MA123, Chapter 10: Formulas for integrals: integrals, antiderivatives, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (pp.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "MA123, Chapter 10: Formulas for integrals: integrals, antiderivatives, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (pp."

Transcription

1 MA123, Chpter 1: Formuls for integrls: integrls, ntiderivtives, nd the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus (pp , Gootmn) Chpter Gols: Assignments: Understnd the sttement of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus. Lern how to compute the ntiderivtive of some sic functions. Lern how to use the sustitution method to compute the ntiderivtive of more complex functions. Lern how to solve re nd distnce trveled prolems y mens of ntiderivtives. Assignment 22 Assignment 23 Assignment 24 (Review) So fr we hve lerned out the ide of the integrl, nd wht is ment y computing the definite integrl of function f(x) over the intervl [,]. As in the cse of derivtives, we now study procedures for computing the definite integrl of function f(x) over the intervl [,] tht re esier thn computing limits of Riemnn sums. As with derivtives, however, the definition is importnt ecuse it is only through the definition tht we cn understnd why the integrl gives the nswers to prticulr prolems. Ide of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus: The esiest procedure for computing definite integrls is not y computing limit of Riemnn sum, ut y relting integrls to (nti)derivtives. This reltionship is so importnt in Clculus tht the theorem tht descries the reltionships is clled the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus. Computing some ntiderivtives: In previous chpters we were given function f(x) nd we found the derivtive f (x). In this section, we will do the reverse. We will e given function f(x) tht is the derivtive of nother function F(x) nd will compute F(x). In other words find function F(x) such tht F (x) = f(x). F(x) is clled n ntiderivtive of f(x). For exmple (x 3 ) = 3x 2 so n ntiderivtive of f(x) = 3x 2 is F(x) = x 3. Note tht F(x) = x 3 +2 is lso n ntiderivtive of f(x) = 3x 2 ecuse (x 3 +2) = 3x 2. In generl, if F(x) is n ntiderivtive of f(x), then so is F(x)+C where C is ny constnt. This leds to the following nottion. Definition of the indefinite integrl: The indefinite integrl of f(x), denoted y f(x)dx without limits of integrtion, is the generl ntiderivtive of f(x). For exmple, it is esy to check tht 3t 2 dt = t 3 +c, where c is ny constnt. Recll tht the power rule for derivtives gives us (x n ) = nx n 1. We multiply y n nd sutrct 1 from the exponent. Since ntiderivtives re the reverse of derivtives, to compute n the ntiderivtive we first increse the power y 1, then divide y the new power. 15

2 The formuls elow cn e verified y differentiting the righthnd side of ech expression. Some sic indefinite integrls: 1. x n dx = 1 n+1 xn+1 +C n 1 2. e x dx = e x +C n = 1 in formul 1 leds to division y zero, ut for this specil cse we my use (ln(x)) = 1 x : 1 3. dx = ln x +C x Rules for indefinite integrls: ( ) ( A. cf(x)dx = c f(x)dx B. (f(x)±g(x))dx = f(x)dx ± Exmple 1: Evlute the indefinite integrl (t 3 +3t 2 +4t+9)dt. ) g(x) dx Exmple 2: Evlute the indefinite integrl 6 t dt. Wrning: We do not hve simple derivtive rules for products nd quotients, so we should not expect simple integrl rules for products nd quotients. Exmple 3: Evlute the indefinite integrl t 3 (t+2)dt. 16

3 Exmple 4: Evlute the indefinite integrl 2 +9 dx. x 2 We now hve some experience computing ntiderivtives. We will now see how ntiderivtives give us n elegnt method for finding res under curves. Exmple 5: Find formul for A(x) = 1 (4t + 2)dt, tht is, evlute the definite integrl of the function f(t) = 4t+2 over the intervl [1,x] inside [1,1]. (Hint: think of this definite integrl s n re.) Find the vlues A(5), A(1), A(1). Wht is the derivtive of A(x) with respect to x? y f(t) = 4t+2 6 A(x) 1 x 1 t Oservtions: There re two importnt things to notice out the function A(x) nlyzed in Exmple 1: A(1) = 1 1 (4t+2)dt = A (x) = d ( ) (4t+2)dt = 4x+2. dx 1 }{{} A(x) Notice wht the lst equlity sys: The instntneous rte of chnge of the re under the curve y = 4t+2 t t = x is simply equl to the vlue of the curve evluted t t = x. Why? A(x) mesures the re of some geometric figure. As x increses, the width of the figure increses, nd so the re increses. A (x) mesures the rte of increse of the figure. Now, s x increses, the right wll of the figure sweeps out dditionl re, so the rte t which the re increses should e equl to the height of the right wll. The following pges will mke this ide more precise. 17

4 Ide: Suppose tht for ny function f(t) it were true tht the re function A(x) = A() = f(t)dt = A (x) = d dx ( ) f(t)dt = f(x). f(t) dt stisfies Moreover, suppose tht F(x) is ny ndtiderivtive of f(x) (i.e., F (x) = f(x) = A (x).) By The Constnt Function Theorem (Chpter 6), there exists constnt vlue c such tht F(x) = A(x)+c. All these fcts put together help us esily evlute f(t) dt. Indeed, f(t)dt = A() = A() = A() A() = F() F() = [A()+c] [A()+c] The ove specultions re ctully true for ny continuous function on the intervl over which we re integrting. These results re stted in the following theorem, which is divided into two prts: The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus: PART I: Let f(t) e continuous function on the intervl [,]. Then the function A(x), defined y the formul A(x) = f(t)dt for ll x in the intervl [,], is n ntiderivtive of f(x), tht is A (x) = d ( ) f(t)dt = f(x) dx for ll x in the intervl [,]. PART II: Let F(x) e ny ntiderivtive of f(x) on [,], so tht F (x) = f(x) for ll x in the intervl [,]. Then f(x)dx = F() F(). Specil nottions: The ove theorem tells us tht evluting definite integrl is two-step process: find ny ntiderivtive F(x) of the function f(x) nd then compute the difference F() F(). A nottion hs een devised to seprte the two steps of this process: F(x) stnds for the difference F() F(). Thus f(x)dx = F(x) = F() F(). 18

