g i fφdx dx = x i i=1 is a Hilbert space. We shall, henceforth, abuse notation and write g i f(x) = f


 Arron Newman
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 1. Appliction of functionl nlysis to PEs 1.1. Introduction. In this section we give little introduction to prtil differentil equtions. In prticulr we consider the problem u(x) = f(x) x, u(x) = x (1) where is some open bounded domin in R n. The condition on u on the boundry is clled irichlet boundry condition. We shll ssume tht f L 2 Omeg). This eqution cn be solved explicitely for limited number of situtions where the domin hs symmetry, like bll or hlf spce. In generl to infer the existence of solution is difficult problem. In order to hrness the power of functionl nlysis for proving the existence of solution one relxes the problem. Recll the definition of H 1 () form the exercises. These were ll functions f L 2 ( with the property tht there exist function gf i L2 () so tht for ll φ C c f φ x i dx = g i fφdx (). It ws shown in the exercises tht H 1 () endowed with the inner product n fgdx + gf i gi hdx (2) is Hilbert spce. We shll, henceforth, buse nottion nd write i=1 g i f(x) = f x i (x). Note tht since is bounded the constnt function is certinly in H 1 (). Wht bout functions tht vnish on the boundry. Note tht ny function ψ Cc () is in H 1 (). in fct, the eke derivtive equls the usul derivtive in this cse (why?). To cpture functions in H 1 () tht vnish on the boundry of we introduce new spce. efinition 1.1. The spce H() 1 is the closure of the set Cc () in the norm of H 1 (). It is Hilbert spce with the inner product (2). Almost by definition this spce is Hilbert spce. If f n is Cuchy sequence in H() 1 then it converges in H 1 () to some element f. Since ech f n H() 1 there exists φ n Cc () so tht Hence f n φ n H 1 () < 1 n. f φ n H 1 () f f n H 1 () + f n φ n H 1 () < f f n H 1 () + 1 n which tends to zero s n. Hence f H 1 (). efinition 1.2. u H() 1 is wek solution of (1) if for every v H() 1 we hve tht u vdx = fvdx (3) 1
2 2 Note tht we hve dropped the complex conjugtion since we shll be deling with rel vlued functions. Also note tht the derivtives re ll in the wek sense. Suppose tht u is twice differentible solution of (1). Then we cn integrte by prts nd obtin [ u f]vdx = from which we conclude tht u = f. The pth to this stge is, however, thorny nd we shll give some indiction how to procedd t the end An importnt inequlity. Let f be smooth function of the intervll [, ] nd ssume tht f() = f() =. Our gol is to get lower bound on the rtio f (x) 2 dx f(x) 2 dx. (4) We know from Fourier nlysis tht ny smooth function cn be expnded in Fourier series of the type πkx f(x) = c k 2 sin( ) The functions πkx 2 sin( ) form n orthonorml system nd hence we hve tht f(x) 2 dx = c k 2. The function f is given by f (x) = π nd once more using orthogonlity we find tht kc k 2 cos( πkx ) k 2 c k 2. Hence our rtio (4) cn be expressed s k2 c k 2 c k 2. Clerly by replcing k 2 by its smlles vlue 1 we find tht k2 c k 2 c k 2 with equlity if nd only if c k = for ll k > 1. Thus, we proved
3 Theorem 1.3 (Wirtinger s inequlity). For ny smooth function f on the intervl [, ] with f() = f() = we hve tht f (x) 2 dx f(x) 2 dx with equlity only if f is multiple of sinx). Here is nother mybe even simpler proof for this inequlity. Since f() = f() = we my write f(x) = h(x)g(x) where h(x) = sinx ) nd g(x) some function which hs compct support. Now f (x) = h (x)g(x) + h(x)g (x) so tht h (x g(x dx + h(x g (x dx + h(x)h (x)[g(x ] dx. Integrting the lst term by prts nd noting tht the boundry terms vnish we get Since we find = h (x g(x dx + h(x g (x dx h(x g (x dx h (x) = h(x) h(x)h (x)[g(x ]dx. [h(x)h (x)] [g(x ]dx. h(x g (x dx + h(x [g(x ]dx f(x dx. This theorem hs n interesting consequence. Let R n be n open set nd ssume tht fits into slb, i.e., between two prllel n 1 dimensionl plnes. enote by the infimum of the distnces of the pirs of plnes so tht fits between them. Theorem 1.4. Let u C c (). Then u(x) 2 dx u(x) 2 dx. Proof. let u Cc (). The support C, i.e., the closure of the set where the function does not vnish is compct set, by ssumption. Hence it hs dimeter d < (why?). Pick ny < δ < d There exist two plnes distnce d + δ pprt so tht C fits between these two plnes (why?). By rotting the function we cn ssume tht these two plnes re perpendiculr to the xxis nd by trnslting the function w cn ssum tht one of the plnes psses through the origin nd the other through the point (d + δ,,..., ). We estimte d+δ [ d+δ u 2 dx = u 2 dx u ] 2 dx 1 dx 2 dx n x 1 R n 1 R n 1 Using Wirtinger s inequlity we find for every fixed x 2,..., x n d+δ u ( π d+δ 2 dx 1 u 2 dx 1 x 1 d + δ 3
