u(t)dt + i a f(t)dt f(t) dt b f(t) dt (2) With this preliminary step in place, we are ready to define integration on a general curve in C.


 Erick Hampton
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Lecture 4 Complex Integrtion MATHGA Complex Vriles 1 Construction 1.1 Integrting complex function over curve in C A nturl wy to construct the integrl of complex function over curve in the complex plne is to link it to line integrls in R 2 s lredy seen in vector clculus. We my understnd this in two steps: A) Consider complex function f(t) = u(t) + iv(t), for t [, ] R, nd u nd v rel vlued functions. If f is continuous function, we my define := u(t) + i v(t) (1) This definition, comined with the elementry properties of ddition nd multipliction in C we sw in Lecture 1, mens tht the integrl hs mny intuitive properties tht re reminiscent of the properties of integrls of rel functions. Let us mention few without proof, s these proofs re elementry:  Let c [, ] nd f continuous on [, ] c + λ C, λ = λ ( ) R = c = ( ) R(f(t)), I = I(f(t))  Although the following property is lso intuitive, let us prove tht: f(t) (2) If = 0, the inequlity is trivil. For ( ) 0, let θ = rg ( ) ( ) = R e iθ = R e iθ = R(e iθ f(t)) f(t) With this preliminry step in plce, we re redy to define integrtion on generl curve in C. B) Let e piecewise differentile rc in the complex plne, with prmetric eqution : z = z(t), < t < If the function f is continuous on, then f(z(t)) is continuous on (, ), nd we define the integrl of f on s the line integrl f(z) := f(z(t)) (3) where the integrl my hve to e split to mtch the intervls in which z is differentile. The definition ove only mkes sense if the integrl is independent of the wy the rc is prmeterized. This is simple to check, using the rules for the chnge of vriles for integrls of rel vlued functions. Imgine tht nother prmeteriztion for is given y : τ (α, β) z(t(τ)) 1
2 with t : τ (α, β) t(τ) (, ) piecewise differentile. Then, f(z) = f(z(t)) β = = α β α f(z(t(τ))) dτ dτ f(z(t(τ))) (t(τ)) dτ dτ 1.2 Elementry properties Let : z = z(t), t (, ). We define the opposite rc, written, y : z = z( t), t (, ) Then, f(z) = f(z( t)) d [z( t)] = f(z( t)) ( t ) = f(z(t)) (t) where the lst equlity is otined with simple chnge of vrile. Hence f(z) = f(z) (4) Linerity s n opertor on functions Let f nd g e two continuous functions on the piecewise differentile rc, nd (α, β) C 2 (αf + βg) = α f + β g (5) Linerity s n opertor on curves Consider n rc which cn e sudivided into two piecewisedifferentile rcs 1 nd 2, nd f continuous function on. Then f = f + f = f + f (6) We cn use this property to show tht n integrl over closed curve does not depend on the strting point on the curve. Indeed, consider two such points P nd Q, corresponding to different prmeteriztions, s shown in Figure 1. If we cll 1 the prt of from P to Q, nd 2 the prt of from Q to P, Figure 1: Closed curve sudivided into the rcs 1 nd 2 f = f + 1 f = 2 f + 2 f 1 The expression in the middle corresponds to the evlution of the integrl strting from the point P, while the expression on the right corresponds to the evlution of the integrl strting from the point Q. 2
3 1.3 An importnt exmple We conclude this section with very simple exmple which will ply fundmentl role in the rest of this course. Let C, nd consider the integrl z where is the closed circle with rdius R nd centered in. A simple prmeteriztion for is : θ [0, 2π) z(θ) = Re iθ +. Thus z = 2π 0 idθ = 2πi 2 The fundmentl theorem of clculus for integrls in C 2.1 Line integrls with respect to x nd y The line integrl with respect to z is defined s f(z) := f(z) (7) Line integrls with respect to x = R(z) nd y = I(z) long the rc re then nturlly constructed s f(z)dx = 1 ( ) f(z) + f(z), f(z)dy = 1 ( ) f(z) f(z) 2 2i (8) If we then write f(z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y), with z = x + iy, we hve f(z) = f(z)dx + i f(z)dy = (udx vdy) + i (udy + vdx) (9) which cn e viewed s nother definition for f(z), involving only line integrls of sclr functions, s lredy introduced in vector clculus. 2.2 Independence of pth We hve just reduced the complex integrl f(z) to line integrls of the form P (x, y)dx+q(x, y)dy. We will now recll wellknown result of vector clculus on independence of pth to determine when f(z) only depends on the endpoints of nd not the ctul pth descries. Theorem: Let Ω e n open connected set of R 2, nd P nd Q two functions tht re continuous on Ω, nd potentilly complex vlued. The integrl P dx + Qdy depends only on the end points of iff there exists function U(x, y) on Ω with the prtil derivtives P (x, y) = U, Q(x, y) = U. Proof : The sufficient condition is strightforwrd: if such U exists, then P dx + Qdy = ( U dx + U ) dy = for ny rc etween the points (x(), y()) nd (x(), y()). [ ] d U(x(t), y(t)) = U(x(), y()) U(x(), y())  Conversely, if P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy only depends on the end points, we cn construct single vlued function U y fixing point (x 0, y 0 ) Ω, nd defining U(x, y) = P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy 3