5 Some properties of definite integrls: f(x)dx = 2. ( (f(x)±g(x))dx = f(x)dx+ c f(x)dx = ) ( f(x)dx ± c ) g(x) dx f(x)dx If m f(x) M on [,] then m( ) Geometric illustrtion of some of the ove properties: f(x)dx M( ) kf(x)dx = k f(x)dx = f(x)dx f(x)dx Property 3. sys tht if f nd g re positive vlued Property 4. sys tht if f(x) is positive vlued functions with f greter thn g. Then function then the re underneth the grph of f(x) y y etween nd plus f (f(x) g(x))dx the re underneth gives the re etween the grph of f(x) etween nd c equls the grphs of f nd g the re underneth g f(x)dx g(x) dx the grph of f(x) x x etween nd c. c Property 5. follows from Properties 4. nd 1. y letting c =. Alterntively, the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus gives us f(x)dx = F(x) = F() F() = [F() F()] = F(x) = f(x)dx. Property 6. is illustrted in the picture tht ccompnies the proof of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus. An ide of the proof of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus: We lredy gve n explntion of why the second prt of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus follows from the first one. To prove the first prt we need to use the definition of the derivtive. More precisely, we must show tht A A(x+h) A(x) (x) = lim = f(x). h h For convenience, let us ssume tht f is positive vlued function. Given tht A(x) is defined y quotient is f(t)dt, the numertor of the ove difference M m y h A(x+h) A(x) = +h f(t)dt f(t)dt. Using properties 4. nd 5. of definite integrls, the ove difference equls +h x x x+h f(t)dt. As the function f is continuous over the intervl [x,x +h], the Extreme Vlue Theorem sys tht there re vlues c 1 nd c 2 in [x,x+h] wheref ttins theminimumndmximumvlues, sy mndm, respectively. Thus m f(t) M on [x,x+h]. As the length of the intervl [x,x+h] is h, y property 6. of definite integrls we hve tht t f(c 1 )h = mh +h x f(t)dt Mh = f(c 2 )h or, equivlently, f(c 1 ) +h x f(t)dt h f(c 2 ). Finlly, s f is continuous we hve tht lim h f(c 1 ) = f(x) = lim h f(c 2 ). This concludes the proof. 19

6 Exmples illustrting the First Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus: Exmple 6: Compute the derivtive of F(x) if F(x) = 2 (t 4 +t 3 +t+9)dt. Exmple 7: Compute the derivtive of g(s) if g(s) = s 5 8 u 2 +u+2 du. Exmple 8: Suppose f(x) = 1 t 2 7t+12.25dt. For which positive vlue of x does f (x) equl? Exmple 9: Find the vlue of x t which F(x) = intervl [3,1]. The vlue of x tht gives minimum of F(x) is. 3 (t 8 +t 6 +t 4 +t 2 +1)dt tkes its minimum on the 11

7 Exmple 1: Find the vlue of x t which G(x) = [ 5,1]. The vlue of x tht gives mximum of G(x) is. 5 ( t +2)dt tkes its mximum on the intervl Exmples illustrting the Second Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus: Exmple 11: Evlute the integrl 5 (t 2 +1)dt. Exmple 12: Evlute the integrl 5 7 ( ) 1 2 dt. t Exmple 13: Evlute the integrl 2 e x dx. 111

8 Exmple 14: Evlute the integrl 2 2 (t 5 +t 4 +t 3 +t 2 +t+1)dt. Exmple 15: Evlute the integrl 12 6 t dt. Exmple 16: Evlute the integrl 5 2 ( 3u ) du. u Exmple 17: Suppose Evlute the integrl 5 f(x)dx. 2x, x 2; f(x) = 8 x, x >

9 The sustitution rule for integrls: suintervl I nd f is continuous on I, then In cse of definite integrls the sustitution rule ecomes Exmple 18: Evlute the integrl If u = g(t) is differentile function whose rnge is f(g(t))g (t)dt = f(u)du. (t+9) 2 dt. f(g(t))g (t)dt = g() g() f(u)du. Exmple 19: Evlute the integrl 3t+7dt. Exmple 2: Evlute the integrl 1 (5t+4) 2 dt. Exmple 21: Evlute the integrl 5 2t+1dt. 113

10 Exmple 22: Evlute the integrl 1 5e 5x+1 dx Exmple 23: Evlute the integrl 3 2x x 2 +1 dx. Exmple 24: Compute the derivtive of F(x) if F(x) = (Hint: Write F(x) = g(f(x)) where f(x) = x 2 nd g(x) = 2 2tdt. 2tdt nd use the chin rule to find F (x).) Generl formul: If F(x) = f(x) H(t)dt then F (x) = d dx f(x) H(t)dt = H(f(x)) f (x). 114

11 Word prolems: If the velocity v(t) of n oject t time t is lwys positive, then the re underneth the grph of the velocity function nd lyingove thet-xis represents thetotl distnce trveled y theoject from t = to t =. Exmple 25: A trin trvels long trck nd its velocity (in miles per hour) is given y v(t) = 76t for the first hlf hour of trvel. Its velocity is constnt nd equl to v(t) = 76/2 fter the first hlf hour. Here time t is mesured in hours. How fr (in miles) does the trin trvel in the second hour of trvel? Exmple 26: A trin trvels long trck nd its velocity (in miles per hour) is given y v(t) = 76t for the first hlf hour of trvel. Its velocity is constnt nd equl to v(t) = 76/2 fter the first hlf hour. Here time t is mesured in hours. How fr (in miles) does the trin trvel in the first hour of trvel? Exmple 27: A rock is dropped from height of 21 feet. Its velocity in feet per second t time t fter it is dropped is given y v(t) = 32t where time t is mesured in seconds. How fr is the rock from the ground one second fter it is dropped? 115