4 4 which implies the result. As n immedite corollry we hve Theorem 1.5. Let u be ny function in H(). 1 Then u(x) 2 dx u(x) 2 dx. In prticulr u(x) 2 dx is norm which is equivlent with u H 1 () nd H() 1 with inner product (u, v) = u vdx is Hilbert spce. Proof. Let u H(). 1 Then there exists sequence of function φ n Cc () so tht u φ n H 1 () s n. Hence u φ 2 dx nd s n. Hence u 2 dx = lim φ n n 2 dx u φ n 2 dx Further u 2 dx u 2 H 1 () = u(x) 2 dx + lim φ n (x) 2 dx = u(x) 2 dx. n ( ( u 2 dx + 1) u 2 dx π nd hence the norms re equivlent. The finl sttement is immedite Existence of wek solution. Theorem 1.6. There exists unique function u H() 1 tht stisfies fvdx = u vdx for ll v H 1 (). Proof. This will fll out from the Riesz representtion theorem. Consider the liner functionl v fvdx nd note tht it is bounded on H() 1 since fvdx ( f 2 dx) 1/2 ( v 2 dx) 1/2
5 nd since v H 1 () we hve tht ( v 2 dx) 1/2 π ( v 2 dx) 1/2. By the Riesz representtion theorem there exists unique u H() 1 so tht fvdx = u vdx which proves the existence of the wek solution. Now the hrd work strts. It would be nice to be ble to integrte by prts nd to obtin [ u f]vdx = for ll v H 1 (). At lest we could conclude tht u = f pointwise lmost everywhere in Note, however, tht the solution u is in H 1 () only nd we hve no clue in wht sense one should interpret the second derivtive of u. It is lso interesting tht t this stge one hs only (3) to work with nd this leds to the theory of elliptic regulrity which ws developped round 195. First, in the sme wy we introduced H 1 (), one introduces the higher Sobolev spces H k (). Then one proves tht function tht is in high enough Soboleve spce H k () is in fct continuously differentible. In prticulr function tht is in H k () for ll k is C in the interior. One cn lso prove tht function tht is in H k () for ll k, is smooth on the boundry provided tht the boundry itself is smooth. This kind of nlysis hs nothing to do with the PE per se. In first step one proves tht the wek solution u is in H 2 (U) where is n open subset of whose closure is compct. If f H k () one cn ctully prove tht u H k+2 (U). This step is clled interior regulrity. The wy to do this is by crefully chosen test functions. The next problem is the boundry. One would like to conclude tht the function u vnishes on the boundry but this is tricky since ny function in Sobolev spce is defined only lmost everywhere nd since the boundry hs mesure zero one hs to crefully define wht one mens by boundry vlue. This kind of theorems re known s trce theorems. Now, if the boundry is smooth one proceeds to prove higher regulrity of u which, ssuming tht f nd re smooth, tht u C () nd the eqution (1) holds in the usul sense. 5
The Regulated and Riemann Integrals
Chpter 1 The Regulted nd Riemnn Integrls 1.1 Introduction We will consider severl different pproches to defining the definite integrl f(x) dx of function f(x). These definitions will ll ssign the sme vlue
More informationBest Approximation in the 2norm
Jim Lmbers MAT 77 Fll Semester 111 Lecture 1 Notes These notes correspond to Sections 9. nd 9.3 in the text. Best Approximtion in the norm Suppose tht we wish to obtin function f n (x) tht is liner combintion
More informationDEFINITION The inner product of two functions f 1 and f 2 on an interval [a, b] is the number. ( f 1, f 2 ) b DEFINITION 11.1.
398 CHAPTER 11 ORTHOGONAL FUNCTIONS AND FOURIER SERIES 11.1 ORTHOGONAL FUNCTIONS REVIEW MATERIAL The notions of generlized vectors nd vector spces cn e found in ny liner lger text. INTRODUCTION The concepts
More informationLecture 1. Functional series. Pointwise and uniform convergence.