4 where is ny rc etween (x 0, y 0 ) nd (x, y). We now show tht U stisfies the conditions of the theorem. Consider the point (x + x, y), nd ny rc etween (x 0, y 0 ) nd (x + x, y). For x sufficiently smll, there exists n rc in Ω etween (x, y) nd (x + x, y), nd prllel to the xxis. By the independence of pth of the integrl, we cn write U(x + x, y) = P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy = P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy + P (x, y)dx = U(x, y) + P (x, y)dx Constructing rcs in this mnner for ll smll x, we my write U(x + x, y) U(x, y) 1 lim = lim x 0 x x 0 x x+ x x P (x, y)dx = P (x, y) where the lst eqution follows from the continuity of P. We thus hve U = P (x, y). With very similr proof, we would show tht U = Q(x, y), which concludes our proof. 2.3 The fundmentl theorem of clculus for integrls in C Consider f(z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y), P (x, y) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y), nd Q(x, y) = i(u(x, y) + iv(x, y)). Then f(z) = P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy The integrl on the righthnd side depends on the end points if nd only if there exists F (x, y) such tht P (x, y) = F F, nd Q(x, y) =. If such n F exists, then F = i F Writing F (z) = U(x, y) + iv (x, y), the equlity ove ecomes CuchyRiemnn equtions for U nd V. So F is nlytic, with derivtive f. We hve proven the following theorem. Theorem (Fundmentl theorem of clculus for integrls in C): The integrl f(z), with f continuous on n open connected set Ω contining, depends only on the end points of iff f is the derivtive of n nlytic function F in Ω. We sy tht F is primitive of f. Corollry: if f(z) = df where F is nlytic on n open connected set Ω nd if is closed curve in Ω, then f(z) = 0 (10) Conversely, if f is continuous function on n open connected set Ω nd is such tht f(z) = 0 for ny closed contour in Ω, then f hs primitive. The proof of the ltter is left to the reder s n enlightening exercise, close to wht we hve done previously in this lecture. Exmple: Let n N nd C [ ] (z ) n+1 (z ) n = d n + 1 nd (z ) n+1 /(n + 1) is entire, so (z )n = 0 for ll closed curves in C. For n = 1, we hve lredy seen tht the result does not hold For n = k, k N \ {1}, the result holds for ny curve in C tht does not go through 4
5 3 Integrtion with respect to rc length We will often encounter integrls with respect to rc length, defined y f(z)ds := f(z) = f(z(t)) z (t) (11) As efore, this only mkes sense if the integrl is independent of the prmeteriztion. This cn e verified esily, s well s the fct tht f(z)ds = f(z)ds The length of curve in the complex plne is given y L() = ds = Finlly, using Eq.(2) we hve the tringle inequlity: f(z) f(z) L() sup f(z) (12) z 5
Integrals along Curves.
Integrls long Curves. 1. Pth integrls. Let : [, b] R n be continuous function nd let be the imge ([, b]) of. We refer to both nd s curve. If we need to distinguish between the two we cll the function the
More informationLine Integrals. Partitioning the Curve. Estimating the Mass
Line Integrls Suppose we hve curve in the xy plne nd ssocite density δ(p ) = δ(x, y) t ech point on the curve. urves, of course, do not hve density or mss, but it my sometimes be convenient or useful to
More informationMA123, Chapter 10: Formulas for integrals: integrals, antiderivatives, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (pp.
MA123, Chpter 1: Formuls for integrls: integrls, ntiderivtives, nd the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus (pp. 27233, Gootmn) Chpter Gols: Assignments: Understnd the sttement of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus.
More informationMath 360: A primitive integral and elementary functions
Mth 360: A primitive integrl nd elementry functions D. DeTurck University of Pennsylvni October 16, 2017 D. DeTurck Mth 360 001 2017C: Integrl/functions 1 / 32 Setup for the integrl prtitions Definition:
More informationSTEP FUNCTIONS, DELTA FUNCTIONS, AND THE VARIATION OF PARAMETERS FORMULA. 0 if t < 0, 1 if t > 0.