12 Exmple 28: Suppose n oject is thrown down from cliff with n initil speed of 5 feet per sec, nd its speed in ft/sec fter t seconds is given y s(t) = 1t+5. If the oject lnds fter 7 seconds, how high (in ft) is the cliff? (Hint: how fr did the oject trvel?) Exmple 29: A cr is trveling due est. Its velocity (in miles per hour) t time t hours is given y v(t) = 2.5t 2 +1t+5. How fr did the cr trvel during the first five hours of the trip? Averge Vlues: The verge of finitely mny numers y 1,y 2,...,y n is y ve = y 1 +y 2 + +y n. Wht n if we re deling with infinitely mny vlues? More generlly, how cn we compute the verge of function f defined on n intervl? Averge of function: Theverge offunctionf onnintervl [,] y equls the integrl of f over the intervl divided y thelength of the intervl: Geometric mening: f(x)dx f ve =. x If f is positive vlued function, f ve is tht numer such tht the rectngle with se [,] nd height f ve hs the sme re s the region underneth the grph of f from to. Exmple 3: Wht is the verge of f(x) = x 2 over the intervl [,6]? f ve 116

13 117

x = b a n x 2 e x dx. cdx = c(b a), where c is any constant. a b

x = b a n x 2 e x dx. cdx = c(b a), where c is any constant. a b CHAPTER 5. INTEGRALS 61 where nd x = b n x i = 1 (x i 1 + x i ) = midpoint of [x i 1, x i ]. Problem 168 (Exercise 1, pge 377). Use the Midpoint Rule with the n = 4 to pproximte 5 1 x e x dx. Some quick

More information

Section Areas and Distances. Example 1: Suppose a car travels at a constant 50 miles per hour for 2 hours. What is the total distance traveled?

Section Areas and Distances. Example 1: Suppose a car travels at a constant 50 miles per hour for 2 hours. What is the total distance traveled? Section 5. - Ares nd Distnces Exmple : Suppose cr trvels t constnt 5 miles per hour for 2 hours. Wht is the totl distnce trveled? Exmple 2: Suppose cr trvels 75 miles per hour for the first hour, 7 miles

More information

Properties of Integrals, Indefinite Integrals. Goals: Definition of the Definite Integral Integral Calculations using Antiderivatives

Properties of Integrals, Indefinite Integrals. Goals: Definition of the Definite Integral Integral Calculations using Antiderivatives Block #6: Properties of Integrls, Indefinite Integrls Gols: Definition of the Definite Integrl Integrl Clcultions using Antiderivtives Properties of Integrls The Indefinite Integrl 1 Riemnn Sums - 1 Riemnn

More information

1 The fundamental theorems of calculus.

1 The fundamental theorems of calculus. The fundmentl theorems of clculus. The fundmentl theorems of clculus. Evluting definite integrls. The indefinite integrl- new nme for nti-derivtive. Differentiting integrls. Theorem Suppose f is continuous

More information

The area under the graph of f and above the x-axis between a and b is denoted by. f(x) dx. π O

The area under the graph of f and above the x-axis between a and b is denoted by. f(x) dx. π O 1 Section 5. The Definite Integrl Suppose tht function f is continuous nd positive over n intervl [, ]. y = f(x) x The re under the grph of f nd ove the x-xis etween nd is denoted y f(x) dx nd clled the

More information

Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

Fundamental Theorem of Calculus Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus Recll tht if f is nonnegtive nd continuous on [, ], then the re under its grph etween nd is the definite integrl A= f() d Now, for in the intervl [, ], let A() e the re under

More information

1 The fundamental theorems of calculus.

1 The fundamental theorems of calculus. The fundmentl theorems of clculus. The fundmentl theorems of clculus. Evluting definite integrls. The indefinite integrl- new nme for nti-derivtive. Differentiting integrls. Tody we provide the connection

More information

Interpreting Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem

Interpreting Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem Interpreting Integrls nd the Fundmentl Theorem Tody, we go further in interpreting the mening of the definite integrl. Using Units to Aid Interprettion We lredy know tht if f(t) is the rte of chnge of

More information

Unit #9 : Definite Integral Properties; Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

Unit #9 : Definite Integral Properties; Fundamental Theorem of Calculus Unit #9 : Definite Integrl Properties; Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus Gols: Identify properties of definite integrls Define odd nd even functions, nd reltionship to integrl vlues Introduce the Fundmentl

More information

Chapters 4 & 5 Integrals & Applications

Chapters 4 & 5 Integrals & Applications Contents Chpters 4 & 5 Integrls & Applictions Motivtion to Chpters 4 & 5 2 Chpter 4 3 Ares nd Distnces 3. VIDEO - Ares Under Functions............................................ 3.2 VIDEO - Applictions

More information

INTRODUCTION TO INTEGRATION

INTRODUCTION TO INTEGRATION INTRODUCTION TO INTEGRATION 5.1 Ares nd Distnces Assume f(x) 0 on the intervl [, b]. Let A be the re under the grph of f(x). b We will obtin n pproximtion of A in the following three steps. STEP 1: Divide

More information

ACCESS TO SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND AGRICULTURE: MATHEMATICS 1 MATH00030 SEMESTER /2019

ACCESS TO SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND AGRICULTURE: MATHEMATICS 1 MATH00030 SEMESTER /2019 ACCESS TO SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND AGRICULTURE: MATHEMATICS MATH00030 SEMESTER 208/209 DR. ANTHONY BROWN 7.. Introduction to Integrtion. 7. Integrl Clculus As ws the cse with the chpter on differentil

More information

An Overview of Integration

An Overview of Integration An Overview of Integrtion S. F. Ellermeyer July 26, 2 The Definite Integrl of Function f Over n Intervl, Suppose tht f is continuous function defined on n intervl,. The definite integrl of f from to is

More information

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. The Total Change Theorem and the Area Under a Curve.