1 Introduction. Lecture 1. Functionl series. Pointwise nd uniform convergence. In this course we study mongst other things Fourier series. The Fourier series for periodic function f(x) with period 2π is
More informationNotes on length and conformal metrics
Notes on length nd conforml metrics We recll how to mesure the Eucliden distnce of n rc in the plne. Let α : [, b] R 2 be smooth (C ) rc. Tht is α(t) (x(t), y(t)) where x(t) nd y(t) re smooth rel vlued
More informationLecture 3. Limits of Functions and Continuity
Lecture 3 Limits of Functions nd Continuity Audrey Terrs April 26, 21 1 Limits of Functions Notes I m skipping the lst section of Chpter 6 of Lng; the section bout open nd closed sets We cn probbly live
More informationW. We shall do so one by one, starting with I 1, and we shall do it greedily, trying
Vitli covers 1 Definition. A Vitli cover of set E R is set V of closed intervls with positive length so tht, for every δ > 0 nd every x E, there is some I V with λ(i ) < δ nd x I. 2 Lemm (Vitli covering)
More informationMATH34032: Green s Functions, Integral Equations and the Calculus of Variations 1
MATH34032: Green s Functions, Integrl Equtions nd the Clculus of Vritions 1 Section 1 Function spces nd opertors Here we gives some brief detils nd definitions, prticulrly relting to opertors. For further
More informationBest Approximation. Chapter The General Case
Chpter 4 Best Approximtion 4.1 The Generl Cse In the previous chpter, we hve seen how n interpolting polynomil cn be used s n pproximtion to given function. We now wnt to find the best pproximtion to given
More informationPhysics 116C Solution of inhomogeneous ordinary differential equations using Green s functions
Physics 6C Solution of inhomogeneous ordinry differentil equtions using Green s functions Peter Young November 5, 29 Homogeneous Equtions We hve studied, especilly in long HW problem, second order liner
More informationHilbert Spaces. Chapter Inner product spaces
Chpter 4 Hilbert Spces 4.1 Inner product spces In the following we will discuss both complex nd rel vector spces. With L denoting either R or C we recll tht vector spce over L is set E equipped with ddition,
More informationIntegrals along Curves.
Integrls long Curves. 1. Pth integrls. Let : [, b] R n be continuous function nd let be the imge ([, b]) of. We refer to both nd s curve. If we need to distinguish between the two we cll the function the
More informationMath Theory of Partial Differential Equations Lecture 29: SturmLiouville eigenvalue problems (continued).
Mth 412501 Theory of Prtil Differentil Equtions Lecture 29: SturmLiouville eigenvlue problems (continued). Regulr SturmLiouville eigenvlue problem: d ( p dφ ) + qφ + λσφ = 0 ( < x < b), dx dx β 1 φ()
More informationODE: Existence and Uniqueness of a Solution
Mth 22 Fll 213 Jerry Kzdn ODE: Existence nd Uniqueness of Solution The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus tells us how to solve the ordinry differentil eqution (ODE) du = f(t) dt with initil condition u() =
More information1.3 The Lemma of DuBoisReymond
28 CHAPTER 1. INDIRECT METHODS 1.3 The Lemm of DuBoisReymond We needed extr regulrity to integrte by prts nd obtin the Euler Lgrnge eqution. The following result shows tht, t lest sometimes, the extr
More informationCalculus of Variations
Clculus of Vritions Com S 477/577 Notes) YnBin Ji Dec 4, 2017 1 Introduction A functionl ssigns rel number to ech function or curve) in some clss. One might sy tht functionl is function of nother function
More informationThe final exam will take place on Friday May 11th from 8am 11am in Evans room 60.
Mth 104: finl informtion The finl exm will tke plce on Fridy My 11th from 8m 11m in Evns room 60. The exm will cover ll prts of the course with equl weighting. It will cover Chpters 1 5, 7 15, 17 21, 23
More informationAbstract inner product spaces
WEEK 4 Abstrct inner product spces Definition An inner product spce is vector spce V over the rel field R equipped with rule for multiplying vectors, such tht the product of two vectors is sclr, nd the
More informationMA Handout 2: Notation and Background Concepts from Analysis
MA350059 Hndout 2: Nottion nd Bckground Concepts from Anlysis This hndout summrises some nottion we will use nd lso gives recp of some concepts from other units (MA20023: PDEs nd CM, MA20218: Anlysis 2A,
More informationChapter 28. Fourier Series An Eigenvalue Problem.
