rickard Fernström. U.U.D.M. Project Report 2017:24. Department of Mathematics Uppsala University U.U.D.M. Project Report 07:4 Frey Frctions Rickrd Fernström Exmensrete i mtemtik, 5 hp Hledre: Andres Strömergsson Exmintor: Jörgen Östensson Juni 07 Deprtment of Mthemtics Uppsl University Frey Frctions

More information

CS667 Lecture 6: Monte Carlo Integration 02/10/05

CS667 Lecture 6: Monte Carlo Integration 02/10/05 CS667 Lecture 6: Monte Crlo Integrtion 02/10/05 Venkt Krishnrj Lecturer: Steve Mrschner 1 Ide The min ide of Monte Crlo Integrtion is tht we cn estimte the vlue of n integrl by looking t lrge number of

More information

Topic 1 Notes Jeremy Orloff

Topic 1 Notes Jeremy Orloff Topic 1 Notes Jerem Orloff 1 Introduction to differentil equtions 1.1 Gols 1. Know the definition of differentil eqution. 2. Know our first nd second most importnt equtions nd their solutions. 3. Be ble

More information

Calculus 2: Integration. Differentiation. Integration

Calculus 2: Integration. Differentiation. Integration Clculus 2: Integrtion The reverse process to differentition is known s integrtion. Differentition f() f () Integrtion As it is the opposite of finding the derivtive, the function obtined b integrtion is

More information

Lecture 19: Continuous Least Squares Approximation

Lecture 19: Continuous Least Squares Approximation Lecture 19: Continuous Lest Squres Approximtion 33 Continuous lest squres pproximtion We begn 31 with the problem of pproximting some f C[, b] with polynomil p P n t the discrete points x, x 1,, x m for

More information

Notes on Calculus II Integral Calculus. Miguel A. Lerma

Notes on Calculus II Integral Calculus. Miguel A. Lerma Notes on Clculus II Integrl Clculus Miguel A. Lerm November 22, 22 Contents Introduction 5 Chpter. Integrls 6.. Ares nd Distnces. The Definite Integrl 6.2. The Evlution Theorem.3. The Fundmentl Theorem

More information