STEP FUNCTIONS, DELTA FUNCTIONS, AND THE VARIATION OF PARAMETERS FORMULA STEPHEN SCHECTER. The unit step function nd piecewise continuous functions The Heviside unit step function u(t) is given by if t
More informationImproper Integrals. The First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, as we ve discussed in class, goes as follows:
Improper Integrls The First Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus, s we ve discussed in clss, goes s follows: If f is continuous on the intervl [, ] nd F is function for which F t = ft, then ftdt = F F. An integrl
More informationChapter 4. Lebesgue Integration
4.2. Lebesgue Integrtion 1 Chpter 4. Lebesgue Integrtion Section 4.2. Lebesgue Integrtion Note. Simple functions ply the sme role to Lebesgue integrls s step functions ply to Riemnn integrtion. Definition.
More information63. Representation of functions as power series Consider a power series. ( 1) n x 2n for all 1 < x < 1
3 9. SEQUENCES AND SERIES 63. Representtion of functions s power series Consider power series x 2 + x 4 x 6 + x 8 + = ( ) n x 2n It is geometric series with q = x 2 nd therefore it converges for ll q =
More informationSection 6.1 Definite Integral
Section 6.1 Definite Integrl Suppose we wnt to find the re of region tht is not so nicely shped. For exmple, consider the function shown elow. The re elow the curve nd ove the x xis cnnot e determined
More informationThe final exam will take place on Friday May 11th from 8am 11am in Evans room 60.
Mth 104: finl informtion The finl exm will tke plce on Fridy My 11th from 8m 11m in Evns room 60. The exm will cover ll prts of the course with equl weighting. It will cover Chpters 1 5, 7 15, 17 21, 23
More informationLecture 3. Limits of Functions and Continuity
Lecture 3 Limits of Functions nd Continuity Audrey Terrs April 26, 21 1 Limits of Functions Notes I m skipping the lst section of Chpter 6 of Lng; the section bout open nd closed sets We cn probbly live
More information2. VECTORS AND MATRICES IN 3 DIMENSIONS
2 VECTORS AND MATRICES IN 3 DIMENSIONS 21 Extending the Theory of 2dimensionl Vectors x A point in 3dimensionl spce cn e represented y column vector of the form y z zxis yxis z x y xxis Most of the
More informationMath 554 Integration
Mth 554 Integrtion Hndout #9 4/12/96 Defn. A collection of n + 1 distinct points of the intervl [, b] P := {x 0 = < x 1 < < x i 1 < x i < < b =: x n } is clled prtition of the intervl. In this cse, we
More informationLecture 1. Functional series. Pointwise and uniform convergence.
1 Introduction. Lecture 1. Functionl series. Pointwise nd uniform convergence. In this course we study mongst other things Fourier series. The Fourier series for periodic function f(x) with period 2π is
More information5: The Definite Integral
5: The Definite Integrl 5.: Estimting with Finite Sums Consider moving oject its velocity (meters per second) t ny time (seconds) is given y v t = t+. Cn we use this informtion to determine the distnce
More informationAnonymous Math 361: Homework 5. x i = 1 (1 u i )
Anonymous Mth 36: Homewor 5 Rudin. Let I be the set of ll u (u,..., u ) R with u i for ll i; let Q be the set of ll x (x,..., x ) R with x i, x i. (I is the unit cube; Q is the stndrd simplex in R ). Define
More informationMath 8 Winter 2015 Applications of Integration
Mth 8 Winter 205 Applictions of Integrtion Here re few importnt pplictions of integrtion. The pplictions you my see on n exm in this course include only the Net Chnge Theorem (which is relly just the Fundmentl
More informationSection 4.8. D v(t j 1 ) t. (4.8.1) j=1
Difference Equtions to Differentil Equtions Section.8 Distnce, Position, nd the Length of Curves Although we motivted the definition of the definite integrl with the notion of re, there re mny pplictions
More informationMATH 174A: PROBLEM SET 5. Suggested Solution
MATH 174A: PROBLEM SET 5 Suggested Solution Problem 1. Suppose tht I [, b] is n intervl. Let f 1 b f() d for f C(I; R) (i.e. f is continuous relvlued function on I), nd let L 1 (I) denote the completion
More information8. Complex Numbers. We can combine the real numbers with this new imaginary number to form the complex numbers.
8. Complex Numers The rel numer system is dequte for solving mny mthemticl prolems. But it is necessry to extend the rel numer system to solve numer of importnt prolems. Complex numers do not chnge the
More informationConvex Sets and Functions
B Convex Sets nd Functions Definition B1 Let L, +, ) be rel liner spce nd let C be subset of L The set C is convex if, for ll x,y C nd ll [, 1], we hve 1 )x+y C In other words, every point on the line
More informationUNIFORM CONVERGENCE MA 403: REAL ANALYSIS, INSTRUCTOR: B. V. LIMAYE
UNIFORM CONVERGENCE MA 403: REAL ANALYSIS, INSTRUCTOR: B. V. LIMAYE 1. Pointwise Convergence of Sequence Let E be set nd Y be metric spce. Consider functions f n : E Y for n = 1, 2,.... We sy tht the sequence
More information2 b. , a. area is S= 2π xds. Again, understand where these formulas came from (pages ).