Chpter 28 Fourier Series Every time I close my eyes The noise inside me mplifies I cn t escpe I relive every moment of the dy Every misstep I hve mde Finds wy it cn invde My every thought And this is why
More informationMATH 174A: PROBLEM SET 5. Suggested Solution
MATH 174A: PROBLEM SET 5 Suggested Solution Problem 1. Suppose tht I [, b] is n intervl. Let f 1 b f() d for f C(I; R) (i.e. f is continuous relvlued function on I), nd let L 1 (I) denote the completion
More informationTheoretical foundations of Gaussian quadrature
Theoreticl foundtions of Gussin qudrture 1 Inner product vector spce Definition 1. A vector spce (or liner spce) is set V = {u, v, w,...} in which the following two opertions re defined: (A) Addition of
More informationMapping the delta function and other Radon measures
Mpping the delt function nd other Rdon mesures Notes for Mth583A, Fll 2008 November 25, 2008 Rdon mesures Consider continuous function f on the rel line with sclr vlues. It is sid to hve bounded support
More informationMath 6455 Oct 10, Differential Geometry I Fall 2006, Georgia Tech
Mth 6455 Oct 10, 2006 1 Differentil Geometry I Fll 2006, Georgi Tech Lecture Notes 12 Riemnnin Metrics 0.1 Definition If M is smooth mnifold then by Riemnnin metric g on M we men smooth ssignment of n
More informationAdvanced Calculus: MATH 410 Uniform Convergence of Functions Professor David Levermore 11 December 2015
Advnced Clculus: MATH 410 Uniform Convergence of Functions Professor Dvid Levermore 11 December 2015 12. Sequences of Functions We now explore two notions of wht it mens for sequence of functions {f n
More informationFourier series. Preliminary material on inner products. Suppose V is vector space over C and (, )
Fourier series. Preliminry mteril on inner products. Suppose V is vector spce over C nd (, ) is Hermitin inner product on V. This mens, by definition, tht (, ) : V V C nd tht the following four conditions
More informationf(x)dx . Show that there 1, 0 < x 1 does not exist a differentiable function g : [ 1, 1] R such that g (x) = f(x) for all
3 Definite Integrl 3.1 Introduction In school one comes cross the definition of the integrl of rel vlued function defined on closed nd bounded intervl [, b] between the limits nd b, i.e., f(x)dx s the
More informationUNIFORM CONVERGENCE MA 403: REAL ANALYSIS, INSTRUCTOR: B. V. LIMAYE
UNIFORM CONVERGENCE MA 403: REAL ANALYSIS, INSTRUCTOR: B. V. LIMAYE 1. Pointwise Convergence of Sequence Let E be set nd Y be metric spce. Consider functions f n : E Y for n = 1, 2,.... We sy tht the sequence
More informationAdvanced Calculus: MATH 410 Notes on Integrals and Integrability Professor David Levermore 17 October 2004
Advnced Clculus: MATH 410 Notes on Integrls nd Integrbility Professor Dvid Levermore 17 October 2004 1. Definite Integrls In this section we revisit the definite integrl tht you were introduced to when
More informationMath 554 Integration
Mth 554 Integrtion Hndout #9 4/12/96 Defn. A collection of n + 1 distinct points of the intervl [, b] P := {x 0 = < x 1 < < x i 1 < x i < < b =: x n } is clled prtition of the intervl. In this cse, we
More information1 2D Second Order Equations: Separation of Variables
Chpter 12 PDEs in Rectngles 1 2D Second Order Equtions: Seprtion of Vribles 1. A second order liner prtil differentil eqution in two vribles x nd y is A 2 u x + B 2 u 2 x y + C 2 u y + D u 2 x + E u +
More informationSolution to HW 4, Ma 1c Prac 2016
Solution to HW 4 M c Prc 6 Remrk: every function ppering in this homework set is sufficiently nice t lest C following the jrgon from the textbook we cn pply ll kinds of theorems from the textbook without
More informationNOTES ON HILBERT SPACE
NOTES ON HILBERT SPACE 1 DEFINITION: by Prof CI Tn Deprtment of Physics Brown University A Hilbert spce is n inner product spce which, s metric spce, is complete We will not present n exhustive mthemticl
More informationp(t) dt + i 1 re it ireit dt =
Note: This mteril is contined in Kreyszig, Chpter 13. Complex integrtion We will define integrls of complex functions long curves in C. (This is bit similr to [relvlued] line integrls P dx + Q dy in R2.)