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. The Total Change Theorem and the Area Under a Curve. Clculus Li Vs The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus. The Totl Chnge Theorem nd the Are Under Curve. Recll the following fct from Clculus course. If continuous function f(x) represents the rte of chnge of F

More information

Chapter 8.2: The Integral

Chapter 8.2: The Integral Chpter 8.: The Integrl You cn think of Clculus s doule-wide triler. In one width of it lives differentil clculus. In the other hlf lives wht is clled integrl clculus. We hve lredy eplored few rooms in

More information

7.2 The Definite Integral

7.2 The Definite Integral 7.2 The Definite Integrl the definite integrl In the previous section, it ws found tht if function f is continuous nd nonnegtive, then the re under the grph of f on [, b] is given by F (b) F (), where

More information

Definite Integrals. The area under a curve can be approximated by adding up the areas of rectangles = 1 1 +

Definite Integrals. The area under a curve can be approximated by adding up the areas of rectangles = 1 1 + Definite Integrls --5 The re under curve cn e pproximted y dding up the res of rectngles. Exmple. Approximte the re under y = from x = to x = using equl suintervls nd + x evluting the function t the left-hnd

More information

Section 6: Area, Volume, and Average Value

Section 6: Area, Volume, and Average Value Chpter The Integrl Applied Clculus Section 6: Are, Volume, nd Averge Vlue Are We hve lredy used integrls to find the re etween the grph of function nd the horizontl xis. Integrls cn lso e used to find

More information

4.4 Areas, Integrals and Antiderivatives

4.4 Areas, Integrals and Antiderivatives . res, integrls nd ntiderivtives 333. Ares, Integrls nd Antiderivtives This section explores properties of functions defined s res nd exmines some connections mong res, integrls nd ntiderivtives. In order

More information

The practical version

The practical version Roerto s Notes on Integrl Clculus Chpter 4: Definite integrls nd the FTC Section 7 The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus: The prcticl version Wht you need to know lredy: The theoreticl version of the FTC. Wht

More information

Review of Calculus, cont d

Review of Calculus, cont d Jim Lmbers MAT 460 Fll Semester 2009-10 Lecture 3 Notes These notes correspond to Section 1.1 in the text. Review of Clculus, cont d Riemnn Sums nd the Definite Integrl There re mny cses in which some

More information

1 The Riemann Integral

1 The Riemann Integral The Riemnn Integrl. An exmple leding to the notion of integrl (res) We know how to find (i.e. define) the re of rectngle (bse height), tringle ( (sum of res of tringles). But how do we find/define n re

More information

Math 116 Calculus II

Math 116 Calculus II Mth 6 Clculus II Contents 5 Exponentil nd Logrithmic functions 5. Review........................................... 5.. Exponentil functions............................... 5.. Logrithmic functions...............................

More information

Big idea in Calculus: approximation

Big idea in Calculus: approximation Big ide in Clculus: pproximtion Derivtive: f (x) = df dx f f(x +h) f(x) =, x h rte of chnge is pproximtely the rtio of chnges in the function vlue nd in the vrible in very short time Liner pproximtion:

More information

a < a+ x < a+2 x < < a+n x = b, n A i n f(x i ) x. i=1 i=1

a < a+ x < a+2 x < < a+n x = b, n A i n f(x i ) x. i=1 i=1 Mth 33 Volume Stewrt 5.2 Geometry of integrls. In this section, we will lern how to compute volumes using integrls defined by slice nlysis. First, we recll from Clculus I how to compute res. Given the

More information

Math Calculus with Analytic Geometry II

Math Calculus with Analytic Geometry II orem of definite Mth 5.0 with Anlytic Geometry II Jnury 4, 0 orem of definite If < b then b f (x) dx = ( under f bove x-xis) ( bove f under x-xis) Exmple 8 0 3 9 x dx = π 3 4 = 9π 4 orem of definite Problem

More information

Topics Covered AP Calculus AB

Topics Covered AP Calculus AB Topics Covered AP Clculus AB ) Elementry Functions ) Properties of Functions i) A function f is defined s set of ll ordered pirs (, y), such tht for ech element, there corresponds ectly one element y.

More information

Overview of Calculus I

Overview of Calculus I Overview of Clculus I Prof. Jim Swift Northern Arizon University There re three key concepts in clculus: The limit, the derivtive, nd the integrl. You need to understnd the definitions of these three things,

More information

Review on Integration (Secs ) Review: Sec Origins of Calculus. Riemann Sums. New functions from old ones.

Review on Integration (Secs ) Review: Sec Origins of Calculus. Riemann Sums. New functions from old ones. Mth 20B Integrl Clculus Lecture Review on Integrtion (Secs. 5. - 5.3) Remrks on the course. Slide Review: Sec. 5.-5.3 Origins of Clculus. Riemnn Sums. New functions from old ones. A mthemticl description

More information

SYDE 112, LECTURES 3 & 4: The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

SYDE 112, LECTURES 3 & 4: The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus SYDE 112, LECTURES & 4: The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus So fr we hve introduced two new concepts in this course: ntidifferentition nd Riemnn sums. It turns out tht these quntities re relted, but it is

More information

Time in Seconds Speed in ft/sec (a) Sketch a possible graph for this function.

Time in Seconds Speed in ft/sec (a) Sketch a possible graph for this function. 4. Are under Curve A cr is trveling so tht its speed is never decresing during 1-second intervl. The speed t vrious moments in time is listed in the tle elow. Time in Seconds 3 6 9 1 Speed in t/sec 3 37

More information

The Evaluation Theorem

The Evaluation Theorem These notes closely follow the presenttion of the mteril given in Jmes Stewrt s textook Clculus, Concepts nd Contexts (2nd edition) These notes re intended primrily for in-clss presenttion nd should not

More information

A REVIEW OF CALCULUS CONCEPTS FOR JDEP 384H. Thomas Shores Department of Mathematics University of Nebraska Spring 2007

A REVIEW OF CALCULUS CONCEPTS FOR JDEP 384H. Thomas Shores Department of Mathematics University of Nebraska Spring 2007 A REVIEW OF CALCULUS CONCEPTS FOR JDEP 384H Thoms Shores Deprtment of Mthemtics University of Nebrsk Spring 2007 Contents Rtes of Chnge nd Derivtives 1 Dierentils 4 Are nd Integrls 5 Multivrite Clculus

More information

and that at t = 0 the object is at position 5. Find the position of the object at t = 2.

and that at t = 0 the object is at position 5. Find the position of the object at t = 2. 7.2 The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus 49 re mny, mny problems tht pper much different on the surfce but tht turn out to be the sme s these problems, in the sense tht when we try to pproimte solutions we

More information

MA 124 January 18, Derivatives are. Integrals are.