AP Clculus BC Review Chpter 8 Prt nd Chpter 9 Things to Know nd Be Ale to Do Know everything from the first prt of Chpter 8 Given n integrnd figure out how to ntidifferentite it using ny of the following
More informationdx dt dy = G(t, x, y), dt where the functions are defined on I Ω, and are locally Lipschitz w.r.t. variable (x, y) Ω.
Chpter 8 Stility theory We discuss properties of solutions of first order two dimensionl system, nd stility theory for specil clss of liner systems. We denote the independent vrile y t in plce of x, nd
More informationPolynomial Approximations for the Natural Logarithm and Arctangent Functions. Math 230
Polynomil Approimtions for the Nturl Logrithm nd Arctngent Functions Mth 23 You recll from first semester clculus how one cn use the derivtive to find n eqution for the tngent line to function t given
More informationMATH 409 Advanced Calculus I Lecture 19: Riemann sums. Properties of integrals.
MATH 409 Advnced Clculus I Lecture 19: Riemnn sums. Properties of integrls. Drboux sums Let P = {x 0,x 1,...,x n } be prtition of n intervl [,b], where x 0 = < x 1 < < x n = b. Let f : [,b] R be bounded
More informationSection 4.4. Green s Theorem
The Clulus of Funtions of Severl Vriles Setion 4.4 Green s Theorem Green s theorem is n exmple from fmily of theorems whih onnet line integrls (nd their higherdimensionl nlogues) with the definite integrls
More informationLine and Surface Integrals: An Intuitive Understanding
Line nd Surfce Integrls: An Intuitive Understnding Joseph Breen Introduction Multivrible clculus is ll bout bstrcting the ides of differentition nd integrtion from the fmilir single vrible cse to tht of
More informationThe problems that follow illustrate the methods covered in class. They are typical of the types of problems that will be on the tests.
ADVANCED CALCULUS PRACTICE PROBLEMS JAMES KEESLING The problems tht follow illustrte the methods covered in clss. They re typicl of the types of problems tht will be on the tests. 1. Riemnn Integrtion
More informationSection 14.3 Arc Length and Curvature
Section 4.3 Arc Length nd Curvture Clculus on Curves in Spce In this section, we ly the foundtions for describing the movement of n object in spce.. Vector Function Bsics In Clc, formul for rc length in
More information10. AREAS BETWEEN CURVES
. AREAS BETWEEN CURVES.. Ares etween curves So res ove the xxis re positive nd res elow re negtive, right? Wrong! We lied! Well, when you first lern out integrtion it s convenient fiction tht s true in
More informationMapping the delta function and other Radon measures
Mpping the delt function nd other Rdon mesures Notes for Mth583A, Fll 2008 November 25, 2008 Rdon mesures Consider continuous function f on the rel line with sclr vlues. It is sid to hve bounded support
More informationContinuous Random Variables Class 5, Jeremy Orloff and Jonathan Bloom
Lerning Gols Continuous Rndom Vriles Clss 5, 8.05 Jeremy Orloff nd Jonthn Bloom. Know the definition of continuous rndom vrile. 2. Know the definition of the proility density function (pdf) nd cumultive
More information1 i n x i x i 1. Note that kqk kp k. In addition, if P and Q are partition of [a, b], P Q is finer than both P and Q.
Chpter 6 Integrtion In this chpter we define the integrl. Intuitively, it should be the re under curve. Not surprisingly, fter mny exmples, counter exmples, exceptions, generliztions, the concept of the
More informationMATH 573 FINAL EXAM. May 30, 2007
MATH 573 FINAL EXAM My 30, 007 NAME: Solutions 1. This exm is due Wednesdy, June 6 efore the 1:30 pm. After 1:30 pm I will NOT ccept the exm.. This exm hs 1 pges including this cover. There re 10 prolems.
More informationMACsolutions of the nonexistent solutions of mathematical physics
Proceedings of the 4th WSEAS Interntionl Conference on Finite Differences  Finite Elements  Finite Volumes  Boundry Elements MACsolutions of the nonexistent solutions of mthemticl physics IGO NEYGEBAUE
More informationLinear Systems with Constant Coefficients
Liner Systems with Constnt Coefficients 4305 Here is system of n differentil equtions in n unknowns: x x + + n x n, x x + + n x n, x n n x + + nn x n This is constnt coefficient liner homogeneous system
More informationThe Bernoulli Numbers John C. Baez, December 23, x k. x e x 1 = n 0. B k n = n 2 (n + 1) 2
The Bernoulli Numbers John C. Bez, December 23, 2003 The numbers re defined by the eqution e 1 n 0 k. They re clled the Bernoulli numbers becuse they were first studied by Johnn Fulhber in book published
More information(0.0)(0.1)+(0.3)(0.1)+(0.6)(0.1)+ +(2.7)(0.1) = 1.35
7 Integrtion º½ ÌÛÓ Ü ÑÔÐ Up to now we hve been concerned with extrcting informtion bout how function chnges from the function itself. Given knowledge bout n object s position, for exmple, we wnt to know
More informationA. Limits  L Hopital s Rule ( ) How to find it: Try and find limits by traditional methods (plugging in). If you get 0 0 or!!, apply C.! 1 6 C.