More informationVariational Techniques for SturmLiouville Eigenvalue Problems
Vritionl Techniques for SturmLiouville Eigenvlue Problems Vlerie Cormni Deprtment of Mthemtics nd Sttistics University of Nebrsk, Lincoln Lincoln, NE 68588 Emil: vcormni@mth.unl.edu Rolf Ryhm Deprtment
More informationChapter 3. Vector Spaces
3.4 Liner Trnsformtions 1 Chpter 3. Vector Spces 3.4 Liner Trnsformtions Note. We hve lredy studied liner trnsformtions from R n into R m. Now we look t liner trnsformtions from one generl vector spce
More informationConvex Sets and Functions
B Convex Sets nd Functions Definition B1 Let L, +, ) be rel liner spce nd let C be subset of L The set C is convex if, for ll x,y C nd ll [, 1], we hve 1 )x+y C In other words, every point on the line
More informationQuadratic Forms. Quadratic Forms
Qudrtic Forms Recll the Simon & Blume excerpt from n erlier lecture which sid tht the min tsk of clculus is to pproximte nonliner functions with liner functions. It s ctully more ccurte to sy tht we pproximte
More informationNew Expansion and Infinite Series
Interntionl Mthemticl Forum, Vol. 9, 204, no. 22, 06073 HIKARI Ltd, www.mhikri.com http://dx.doi.org/0.2988/imf.204.4502 New Expnsion nd Infinite Series Diyun Zhng College of Computer Nnjing University
More informationSTUDY GUIDE FOR BASIC EXAM
STUDY GUIDE FOR BASIC EXAM BRYON ARAGAM This is prtil list of theorems tht frequently show up on the bsic exm. In mny cses, you my be sked to directly prove one of these theorems or these vrints. There
More informationSummary: Method of Separation of Variables
Physics 246 Electricity nd Mgnetism I, Fll 26, Lecture 22 1 Summry: Method of Seprtion of Vribles 1. Seprtion of Vribles in Crtesin Coordintes 2. Fourier Series Suggested Reding: Griffiths: Chpter 3, Section
More informationMath Advanced Calculus II
Mth 452  Advnced Clculus II Line Integrls nd Green s Theorem The min gol of this chpter is to prove Stoke s theorem, which is the multivrible version of the fundmentl theorem of clculus. We will be focused
More informationII. Integration and Cauchy s Theorem
MTH6111 Complex Anlysis 200910 Lecture Notes c Shun Bullett QMUL 2009 II. Integrtion nd Cuchy s Theorem 1. Pths nd integrtion Wrning Different uthors hve different definitions for terms like pth nd curve.
More informationTHE EXISTENCEUNIQUENESS THEOREM FOR FIRSTORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
THE EXISTENCEUNIQUENESS THEOREM FOR FIRSTORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS RADON ROSBOROUGH https://intuitiveexplntionscom/picrdlindeloftheorem/ This document is proof of the existenceuniqueness theorem
More informationPartial Derivatives. Limits. For a single variable function f (x), the limit lim
Limits Prtil Derivtives For single vrible function f (x), the limit lim x f (x) exists only if the righthnd side limit equls to the lefthnd side limit, i.e., lim f (x) = lim f (x). x x + For two vribles
More informationMath 61CM  Solutions to homework 9
Mth 61CM  Solutions to homework 9 Cédric De Groote November 30 th, 2018 Problem 1: Recll tht the left limit of function f t point c is defined s follows: lim f(x) = l x c if for ny > 0 there exists δ
More information1 The Riemann Integral
The Riemnn Integrl. An exmple leding to the notion of integrl (res) We know how to find (i.e. define) the re of rectngle (bse height), tringle ( (sum of res of tringles). But how do we find/define n re
More informationState space systems analysis (continued) Stability. A. Definitions A system is said to be Asymptotically Stable (AS) when it satisfies
Stte spce systems nlysis (continued) Stbility A. Definitions A system is sid to be Asymptoticlly Stble (AS) when it stisfies ut () = 0, t > 0 lim xt () 0. t A system is AS if nd only if the impulse response
More information13.3 CLASSICAL STRAIGHTEDGE AND COMPASS CONSTRUCTIONS
33 CLASSICAL STRAIGHTEDGE AND COMPASS CONSTRUCTIONS As simple ppliction of the results we hve obtined on lgebric extensions, nd in prticulr on the multiplictivity of extension degrees, we cn nswer (in
More informationAMATH 731: Applied Functional Analysis Fall Additional notes on Fréchet derivatives
AMATH 731: Applied Functionl Anlysis Fll 214 Additionl notes on Fréchet derivtives (To ccompny Section 3.1 of the AMATH 731 Course Notes) Let X,Y be normed liner spces. The Fréchet derivtive of n opertor