MA 124 January 18, Derivatives are. Integrals are. MA 124 Jnury 18, 2018 Prof PB s one-minute introduction to clculus Derivtives re. Integrls re. In Clculus 1, we lern limits, derivtives, some pplictions of derivtives, indefinite integrls, definite integrls,

More information

Section 6.1 INTRO to LAPLACE TRANSFORMS

Section 6.1 INTRO to LAPLACE TRANSFORMS Section 6. INTRO to LAPLACE TRANSFORMS Key terms: Improper Integrl; diverge, converge A A f(t)dt lim f(t)dt Piecewise Continuous Function; jump discontinuity Function of Exponentil Order Lplce Trnsform

More information

Definition of Continuity: The function f(x) is continuous at x = a if f(a) exists and lim

Definition of Continuity: The function f(x) is continuous at x = a if f(a) exists and lim Mth 9 Course Summry/Study Guide Fll, 2005 [1] Limits Definition of Limit: We sy tht L is the limit of f(x) s x pproches if f(x) gets closer nd closer to L s x gets closer nd closer to. We write lim f(x)

More information

MATH , Calculus 2, Fall 2018

MATH , Calculus 2, Fall 2018 MATH 36-2, 36-3 Clculus 2, Fll 28 The FUNdmentl Theorem of Clculus Sections 5.4 nd 5.5 This worksheet focuses on the most importnt theorem in clculus. In fct, the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus (FTC is rgubly

More information

n f(x i ) x. i=1 In section 4.2, we defined the definite integral of f from x = a to x = b as n f(x i ) x; f(x) dx = lim i=1

n f(x i ) x. i=1 In section 4.2, we defined the definite integral of f from x = a to x = b as n f(x i ) x; f(x) dx = lim i=1 The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus As we continue to study the re problem, let s think bck to wht we know bout computing res of regions enclosed by curves. If we wnt to find the re of the region below the

More information

The Regulated and Riemann Integrals

The Regulated and Riemann Integrals Chpter 1 The Regulted nd Riemnn Integrls 1.1 Introduction We will consider severl different pproches to defining the definite integrl f(x) dx of function f(x). These definitions will ll ssign the sme vlue

More information

5 Accumulated Change: The Definite Integral

5 Accumulated Change: The Definite Integral 5 Accumulted Chnge: The Definite Integrl 5.1 Distnce nd Accumulted Chnge * How To Mesure Distnce Trveled nd Visulize Distnce on the Velocity Grph Distnce = Velocity Time Exmple 1 Suppose tht you trvel

More information

Unit Six AP Calculus Unit 6 Review Definite Integrals. Name Period Date NON-CALCULATOR SECTION

Unit Six AP Calculus Unit 6 Review Definite Integrals. Name Period Date NON-CALCULATOR SECTION Unit Six AP Clculus Unit 6 Review Definite Integrls Nme Period Dte NON-CALCULATOR SECTION Voculry: Directions Define ech word nd give n exmple. 1. Definite Integrl. Men Vlue Theorem (for definite integrls)

More information

Section 5.4 Fundamental Theorem of Calculus 2 Lectures. Dr. Abdulla Eid. College of Science. MATHS 101: Calculus 1

Section 5.4 Fundamental Theorem of Calculus 2 Lectures. Dr. Abdulla Eid. College of Science. MATHS 101: Calculus 1 Section 5.4 Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus 2 Lectures College of Science MATHS : Clculus (University of Bhrin) Integrls / 24 Definite Integrl Recll: The integrl is used to find re under the curve over n

More information

2 b. , a. area is S= 2π xds. Again, understand where these formulas came from (pages ).

2 b. , a. area is S= 2π xds. Again, understand where these formulas came from (pages ). AP Clculus BC Review Chpter 8 Prt nd Chpter 9 Things to Know nd Be Ale to Do Know everything from the first prt of Chpter 8 Given n integrnd figure out how to ntidifferentite it using ny of the following

More information

Section 4: Integration ECO4112F 2011

Section 4: Integration ECO4112F 2011 Reding: Ching Chpter Section : Integrtion ECOF Note: These notes do not fully cover the mteril in Ching, ut re ment to supplement your reding in Ching. Thus fr the optimistion you hve covered hs een sttic

More information

1 Techniques of Integration

1 Techniques of Integration November 8, 8 MAT86 Week Justin Ko Techniques of Integrtion. Integrtion By Substitution (Chnge of Vribles) We cn think of integrtion by substitution s the counterprt of the chin rule for differentition.

More information

5: The Definite Integral

5: The Definite Integral 5: The Definite Integrl 5.: Estimting with Finite Sums Consider moving oject its velocity (meters per second) t ny time (seconds) is given y v t = t+. Cn we use this informtion to determine the distnce

More information

Riemann Sums and Riemann Integrals

Riemann Sums and Riemann Integrals Riemnn Sums nd Riemnn Integrls Jmes K. Peterson Deprtment of Biologicl Sciences nd Deprtment of Mthemticl Sciences Clemson University August 26, 2013 Outline 1 Riemnn Sums 2 Riemnn Integrls 3 Properties

More information

AP Calculus AB Unit 5 (Ch. 6): The Definite Integral: Day 12 Chapter 6 Review

AP Calculus AB Unit 5 (Ch. 6): The Definite Integral: Day 12 Chapter 6 Review AP Clculus AB Unit 5 (Ch. 6): The Definite Integrl: Dy Nme o Are Approximtions Riemnn Sums: LRAM, MRAM, RRAM Chpter 6 Review Trpezoidl Rule: T = h ( y + y + y +!+ y + y 0 n n) **Know how to find rectngle

More information

( ) Same as above but m = f x = f x - symmetric to y-axis. find where f ( x) Relative: Find where f ( x) x a + lim exists ( lim f exists.

