Mechanical Engineering Journal

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Mechanical Engineering Journal"

Transcription

1 Bulletin of the JSME Mechanical Engineering Journal Vol.3, No.2, 2016 Fabrication and evaluation of micro-structured reaction field with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes for micro bio-analysis device Yuma SUZUKI*, Ewelina PABJAŃCZYK-WLAZŁO**, Jungo ONODA*, Tetsuhide SHIMIZU* and Ming YANG* * Graduate School of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University 6-6 Asahigaoka, Hino-shi, Tokyo, , Japan ** Department of Material and Commodity Sciences and Textile Metrology, Lodz University of Technology Stefana Żeromskiego 116, Łódź, Poland Received 14 October 2015 Abstract For high sensitivity in micro bio-analysis devices (MBD), the fabrication of the micro-structured reaction field using vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) which is pillar-structured by two methods was performed. The first method is the combination of photolithography and thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The second method is the molding process of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate with micro-pillars array and the transfer press of VACNTs synthesized by thermal CVD on PDMS substrate for lower cost in mass production compared with photolithography process. In the first method, circular-pattered metal film on silicon (Si) substrate as the catalyst for VACNTs synthesis was fabricated by photolithography and VACNTs-pillars array was successfully fabricated using the substrate with circular-pattered metal film by thermal CVD. Furthermore, the protein adsorption property of these structures was evaluated as the reaction field of MBD by ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy. The results show that the protein adsorption property was improved considering the design of micro pattern in VACNTs structures. On the other hand, in the second method, pillar-structured PDMS substrate was molded using a photoresist mold by photolithography and VACNTs was transferred on PDMS substrate by transfer-press equipment. The results indicate that VACNTs can be transferred on the top of micro pillar of PDMS substrate controlling the load of transfer press. Furthermore, it is indicated that micro-pillar VACNTs structures can be fabricated by molding and transfer press with lower cost than the combination of photolithography and thermal CVD. Key words : Micro bio-analysis device, Carbon nanotubes, Photolithography, Molding process, Transfer press 1. Introduction Micro bio-analysis devices (MBD), such as micro Total Analysis Systems ( -TAS) and Lab-on-a-chip (LOC), are demanded to achieve a rapid diagnosis of biomolecules (for instance, viruses and proteins). This is due to the diffusion distance of biomolecules becomes short by miniaturizing the detection part of MBD, as it is called a reaction field, from sizes of the conventional diagnosis device (Delamarche, et al., 2005, Matsunaga, 2009). However, it is difficult to detect biomolecules when the amount of regent solution containing biomolecules is reduced by downsizing a reaction field. The reaction field with micro structures in MBD can offer large specific surface area (surface areas per volume) and the reduction of the diffusion distance which improves the detection sensitivity and reaction efficiency (Han, et al., 2013). For the fabrication techniques of micro structures, there are two approaches which are top-down process and bottom-up process. Top-down process reduces a large piece of materials to produce the form with the desired shape and the size of micrometer scale. This process can control the form shape and size in a large area and has multiple steps Paper No J-STAGE Advance Publication date: 7 April,

2 which induce high cost for mass production. On the other hand, bottom-up process easily builds up the form with nanometer scale from nano-components (for example, atom, molecular and nano-materials) by self-assembly although this process is difficult to control the desired shape and size (Moronuki, 2011). In the reaction field of MBD, the structural dimension of micrometer order is required. This is because the structural surface can contribute to biomolecules adsorption and reaction efficiency due to dynamic flow between structures (Jomeh and Hoofar, 2010). Therefore, the combination of top-down process and bottom-up process is important to fabricate micro structures with the desired shape and size effectively. This combination technique using the synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) as bottom-up process has been attracting attention for the fabrication of micro structures due to the fact that CNTs are one of the nanomaterials with chemical stability and high aspect ratio which brings in high specific surface area (Hu, et al., 2009, Chu, et al., 2010). In this work, we performed the fabrication of the reaction field with micro structures which form is a pillar shape for high sensitivity of MBD by the combination of top-down process and the VACNTs synthesis. This work entails two methods as top-down process. The first method is the combination of photolithography and thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as VACNTs synthesis. The second method is the molding process of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate with micro pillars and the transfer press of VACNTs synthesized by thermal CVD on PDMS substrate for lower cost in mass production compared with photolithography process. In the first method, circular-patterned metal film on silicon (Si) substrate as the catalyst for VACNTs synthesis was fabricated by photolithography and VACNTs-pillars array was fabricated using the substrate with circular-patterned metal film by thermal CVD. Furthermore, the protein adsorption property of this structures array was evaluated as the reaction field of MBD by ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy. In the second method, PDMS substrate with micro pillar array was structured using a mold made by photolithography and VACNTs was transferred on PDMS substrate by transfer-press equipment. 2. Experiments 2.1 VACNTs synthesis by thermal CVD VACNTs were synthesized by thermal CVD using iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) as metal catalysts. Figure 1 shows the schematic image of the CVD system (MICROPHASE Co., Japan). Al film was deposited on silicon (Si) substrate by sputtering using electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) type ion shower equipment (ELI-200ER, ELIONIX Co., Japan) followed by Fe film. Ethanol was evaporated by the heater in this system for a carbon source of VACNTs. The conditions for deposition of metal catalysts and for VACNTs synthesis is presented in Table 1 and Table 2, respectively. This method was included in previous studies which indicated that synthesized VACNTs were thought to be multi-walled nanotubes with many disorders from the results of Raman spectroscopic analysis (Kobayashi and Yang, 2009, Yang, et al., 2013). VACNTs Substrate Heater Fe Al Si Ethanol Pump Power supply N 2 reservoir Fig. 1 Thermal CVD system for VACNTs synthesis. Before VACNTs synthesis, this vacuum chamber was purged by nitrogen gas. Al film was deposited on Si substrate by sputtering using electron cyclotron resonance type ion shower equipment followed by Fe film. Ethanol was evaporated by the heater in this system for a carbon source of VACNTs. 2