A. Limits  L Hopitl s Rule Wht you re finding: L Hopitl s Rule is used to find limits of the form f ( x) lim where lim f x x! c g x ( ) = or lim f ( x) = limg( x) = ". ( ) x! c limg( x) = 0 x! c x! c
More information13.3 CLASSICAL STRAIGHTEDGE AND COMPASS CONSTRUCTIONS
33 CLASSICAL STRAIGHTEDGE AND COMPASS CONSTRUCTIONS As simple ppliction of the results we hve obtined on lgebric extensions, nd in prticulr on the multiplictivity of extension degrees, we cn nswer (in
More informationImproper Integrals. Introduction. Type 1: Improper Integrals on Infinite Intervals. When we defined the definite integral.
Improper Integrls Introduction When we defined the definite integrl f d we ssumed tht f ws continuous on [, ] where [, ] ws finite, closed intervl There re t lest two wys this definition cn fil to e stisfied:
More informationLecture 14: Quadrature
Lecture 14: Qudrture This lecture is concerned with the evlution of integrls fx)dx 1) over finite intervl [, b] The integrnd fx) is ssumed to be relvlues nd smooth The pproximtion of n integrl by numericl
More informationWeek 10: Riemann integral and its properties
Clculus nd Liner Algebr for Biomedicl Engineering Week 10: Riemnn integrl nd its properties H. Führ, Lehrstuhl A für Mthemtik, RWTH Achen, WS 07 Motivtion: Computing flow from flow rtes 1 We observe the
More informationM597K: Solution to Homework Assignment 7
M597K: Solution to Homework Assignment 7 The following problems re on the specified pges of the text book by Keener (2nd Edition, i.e., revised nd updted version) Problems 3 nd 4 of Section 2.1 on p.94;
More informationMTH 122 Fall 2008 Essex County College Division of Mathematics Handout Version 10 1 October 14, 2008
MTH 22 Fll 28 Essex County College Division of Mthemtics Hndout Version October 4, 28 Arc Length Everyone should be fmilir with the distnce formul tht ws introduced in elementry lgebr. It is bsic formul
More informationMATH Summary of Chapter 13
MATH 21259 ummry of hpter 13 1. Vector Fields re vector functions of two or three vribles. Typiclly, vector field is denoted by F(x, y, z) = P (x, y, z)i+q(x, y, z)j+r(x, y, z)k where P, Q, R re clled
More information7  Continuous random variables
71 Continuous rndom vribles S. Lll, Stnford 2011.01.25.01 7  Continuous rndom vribles Continuous rndom vribles The cumultive distribution function The uniform rndom vrible Gussin rndom vribles The Gussin
More informationNUMERICAL INTEGRATION. The inverse process to differentiation in calculus is integration. Mathematically, integration is represented by.