( ) Same as above but m = f x = f x - symmetric to y-axis. find where f ( x) Relative: Find where f ( x) x a + lim exists ( lim f exists. AP Clculus Finl Review Sheet solutions When you see the words This is wht you think of doing Find the zeros Set function =, fctor or use qudrtic eqution if qudrtic, grph to find zeros on clcultor Find

More information

Review of basic calculus

Review of basic calculus Review of bsic clculus This brief review reclls some of the most importnt concepts, definitions, nd theorems from bsic clculus. It is not intended to tech bsic clculus from scrtch. If ny of the items below

More information

Goals: Determine how to calculate the area described by a function. Define the definite integral. Explore the relationship between the definite

Goals: Determine how to calculate the area described by a function. Define the definite integral. Explore the relationship between the definite Unit #8 : The Integrl Gols: Determine how to clculte the re described by function. Define the definite integrl. Eplore the reltionship between the definite integrl nd re. Eplore wys to estimte the definite

More information

Riemann Sums and Riemann Integrals

Riemann Sums and Riemann Integrals Riemnn Sums nd Riemnn Integrls Jmes K. Peterson Deprtment of Biologicl Sciences nd Deprtment of Mthemticl Sciences Clemson University August 26, 203 Outline Riemnn Sums Riemnn Integrls Properties Abstrct

More information

Integrals - Motivation

Integrals - Motivation Integrls - Motivtion When we looked t function s rte of chnge If f(x) is liner, the nswer is esy slope If f(x) is non-liner, we hd to work hrd limits derivtive A relted question is the re under f(x) (but

More information

Unit #10 De+inite Integration & The Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus

Unit #10 De+inite Integration & The Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus Unit # De+inite Integrtion & The Fundmentl Theorem Of Clculus. Find the re of the shded region ove nd explin the mening of your nswer. (squres re y units) ) The grph to the right is f(x) = -x + 8x )Use

More information

Indefinite Integral. Chapter Integration - reverse of differentiation

Indefinite Integral. Chapter Integration - reverse of differentiation Chpter Indefinite Integrl Most of the mthemticl opertions hve inverse opertions. The inverse opertion of differentition is clled integrtion. For exmple, describing process t the given moment knowing the

More information

Review Exercises for Chapter 4

Review Exercises for Chapter 4 _R.qd // : PM Pge CHAPTER Integrtion Review Eercises for Chpter In Eercises nd, use the grph of to sketch grph of f. To print n enlrged cop of the grph, go to the wesite www.mthgrphs.com... In Eercises

More information

7.1 Integral as Net Change and 7.2 Areas in the Plane Calculus

7.1 Integral as Net Change and 7.2 Areas in the Plane Calculus 7.1 Integrl s Net Chnge nd 7. Ares in the Plne Clculus 7.1 INTEGRAL AS NET CHANGE Notecrds from 7.1: Displcement vs Totl Distnce, Integrl s Net Chnge We hve lredy seen how the position of n oject cn e

More information

MAT 168: Calculus II with Analytic Geometry. James V. Lambers

MAT 168: Calculus II with Analytic Geometry. James V. Lambers MAT 68: Clculus II with Anlytic Geometry Jmes V. Lmbers Februry 7, Contents Integrls 5. Introduction............................ 5.. Differentil Clculus nd Quotient Formuls...... 5.. Integrl Clculus nd

More information

5.4, 6.1, 6.2 Handout. As we ve discussed, the integral is in some way the opposite of taking a derivative. The exact relationship

5.4, 6.1, 6.2 Handout. As we ve discussed, the integral is in some way the opposite of taking a derivative. The exact relationship 5.4, 6.1, 6.2 Hnout As we ve iscusse, the integrl is in some wy the opposite of tking erivtive. The exct reltionship is given by the Funmentl Theorem of Clculus: The Funmentl Theorem of Clculus: If f is

More information

Improper Integrals. Type I Improper Integrals How do we evaluate an integral such as

Improper Integrals. Type I Improper Integrals How do we evaluate an integral such as Improper Integrls Two different types of integrls cn qulify s improper. The first type of improper integrl (which we will refer to s Type I) involves evluting n integrl over n infinite region. In the grph

More information

2.4 Linear Inequalities and Interval Notation

2.4 Linear Inequalities and Interval Notation .4 Liner Inequlities nd Intervl Nottion We wnt to solve equtions tht hve n inequlity symol insted of n equl sign. There re four inequlity symols tht we will look t: Less thn , Less thn or

More information

Evaluating Definite Integrals. There are a few properties that you should remember in order to assist you in evaluating definite integrals.

Evaluating Definite Integrals. There are a few properties that you should remember in order to assist you in evaluating definite integrals. Evluting Definite Integrls There re few properties tht you should rememer in order to ssist you in evluting definite integrls. f x dx= ; where k is ny rel constnt k f x dx= k f x dx ± = ± f x g x dx f

More information

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus MATH 151 Clculus for Mngement J. Robert Buchnn Deprtment of Mthemtics Fll 2018 Objectives Define nd evlute definite integrls using the concept of re. Evlute definite integrls

More information

The First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. If f(x) is continuous on [a, b] and F (x) is any antiderivative. f(x) dx = F (b) F (a).