More informationA REVIEW OF CALCULUS CONCEPTS FOR JDEP 384H. Thomas Shores Department of Mathematics University of Nebraska Spring 2007
A REVIEW OF CALCULUS CONCEPTS FOR JDEP 384H Thoms Shores Deprtment of Mthemtics University of Nebrsk Spring 2007 Contents Rtes of Chnge nd Derivtives 1 Dierentils 4 Are nd Integrls 5 Multivrite Clculus
More informationMath 360: A primitive integral and elementary functions
Mth 360: A primitive integrl nd elementry functions D. DeTurck University of Pennsylvni October 16, 2017 D. DeTurck Mth 360 001 2017C: Integrl/functions 1 / 32 Setup for the integrl prtitions Definition:
More information7.2 Riemann Integrable Functions
7.2 Riemnn Integrble Functions Theorem 1. If f : [, b] R is step function, then f R[, b]. Theorem 2. If f : [, b] R is continuous on [, b], then f R[, b]. Theorem 3. If f : [, b] R is bounded nd continuous
More informationCzechoslovak Mathematical Journal, 55 (130) (2005), , Abbotsford. 1. Introduction
Czechoslovk Mthemticl Journl, 55 (130) (2005), 933 940 ESTIMATES OF THE REMAINDER IN TAYLOR S THEOREM USING THE HENSTOCKKURZWEIL INTEGRAL, Abbotsford (Received Jnury 22, 2003) Abstrct. When relvlued
More information1.9 C 2 inner variations
46 CHAPTER 1. INDIRECT METHODS 1.9 C 2 inner vritions So fr, we hve restricted ttention to liner vritions. These re vritions of the form vx; ǫ = ux + ǫφx where φ is in some liner perturbtion clss P, for
More informationSturmLiouville Eigenvalue problem: Let p(x) > 0, q(x) 0, r(x) 0 in I = (a, b). Here we assume b > a. Let X C 2 1
Ch.4. INTEGRAL EQUATIONS AND GREEN S FUNCTIONS Ronld B Guenther nd John W Lee, Prtil Differentil Equtions of Mthemticl Physics nd Integrl Equtions. Hildebrnd, Methods of Applied Mthemtics, second edition
More informationdf dt f () b f () a dt
Vector lculus 16.7 tokes Theorem Nme: toke's Theorem is higher dimensionl nlogue to Green's Theorem nd the Fundmentl Theorem of clculus. Why, you sk? Well, let us revisit these theorems. Fundmentl Theorem
More informationSTURMLIOUVILLE BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS
STURMLIOUVILLE BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS Throughout, we let [, b] be bounded intervl in R. C 2 ([, b]) denotes the spce of functions with derivtives of second order continuous up to the endpoints. Cc 2
More information4402 Geometry/Topology: Differentiable Manifolds Northwestern University Solutions of Practice Problems for Final Exam
4402 Geometry/Topology: Differentible Mnifolds Northwestern University Solutions of Prctice Problems for Finl Exm 1) Using the cnonicl covering of RP n by {U α } 0 α n, where U α = {[x 0 : : x n ] RP
More informationChapter 4 Contravariance, Covariance, and Spacetime Diagrams
Chpter 4 Contrvrince, Covrince, nd Spcetime Digrms 4. The Components of Vector in Skewed Coordintes We hve seen in Chpter 3; figure 3.9, tht in order to show inertil motion tht is consistent with the Lorentz
More information1. On some properties of definite integrals. We prove
This short collection of notes is intended to complement the textbook Anlisi Mtemtic 2 by Crl Mdern, published by Città Studi Editore, [M]. We refer to [M] for nottion nd the logicl stremline of the rguments.
More informationThe Wave Equation I. MA 436 Kurt Bryan
1 Introduction The Wve Eqution I MA 436 Kurt Bryn Consider string stretching long the x xis, of indeterminte (or even infinite!) length. We wnt to derive n eqution which models the motion of the string
More informationReview of Gaussian Quadrature method
Review of Gussin Qudrture method Nsser M. Asi Spring 006 compiled on Sundy Decemer 1, 017 t 09:1 PM 1 The prolem To find numericl vlue for the integrl of rel vlued function of rel vrile over specific rnge
More informationHandout 4. Inverse and Implicit Function Theorems.
8.95 Hndout 4. Inverse nd Implicit Function Theorems. Theorem (Inverse Function Theorem). Suppose U R n is open, f : U R n is C, x U nd df x is invertible. Then there exists neighborhood V of x in U nd
More informationPresentation Problems 5
Presenttion Problems 5 21355 A For these problems, ssume ll sets re subsets of R unless otherwise specified. 1. Let P nd Q be prtitions of [, b] such tht P Q. Then U(f, P ) U(f, Q) nd L(f, P ) L(f, Q).