NUMERICAL INTEGRATION 1 Introduction The inverse process to differentition in clculus is integrtion. Mthemticlly, integrtion is represented by f(x) dx which stnds for the integrl of the function f(x) with
More information4 VECTORS. 4.0 Introduction. Objectives. Activity 1
4 VECTRS Chpter 4 Vectors jectives fter studying this chpter you should understnd the difference etween vectors nd sclrs; e le to find the mgnitude nd direction of vector; e le to dd vectors, nd multiply
More informationMTH 505: Number Theory Spring 2017
MTH 505: Numer Theory Spring 207 Homework 2 Drew Armstrong The Froenius Coin Prolem. Consider the eqution x ` y c where,, c, x, y re nturl numers. We cn think of $ nd $ s two denomintions of coins nd $c
More informationNumerical integration
2 Numericl integrtion This is pge i Printer: Opque this 2. Introduction Numericl integrtion is problem tht is prt of mny problems in the economics nd econometrics literture. The orgniztion of this chpter
More informationContinuous Random Variables
STAT/MATH 395 A  PROBABILITY II UW Winter Qurter 217 Néhémy Lim Continuous Rndom Vribles Nottion. The indictor function of set S is relvlued function defined by : { 1 if x S 1 S (x) if x S Suppose tht
More informationf (x)dx = f(b) f(a). a b f (x)dx is the limit of sums
Green s Theorem If f is funtion of one vrible x with derivtive f x) or df dx to the Fundmentl Theorem of lulus, nd [, b] is given intervl then, ording This is not trivil result, onsidering tht b b f x)dx
More information5.5 The Substitution Rule
5.5 The Substitution Rule Given the usefulness of the Fundmentl Theorem, we wnt some helpful methods for finding ntiderivtives. At the moment, if n ntiderivtive is not esily recognizble, then we re in
More informationInternational Jour. of Diff. Eq. and Appl., 3, N1, (2001),
Interntionl Jour. of Diff. Eq. nd Appl., 3, N1, (2001), 3137. 1 New proof of Weyl s theorem A.G. Rmm Mthemtics Deprtment, Knss Stte University, Mnhttn, KS 665062602, USA rmm@mth.ksu.edu http://www.mth.ksu.edu/
More informationTest , 8.2, 8.4 (density only), 8.5 (work only), 9.1, 9.2 and 9.3 related test 1 material and material from prior classes
Test 2 8., 8.2, 8.4 (density only), 8.5 (work only), 9., 9.2 nd 9.3 relted test mteril nd mteril from prior clsses Locl to Globl Perspectives Anlyze smll pieces to understnd the big picture. Exmples: numericl
More informationFarey Fractions. Rickard Fernström. U.U.D.M. Project Report 2017:24. Department of Mathematics Uppsala University
U.U.D.M. Project Report 07:4 Frey Frctions Rickrd Fernström Exmensrete i mtemtik, 5 hp Hledre: Andres Strömergsson Exmintor: Jörgen Östensson Juni 07 Deprtment of Mthemtics Uppsl University Frey Frctions
More informationIf u = g(x) is a differentiable function whose range is an interval I and f is continuous on I, then f(g(x))g (x) dx = f(u) du
Integrtion by Substitution: The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus demonstrted the importnce of being ble to find ntiderivtives. We now introduce some methods for finding ntiderivtives: If u = g(x) is differentible
More informationNecessary and Sufficient Conditions for Differentiating Under the Integral Sign
Necessry nd Sufficient Conditions for Differentiting Under the Integrl Sign Erik Tlvil 1. INTRODUCTION. When we hve n integrl tht depends on prmeter, sy F(x f (x, y dy, it is often importnt to know when
More informationNot for reproduction
AREA OF A SURFACE OF REVOLUTION cut h FIGURE FIGURE πr r r l h FIGURE A surfce of revolution is formed when curve is rotted bout line. Such surfce is the lterl boundry of solid of revolution of the type
More informationMT Integral equations
MT58  Integrl equtions Introduction Integrl equtions occur in vriety of pplictions, often eing otined from differentil eqution. The reson for doing this is tht it my mke solution of the prolem esier or,
More informationMath 4200: Homework Problems
Mth 4200: Homework Problems Gregor Kovčič 1. Prove the following properties of the binomil coefficients ( n ) ( n ) (i) 1 + + + + 1 2 ( n ) (ii) 1 ( n ) ( n ) + 2 + 3 + + n 2 3 ( ) n ( n + = 2 n 1 n) n,
More informationMath 113 Exam 2 Practice
Mth Em Prctice Februry, 8 Em will cover sections 6.5, 7.7.5 nd 7.8. This sheet hs three sections. The first section will remind you bout techniques nd formuls tht you should know. The second gives number
More informationPDE Notes. Paul Carnig. January ODE s vs PDE s 1
PDE Notes Pul Crnig Jnury 2014 Contents 1 ODE s vs PDE s 1 2 Section 1.2 Het diffusion Eqution 1 2.1 Fourier s w of Het Conduction............................. 2 2.2 Energy Conservtion.....................................
More informationLine Integrals and Entire Functions
Line Integrls nd Entire Funtions Defining n Integrl for omplex Vlued Funtions In the following setions, our min gol is to show tht every entire funtion n be represented s n everywhere onvergent power series
More informationFrom the Numerical. to the Theoretical in. Calculus
From the Numericl to the Theoreticl in Clculus Teching Contemporry Mthemtics NCSSM Ferury 67, 003 Doug Kuhlmnn Phillips Acdemy Andover, MA 01810 dkuhlmnn@ndover.edu How nd Why Numericl Integrtion Should
More informationC1M14. Integrals as Area Accumulators
CM Integrls s Are Accumultors Most tetbooks do good job of developing the integrl nd this is not the plce to provide tht development. We will show how Mple presents Riemnn Sums nd the ccompnying digrms
More informationLecture 6: Isometry. Table of contents
Mth 348 Fll 017 Lecture 6: Isometry Disclimer. As we hve textook, this lecture note is for guidnce nd sulement only. It should not e relied on when rering for exms. In this lecture we nish the reliminry
More informationUnit #10 De+inite Integration & The Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus
Unit # De+inite Integrtion & The Fundmentl Theorem Of Clculus. Find the re of the shded region ove nd explin the mening of your nswer. (squres re y units) ) The grph to the right is f(x) = x + 8x )Use
More informationBest Approximation. Chapter The General Case
Chpter 4 Best Approximtion 4.1 The Generl Cse In the previous chpter, we hve seen how n interpolting polynomil cn be used s n pproximtion to given function. We now wnt to find the best pproximtion to given
More informationThe Dirichlet Problem in a Two Dimensional Rectangle. Section 13.5
The Dirichlet Prolem in Two Dimensionl Rectngle Section 13.5 1 Dirichlet Prolem in Rectngle In these notes we will pply the method of seprtion of vriles to otin solutions to elliptic prolems in rectngle
More informationAnalytically, vectors will be represented by lowercase boldface Latin letters, e.g. a, r, q.