The First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. If f(x) is continuous on [a, b] and F (x) is any antiderivative. f(x) dx = F (b) F (a). The Fundmentl Theorems of Clculus Mth 4, Section 0, Spring 009 We now know enough bout definite integrls to give precise formultions of the Fundmentl Theorems of Clculus. We will lso look t some bsic emples

More information

Week 10: Riemann integral and its properties

Week 10: Riemann integral and its properties Clculus nd Liner Algebr for Biomedicl Engineering Week 10: Riemnn integrl nd its properties H. Führ, Lehrstuhl A für Mthemtik, RWTH Achen, WS 07 Motivtion: Computing flow from flow rtes 1 We observe the

More information

Chapter 6 Techniques of Integration

Chapter 6 Techniques of Integration MA Techniques of Integrtion Asst.Prof.Dr.Suprnee Liswdi Chpter 6 Techniques of Integrtion Recll: Some importnt integrls tht we hve lernt so fr. Tle of Integrls n+ n d = + C n + e d = e + C ( n ) d = ln

More information

7.2 Riemann Integrable Functions

7.2 Riemann Integrable Functions 7.2 Riemnn Integrble Functions Theorem 1. If f : [, b] R is step function, then f R[, b]. Theorem 2. If f : [, b] R is continuous on [, b], then f R[, b]. Theorem 3. If f : [, b] R is bounded nd continuous

More information

f(x)dx . Show that there 1, 0 < x 1 does not exist a differentiable function g : [ 1, 1] R such that g (x) = f(x) for all

f(x)dx . Show that there 1, 0 < x 1 does not exist a differentiable function g : [ 1, 1] R such that g (x) = f(x) for all 3 Definite Integrl 3.1 Introduction In school one comes cross the definition of the integrl of rel vlued function defined on closed nd bounded intervl [, b] between the limits nd b, i.e., f(x)dx s the

More information

Linear Inequalities. Work Sheet 1

Linear Inequalities. Work Sheet 1 Work Sheet 1 Liner Inequlities Rent--Hep, cr rentl compny,chrges $ 15 per week plus $ 0.0 per mile to rent one of their crs. Suppose you re limited y how much money you cn spend for the week : You cn spend

More information

Section 4.8. D v(t j 1 ) t. (4.8.1) j=1

Section 4.8. D v(t j 1 ) t. (4.8.1) j=1 Difference Equtions to Differentil Equtions Section.8 Distnce, Position, nd the Length of Curves Although we motivted the definition of the definite integrl with the notion of re, there re mny pplictions

More information

(0.0)(0.1)+(0.3)(0.1)+(0.6)(0.1)+ +(2.7)(0.1) = 1.35

(0.0)(0.1)+(0.3)(0.1)+(0.6)(0.1)+ +(2.7)(0.1) = 1.35 7 Integrtion º½ ÌÛÓ Ü ÑÔÐ Up to now we hve been concerned with extrcting informtion bout how function chnges from the function itself. Given knowledge bout n object s position, for exmple, we wnt to know

More information

MATH 144: Business Calculus Final Review

MATH 144: Business Calculus Final Review MATH 144: Business Clculus Finl Review 1 Skills 1. Clculte severl limits. 2. Find verticl nd horizontl symptotes for given rtionl function. 3. Clculte derivtive by definition. 4. Clculte severl derivtives

More information

f(x) dx, If one of these two conditions is not met, we call the integral improper. Our usual definition for the value for the definite integral

f(x) dx, If one of these two conditions is not met, we call the integral improper. Our usual definition for the value for the definite integral Improper Integrls Every time tht we hve evluted definite integrl such s f(x) dx, we hve mde two implicit ssumptions bout the integrl:. The intervl [, b] is finite, nd. f(x) is continuous on [, b]. If one

More information

7. Indefinite Integrals

7. Indefinite Integrals 7. Indefinite Integrls These lecture notes present my interprettion of Ruth Lwrence s lecture notes (in Herew) 7. Prolem sttement By the fundmentl theorem of clculus, to clculte n integrl we need to find

More information

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Particle Motion, and Average Value

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Particle Motion, and Average Value The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus, Prticle Motion, nd Averge Vlue b Three Things to Alwys Keep In Mind: (1) v( dt p( b) p( ), where v( represents the velocity nd p( represents the position. b (2) v ( dt

More information

5.1 How do we Measure Distance Traveled given Velocity? Student Notes

5.1 How do we Measure Distance Traveled given Velocity? Student Notes . How do we Mesure Distnce Trveled given Velocity? Student Notes EX ) The tle contins velocities of moving cr in ft/sec for time t in seconds: time (sec) 3 velocity (ft/sec) 3 A) Lel the x-xis & y-xis

More information

Stuff You Need to Know From Calculus

Stuff You Need to Know From Calculus Stuff You Need to Know From Clculus For the first time in the semester, the stuff we re doing is finlly going to look like clculus (with vector slnt, of course). This mens tht in order to succeed, you

More information

10 Vector Integral Calculus

10 Vector Integral Calculus Vector Integrl lculus Vector integrl clculus extends integrls s known from clculus to integrls over curves ("line integrls"), surfces ("surfce integrls") nd solids ("volume integrls"). These integrls hve

More information

FINALTERM EXAMINATION 9 (Session - ) Clculus & Anlyticl Geometry-I Question No: ( Mrs: ) - Plese choose one f ( x) x According to Power-Rule of differentition, if d [ x n ] n x n n x n n x + ( n ) x n+

More information

Main topics for the First Midterm

Main topics for the First Midterm Min topics for the First Midterm The Midterm will cover Section 1.8, Chpters 2-3, Sections 4.1-4.8, nd Sections 5.1-5.3 (essentilly ll of the mteril covered in clss). Be sure to know the results of the

More information

Distance And Velocity

Distance And Velocity Unit #8 - The Integrl Some problems nd solutions selected or dpted from Hughes-Hllett Clculus. Distnce And Velocity. The grph below shows the velocity, v, of n object (in meters/sec). Estimte the totl

More information

ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS. The real numbers have the following properties: a b c ab ac

ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS. The real numbers have the following properties: a b c ab ac REVIEW OF ALGEBRA Here we review the bsic rules nd procedures of lgebr tht you need to know in order to be successful in clculus. ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS The rel numbers hve the following properties: b b

More information

Main topics for the Second Midterm

Main topics for the Second Midterm Min topics for the Second Midterm The Midterm will cover Sections 5.4-5.9, Sections 6.1-6.3, nd Sections 7.1-7.7 (essentilly ll of the mteril covered in clss from the First Midterm). Be sure to know the

More information

Section 6.1 Definite Integral

Section 6.1 Definite Integral Section 6.1 Definite Integrl Suppose we wnt to find the re of region tht is not so nicely shped. For exmple, consider the function shown elow. The re elow the curve nd ove the x xis cnnot e determined

More information

Improper Integrals. Introduction. Type 1: Improper Integrals on Infinite Intervals. When we defined the definite integral.