More informationA HELLY THEOREM FOR FUNCTIONS WITH VALUES IN METRIC SPACES. 1. Introduction
Ttr Mt. Mth. Publ. 44 (29), 159 168 DOI: 1.2478/v1127956z t m Mthemticl Publictions A HELLY THEOREM FOR FUNCTIONS WITH VALUES IN METRIC SPACES Miloslv Duchoň Peter Mličký ABSTRACT. We present Helly
More informationMath 113 Fall Final Exam Review. 2. Applications of Integration Chapter 6 including sections and section 6.8
Mth 3 Fll 0 The scope of the finl exm will include: Finl Exm Review. Integrls Chpter 5 including sections 5. 5.7, 5.0. Applictions of Integrtion Chpter 6 including sections 6. 6.5 nd section 6.8 3. Infinite
More informationP 3 (x) = f(0) + f (0)x + f (0) 2. x 2 + f (0) . In the problem set, you are asked to show, in general, the n th order term is a n = f (n) (0)
1 Tylor polynomils In Section 3.5, we discussed how to pproximte function f(x) round point in terms of its first derivtive f (x) evluted t, tht is using the liner pproximtion f() + f ()(x ). We clled this
More informationDefinite integral. Mathematics FRDIS MENDELU
Definite integrl Mthemtics FRDIS MENDELU Simon Fišnrová Brno 1 Motivtion  re under curve Suppose, for simplicity, tht y = f(x) is nonnegtive nd continuous function defined on [, b]. Wht is the re of the
More informationIntroduction to the Calculus of Variations
Introduction to the Clculus of Vritions Jim Fischer Mrch 20, 1999 Abstrct This is selfcontined pper which introduces fundmentl problem in the clculus of vritions, the problem of finding extreme vlues
More informationNOTES AND PROBLEMS: INTEGRATION THEORY
NOTES AND PROBLEMS: INTEGRATION THEORY SAMEER CHAVAN Abstrct. These re the lecture notes prepred for prticipnts of AFSI to be conducted t Kumun University, Almor from 1st to 27th December, 2014. Contents
More informationMAA 4212 Improper Integrals
Notes by Dvid Groisser, Copyright c 1995; revised 2002, 2009, 2014 MAA 4212 Improper Integrls The Riemnn integrl, while perfectly welldefined, is too restrictive for mny purposes; there re functions which
More informationChapter 0. What is the Lebesgue integral about?
Chpter 0. Wht is the Lebesgue integrl bout? The pln is to hve tutoril sheet ech week, most often on Fridy, (to be done during the clss) where you will try to get used to the ides introduced in the previous
More informationJim Lambers MAT 169 Fall Semester Lecture 4 Notes
Jim Lmbers MAT 169 Fll Semester 200910 Lecture 4 Notes These notes correspond to Section 8.2 in the text. Series Wht is Series? An infinte series, usully referred to simply s series, is n sum of ll of
More informationUNIFORM CONVERGENCE. Contents 1. Uniform Convergence 1 2. Properties of uniform convergence 3
UNIFORM CONVERGENCE Contents 1. Uniform Convergence 1 2. Properties of uniform convergence 3 Suppose f n : Ω R or f n : Ω C is sequence of rel or complex functions, nd f n f s n in some sense. Furthermore,
More informationChapter 6. Infinite series
Chpter 6 Infinite series We briefly review this chpter in order to study series of functions in chpter 7. We cover from the beginning to Theorem 6.7 in the text excluding Theorem 6.6 nd Rbbe s test (Theorem
More informationDefinite integral. Mathematics FRDIS MENDELU. Simona Fišnarová (Mendel University) Definite integral MENDELU 1 / 30
Definite integrl Mthemtics FRDIS MENDELU Simon Fišnrová (Mendel University) Definite integrl MENDELU / Motivtion  re under curve Suppose, for simplicity, tht y = f(x) is nonnegtive nd continuous function
More informationCalculus of Variations: The Direct Approach
Clculus of Vritions: The Direct Approch Lecture by Andrejs Treibergs, Notes by Bryn Wilson June 7, 2010 The originl lecture slides re vilble online t: http://www.mth.uth.edu/~treiberg/directmethodslides.pdf
More informationImproper Integrals, and Differential Equations
Improper Integrls, nd Differentil Equtions October 22, 204 5.3 Improper Integrls Previously, we discussed how integrls correspond to res. More specificlly, we sid tht for function f(x), the region creted
More information1 1D heat and wave equations on a finite interval
1 1D het nd wve equtions on finite intervl In this section we consider generl method of seprtion of vribles nd its pplictions to solving het eqution nd wve eqution on finite intervl ( 1, 2. Since by trnsltion
More informationProblem Set 4: Solutions Math 201A: Fall 2016
Problem Set 4: s Mth 20A: Fll 206 Problem. Let f : X Y be onetoone, onto mp between metric spces X, Y. () If f is continuous nd X is compct, prove tht f is homeomorphism. Does this result remin true
More informationAnalytical Methods Exam: Preparatory Exercises
Anlyticl Methods Exm: Preprtory Exercises Question. Wht does it men tht (X, F, µ) is mesure spce? Show tht µ is monotone, tht is: if E F re mesurble sets then µ(e) µ(f). Question. Discuss if ech of the
More informationUS01CMTH02 UNIT Curvature