1.1 Vector Alger 1.1.1 Sclrs A physicl quntity which is completely descried y single rel numer is clled sclr. Physiclly, it is something which hs mgnitude, nd is completely descried y this mgnitude. Exmples
More informationA Convergence Theorem for the Improper Riemann Integral of Banach Spacevalued Functions
Interntionl Journl of Mthemticl Anlysis Vol. 8, 2014, no. 50, 24512460 HIKARI Ltd, www.mhikri.com http://dx.doi.org/10.12988/ijm.2014.49294 A Convergence Theorem for the Improper Riemnn Integrl of Bnch
More information7.2 The Definition of the Riemann Integral. Outline
7.2 The Definition of the Riemnn Integrl Tom Lewis Fll Semester 2014 Upper nd lower sums Some importnt theorems Upper nd lower integrls The integrl Two importnt theorems on integrbility Outline Upper nd
More informationMath 0230 Calculus 2 Lectures
Mth Clculus Lectures Chpter 7 Applictions of Integrtion Numertion of sections corresponds to the text Jmes Stewrt, Essentil Clculus, Erly Trnscendentls, Second edition. Section 7. Ares Between Curves Two
More informationCOSC 3361 Numerical Analysis I Numerical Integration and Differentiation (III)  Gauss Quadrature and Adaptive Quadrature
COSC 336 Numericl Anlysis I Numericl Integrtion nd Dierentition III  Guss Qudrture nd Adptive Qudrture Edgr Griel Fll 5 COSC 336 Numericl Anlysis I Edgr Griel Summry o the lst lecture I For pproximting
More informationHenstock Kurzweil delta and nabla integrals
Henstock Kurzweil delt nd nbl integrls Alln Peterson nd Bevn Thompson Deprtment of Mthemtics nd Sttistics, University of NebrskLincoln Lincoln, NE 685880323 peterso@mth.unl.edu Mthemtics, SPS, The University
More informationChapter 4 Contravariance, Covariance, and Spacetime Diagrams
Chpter 4 Contrvrince, Covrince, nd Spcetime Digrms 4. The Components of Vector in Skewed Coordintes We hve seen in Chpter 3; figure 3.9, tht in order to show inertil motion tht is consistent with the Lorentz
More informationA short introduction to local fractional complex analysis
A short introduction to locl rctionl complex nlysis Yng XioJun Deprtment o Mthemtics Mechnics, hin University o Mining Technology, Xuhou mpus, Xuhou, Jingsu, 228, P R dyngxiojun@63com This pper presents
More informationPractice final exam solutions
University of Pennsylvni Deprtment of Mthemtics Mth 26 Honors Clculus II Spring Semester 29 Prof. Grssi, T.A. Asher Auel Prctice finl exm solutions 1. Let F : 2 2 be defined by F (x, y (x + y, x y. If
More informationx = a To determine the volume of the solid, we use a definite integral to sum the volumes of the slices as we let!x " 0 :
Clculus II MAT 146 Integrtion Applictions: Volumes of 3D Solids Our gol is to determine volumes of vrious shpes. Some of the shpes re the result of rotting curve out n xis nd other shpes re simply given
More informationTHE HANKEL MATRIX METHOD FOR GAUSSIAN QUADRATURE IN 1 AND 2 DIMENSIONS
THE HANKEL MATRIX METHOD FOR GAUSSIAN QUADRATURE IN 1 AND 2 DIMENSIONS CARLOS SUERO, MAURICIO ALMANZAR CONTENTS 1 Introduction 1 2 Proof of Gussin Qudrture 6 3 Iterted 2Dimensionl Gussin Qudrture 20 4
More information1 Error Analysis of Simple Rules for Numerical Integration
cs41: introduction to numericl nlysis 11/16/10 Lecture 19: Numericl Integrtion II Instructor: Professor Amos Ron Scries: Mrk Cowlishw, Nthnel Fillmore 1 Error Anlysis of Simple Rules for Numericl Integrtion
More informationCzechoslovak Mathematical Journal, 55 (130) (2005), , Abbotsford. 1. Introduction
Czechoslovk Mthemticl Journl, 55 (130) (2005), 933 940 ESTIMATES OF THE REMAINDER IN TAYLOR S THEOREM USING THE HENSTOCKKURZWEIL INTEGRAL, Abbotsford (Received Jnury 22, 2003) Abstrct. When relvlued
More informationResistors. Consider a uniform cylinder of material with mediocre to poor to pathetic conductivity ( )