Improper Integrals. Introduction. Type 1: Improper Integrals on Infinite Intervals. When we defined the definite integral. Improper Integrls Introduction When we defined the definite integrl f d we ssumed tht f ws continuous on [, ] where [, ] ws finite, closed intervl There re t lest two wys this definition cn fil to e stisfied:

More information

Math 190 Chapter 5 Lecture Notes. Professor Miguel Ornelas

Math 190 Chapter 5 Lecture Notes. Professor Miguel Ornelas Mth 19 Chpter 5 Lecture Notes Professor Miguel Ornels 1 M. Ornels Mth 19 Lecture Notes Section 5.1 Section 5.1 Ares nd Distnce Definition The re A of the region S tht lies under the grph of the continuous

More information

Calculus Module C21. Areas by Integration. Copyright This publication The Northern Alberta Institute of Technology All Rights Reserved.

Calculus Module C21. Areas by Integration. Copyright This publication The Northern Alberta Institute of Technology All Rights Reserved. Clculus Module C Ares Integrtion Copright This puliction The Northern Alert Institute of Technolog 7. All Rights Reserved. LAST REVISED Mrch, 9 Introduction to Ares Integrtion Sttement of Prerequisite

More information

MORE FUNCTION GRAPHING; OPTIMIZATION. (Last edited October 28, 2013 at 11:09pm.)

MORE FUNCTION GRAPHING; OPTIMIZATION. (Last edited October 28, 2013 at 11:09pm.) MORE FUNCTION GRAPHING; OPTIMIZATION FRI, OCT 25, 203 (Lst edited October 28, 203 t :09pm.) Exercise. Let n be n rbitrry positive integer. Give n exmple of function with exctly n verticl symptotes. Give

More information

MAT137 Calculus! Lecture 27

MAT137 Calculus! Lecture 27 MAT37 Clculus! Lecture 7 Tody: More out Integrls (Rest of the Videos) Antiderivtives Next: Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus NEW office hours: T & R @ BA 4 officil wesite http://uoft.me/mat37 Betriz Nvrro-Lmed

More information

11 An introduction to Riemann Integration

11 An introduction to Riemann Integration 11 An introduction to Riemnn Integrtion The PROOFS of the stndrd lemms nd theorems concerning the Riemnn Integrl re NEB, nd you will not be sked to reproduce proofs of these in full in the exmintion in

More information

1. Find the derivative of the following functions. a) f(x) = 2 + 3x b) f(x) = (5 2x) 8 c) f(x) = e2x

1. Find the derivative of the following functions. a) f(x) = 2 + 3x b) f(x) = (5 2x) 8 c) f(x) = e2x I. Dierentition. ) Rules. *product rule, quotient rule, chin rule MATH 34B FINAL REVIEW. Find the derivtive of the following functions. ) f(x) = 2 + 3x x 3 b) f(x) = (5 2x) 8 c) f(x) = e2x 4x 7 +x+2 d)

More information

x = b a N. (13-1) The set of points used to subdivide the range [a, b] (see Fig. 13.1) is

x = b a N. (13-1) The set of points used to subdivide the range [a, b] (see Fig. 13.1) is Jnury 28, 2002 13. The Integrl The concept of integrtion, nd the motivtion for developing this concept, were described in the previous chpter. Now we must define the integrl, crefully nd completely. According

More information

Polynomials and Division Theory

Polynomials and Division Theory Higher Checklist (Unit ) Higher Checklist (Unit ) Polynomils nd Division Theory Skill Achieved? Know tht polynomil (expression) is of the form: n x + n x n + n x n + + n x + x + 0 where the i R re the

More information

W. We shall do so one by one, starting with I 1, and we shall do it greedily, trying

W. We shall do so one by one, starting with I 1, and we shall do it greedily, trying Vitli covers 1 Definition. A Vitli cover of set E R is set V of closed intervls with positive length so tht, for every δ > 0 nd every x E, there is some I V with λ(i ) < δ nd x I. 2 Lemm (Vitli covering)

More information

Math 1431 Section M TH 4:00 PM 6:00 PM Susan Wheeler Office Hours: Wed 6:00 7:00 PM Online ***NOTE LABS ARE MON AND WED

Math 1431 Section M TH 4:00 PM 6:00 PM Susan Wheeler Office Hours: Wed 6:00 7:00 PM Online ***NOTE LABS ARE MON AND WED Mth 43 Section 4839 M TH 4: PM 6: PM Susn Wheeler swheeler@mth.uh.edu Office Hours: Wed 6: 7: PM Online ***NOTE LABS ARE MON AND WED t :3 PM to 3: pm ONLINE Approimting the re under curve given the type

More information

Calculus II: Integrations and Series

Calculus II: Integrations and Series Clculus II: Integrtions nd Series August 7, 200 Integrls Suppose we hve generl function y = f(x) For simplicity, let f(x) > 0 nd f(x) continuous Denote F (x) = re under the grph of f in the intervl [,x]

More information

Sample Problems for the Final of Math 121, Fall, 2005

Sample Problems for the Final of Math 121, Fall, 2005 Smple Problems for the Finl of Mth, Fll, 5 The following is collection of vrious types of smple problems covering sections.8,.,.5, nd.8 6.5 of the text which constitute only prt of the common Mth Finl.

More information

Final Exam - Review MATH Spring 2017

Final Exam - Review MATH Spring 2017 Finl Exm - Review MATH 5 - Spring 7 Chpter, 3, nd Sections 5.-5.5, 5.7 Finl Exm: Tuesdy 5/9, :3-7:pm The following is list of importnt concepts from the sections which were not covered by Midterm Exm or.

More information

1 Probability Density Functions

1 Probability Density Functions Lis Yn CS 9 Continuous Distributions Lecture Notes #9 July 6, 28 Bsed on chpter by Chris Piech So fr, ll rndom vribles we hve seen hve been discrete. In ll the cses we hve seen in CS 9, this ment tht our

More information