Stu mteril of BSc(Semester  I) US1CMTH (Rdius of Curvture nd Rectifiction) Prepred by Nilesh Y Ptel Hed,Mthemtics Deprtment,VPnd RPTPScience College US1CMTH UNIT 1 Curvture Let f : I R be sufficiently
More informationEuler, Ioachimescu and the trapezium rule. G.J.O. Jameson (Math. Gazette 96 (2012), )
Euler, Iochimescu nd the trpezium rule G.J.O. Jmeson (Mth. Gzette 96 (0), 36 4) The following results were estblished in recent Gzette rticle [, Theorems, 3, 4]. Given > 0 nd 0 < s
More informationFUNDAMENTALS OF REAL ANALYSIS by. III.1. Measurable functions. f 1 (
FUNDAMNTALS OF RAL ANALYSIS by Doğn Çömez III. MASURABL FUNCTIONS AND LBSGU INTGRAL III.. Mesurble functions Hving the Lebesgue mesure define, in this chpter, we will identify the collection of functions
More informationReview of basic calculus
Review of bsic clculus This brief review reclls some of the most importnt concepts, definitions, nd theorems from bsic clculus. It is not intended to tech bsic clculus from scrtch. If ny of the items below
More informationProperties of Integrals, Indefinite Integrals. Goals: Definition of the Definite Integral Integral Calculations using Antiderivatives
Block #6: Properties of Integrls, Indefinite Integrls Gols: Definition of the Definite Integrl Integrl Clcultions using Antiderivtives Properties of Integrls The Indefinite Integrl 1 Riemnn Sums  1 Riemnn
More information(4.1) D r v(t) ω(t, v(t))
1.4. Differentil inequlities. Let D r denote the right hnd derivtive of function. If ω(t, u) is sclr function of the sclrs t, u in some open connected set Ω, we sy tht function v(t), t < b, is solution
More information7.2 The Definite Integral
7.2 The Definite Integrl the definite integrl In the previous section, it ws found tht if function f is continuous nd nonnegtive, then the re under the grph of f on [, b] is given by F (b) F (), where
More information63. Representation of functions as power series Consider a power series. ( 1) n x 2n for all 1 < x < 1
3 9. SEQUENCES AND SERIES 63. Representtion of functions s power series Consider power series x 2 + x 4 x 6 + x 8 + = ( ) n x 2n It is geometric series with q = x 2 nd therefore it converges for ll q =
More informationIndefinite Integral. Chapter Integration  reverse of differentiation
Chpter Indefinite Integrl Most of the mthemticl opertions hve inverse opertions. The inverse opertion of differentition is clled integrtion. For exmple, describing process t the given moment knowing the
More informationLinearity, linear operators, and self adjoint eigenvalue problems
Linerity, liner opertors, nd self djoint eigenvlue problems 1 Elements of liner lgebr The study of liner prtil differentil equtions utilizes, unsurprisingly, mny concepts from liner lgebr nd liner ordinry
More informationLine Integrals. Partitioning the Curve. Estimating the Mass
Line Integrls Suppose we hve curve in the xy plne nd ssocite density δ(p ) = δ(x, y) t ech point on the curve. urves, of course, do not hve density or mss, but it my sometimes be convenient or useful to
More informationUnit #9 : Definite Integral Properties; Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Unit #9 : Definite Integrl Properties; Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus Gols: Identify properties of definite integrls Define odd nd even functions, nd reltionship to integrl vlues Introduce the Fundmentl
More informationComplex integration. L3: Cauchy s Theory.
MM Vercelli. L3: Cuchy s Theory. Contents: Complex integrtion. The Cuchy s integrls theorems. Singulrities. The residue theorem. Evlution of definite integrls. Appendix: Fundmentl theorem of lgebr. Discussions
More informationSTURMLIOUVILLE PROBLEMS
STURMLIOUVILLE PROBLEMS Mrch 8, 24 We hve seen tht in the process of solving certin liner evolution equtions such s the het or wve equtions we re led in very nturl wy to n eigenvlue problem for second
More informationFunctional Analysis I Solutions to Exercises. James C. Robinson
Functionl Anlysis I Solutions to Exercises Jmes C. Robinson Contents 1 Exmples I pge 1 2 Exmples II 5 3 Exmples III 9 4 Exmples IV 15 iii 1 Exmples I 1. Suppose tht v α j e j nd v m β k f k. with α j,
More informationMath Solutions to homework 1
Mth 75  Solutions to homework Cédric De Groote October 5, 07 Problem, prt : This problem explores the reltionship between norms nd inner products Let X be rel vector spce ) Suppose tht is norm on X tht
More informationFirst midterm topics Second midterm topics End of quarter topics. Math 3B Review. Steve. 18 March 2009
Mth 3B Review Steve 18 Mrch 2009 About the finl Fridy Mrch 20, 3pm6pm, Lkretz 110 No notes, no book, no clcultor Ten questions Five review questions (Chpters 6,7,8) Five new questions (Chpters 9,10) No
More informationProperties of the Riemann Integral
Properties of the Riemnn Integrl Jmes K. Peterson Deprtment of Biologicl Sciences nd Deprtment of Mthemticl Sciences Clemson University Februry 15, 2018 Outline 1 Some Infimum nd Supremum Properties 2
More information