10/25/2005 Resistors.doc 1/7 Resistors Consider uniform cylinder of mteril with mediocre to poor to r. pthetic conductivity ( ) ˆ This cylinder is centered on the xis, nd hs length. The surfce re of the
More informationNotes on Calculus II Integral Calculus. Miguel A. Lerma
Notes on Clculus II Integrl Clculus Miguel A. Lerm November 22, 22 Contents Introduction 5 Chpter. Integrls 6.. Ares nd Distnces. The Definite Integrl 6.2. The Evlution Theorem.3. The Fundmentl Theorem
More informationWeek 7 Riemann Stieltjes Integration: Lectures 1921
Week 7 Riemnn Stieltjes Integrtion: Lectures 1921 Lecture 19 Throughout this section α will denote monotoniclly incresing function on n intervl [, b]. Let f be bounded function on [, b]. Let P = { = 0
More informationSection 7.1 Area of a Region Between Two Curves
Section 7.1 Are of Region Between Two Curves White Bord Chllenge The circle elow is inscried into squre: Clcultor 0 cm Wht is the shded re? 400 100 85.841cm White Bord Chllenge Find the re of the region
More informationInnerproduct spaces
Innerproduct spces Definition: Let V be rel or complex liner spce over F (here R or C). An inner product is n opertion between two elements of V which results in sclr. It is denoted by u, v nd stisfies:
More informationThe Basic Functional 2 1
2 The Bsic Functionl 2 1 Chpter 2: THE BASIC FUNCTIONAL TABLE OF CONTENTS Pge 2.1 Introduction..................... 2 3 2.2 The First Vrition.................. 2 3 2.3 The Euler Eqution..................
More informationMath 115 ( ) YumTong Siu 1. Lagrange Multipliers and Variational Problems with Constraints. F (x,y,y )dx
Mth 5 20062007) YumTong Siu Lgrnge Multipliers nd Vritionl Problems with Constrints Integrl Constrints. Consider the vritionl problem of finding the extremls for the functionl J[y] = F x,y,y )dx with
More informationSummary of Elementary Calculus
Summry of Elementry Clculus Notes by Wlter Noll (1971) 1 The rel numbers The set of rel numbers is denoted by R. The set R is often visulized geometriclly s numberline nd its elements re often referred
More informationSCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & BUILT ENVIRONMENT. Mathematics
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & BUIL ENVIRONMEN Mthemtics An Introduction to Mtrices Definition of Mtri Size of Mtri Rows nd Columns of Mtri Mtri Addition Sclr Multipliction of Mtri Mtri Multipliction 7 rnspose
More informationThe RiemannStieltjes integral. and some applications in complex analysis and probability theory. Klara Leffler
The RiemnnStieltjes integrl nd some pplictions in complex nlysis nd probbility theory Klr Leffler VT 2014 Exmensrbete, 15hp Kndidtexmen i mtemtik, 180hp Institutionen för mtemtik och mtemtisk sttistik
More informationQuadratic reciprocity
Qudrtic recirocity Frncisc Bozgn Los Angeles Mth Circle Octoer 8, 01 1 Qudrtic Recirocity nd Legendre Symol In the eginning of this lecture, we recll some sic knowledge out modulr rithmetic: Definition
More informationThe Trapezoidal Rule
_.qd // : PM Pge 9 SECTION. Numericl Integrtion 9 f Section. The re of the region cn e pproimted using four trpezoids. Figure. = f( ) f( ) n The re of the first trpezoid is f f n. Figure. = Numericl Integrtion
More informationHomework 4. 0 ε 0. (00) ε 0 ε 0 (00) (11) CS 341: Foundations of Computer Science II Prof. Marvin Nakayama
CS 341: Foundtions of Computer Science II Prof. Mrvin Nkym Homework 4 1. UsetheproceduredescriedinLemm1.55toconverttheregulrexpression(((00) (11)) 01) into n NFA. Answer: 0 0 1 1 00 0 0 11 1 1 01 0 1 (00)
More informationWENJUN LIU AND QUÔ C ANH NGÔ
AN OSTROWSKIGRÜSS TYPE INEQUALITY ON TIME SCALES WENJUN LIU AND QUÔ C ANH NGÔ Astrct. In this pper we derive new inequlity of OstrowskiGrüss type on time scles nd thus unify corresponding continuous
More information