3 Table 1 Conditions for deposition of metal catalyst. Acceleration Voltage [V] 1250 Ion current density [ma/cm 2 ] 0.75 Vacuum [Pa] Sputtering time of Al [min] 7 Sputtering time of Fe [min] 1 Sputtering atom Argon (Ar) Table 2 Conditions for VACNTs synthesis. Vacuum [MPa] 0.01 First heating time (810 o C) [s] 60 Second heating time (910 o C) [s] VACNTs patterning by photolithography and evaluation of protein adsorption property Figure 2 shows the schematic image of the fabrication process of VACNTs-pillars array by the combination of photolithography and thermal CVD. In this process, positive photoresist (OFPR-800 LB, TOKYO OHKA KOGYO., LTD., Japan) coated on Si substrate was hole-structured using a hole-patterned photomask by photolithography. The metal catalysts which are Fe and Al for CVD process were deposited on the hole-structured photoresist film as a template. After removing photoresist film from the substrate, VACNTs-pillars array was synthesized by thermal CVD. Photolithography conditions were shown in Table 3. Conditions for deposition of metal catalysts and for VACNTs synthesis are as in Table 1 and Table 2. Furthermore, VACNTs-pillar array with different dimensions was fabricated using photomasks with different dimensions of the hole-pattern. Figure 3 and Table 4 present the schematic image of the hole-patterned photomask and hole-pattern dimensions, respectively. The form of VACNTs-pillars array was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM, VE-9800, KEYENCE Co., Japan). The protein adsorption of this structures array was evaluated as the reaction field by UV spectroscopy. First, the VACNTs reaction field was washed by phosphate buffered saline (PBS, ph = 7.0, Wako Pure Chemical Industries, LTD., Japan). Then, 20 l bovine serum albumins (BSAs, Wako Pure Chemical Industries, LTD., Japan) solution (e.g., 1.0 g/l) suspended by PBS was dropped on the VACNTs reaction field and left for 30 min. After that, the sample was washed by PBS and set in the UV spectroscope (UV-2450, SHIMADZU CO., Japan). The amount of adsorbed BSAs was evaluated by measuring the light absorbance of the sample at 205 nm wavelength which brings in light adsorption of protein (Scopes, 1974). 1. Coating photoresist 2. Exposing UV 3. Developing 4. Depositing metal catalyst Fig Removing photoresist Power 6. Synthesizing CNTs VACNTs-pillars array Fabrication process of VACNTs-pillars array by the combination of photolithography and thermal CVD. Firstly, positive photoresist coated on Si substrate was hole-structured using a hole-patterned photomask by photolithography. The metal catalysts which are Fe and Al for CVD process were deposited on the hole-structured photoresist film as a template. After removing photoresist film from the substrate, VACNTs-pillars array was synthesized by thermal CVD. Table 3 Photolithography conditions for hole-structured photoresist film. Dose amount [mj/cm 2 ] 92.5 Developing time [s] 15 23

4 D Fig.3 G Hole-patterned photomask. D is a hole diameter. G is a gap between holes. Holes are hexagonal-arranged in a photomask. Table 4 Hole-pattern dimensions of a photomask. Hole diameter (D) [ m] Gap (G) [ m] (A) (B) (C) Molding of PDMS substrate and transfer press of VACNTs Figure 4 shows the schematic image of molding and transfer press. To prepare the mold for the fabrication of pillar-structured PDMS substrate, negative photoresist (SU-8 50, MicroChem Corp., USA) coated on Si substrate was hole-structured using a circular-patterned photomask by photolithography. This photomask is the inverted one in Figure 3 and the dimensions of circular-pattern are as in Table 4. PDMS (Slygard 184, Dow Corning Corp., USA) was coated on this mold. After baking the sample at 60 o C for 1 h, pillar-structured PDMS substrate was peeled off from the mold. VACNTs on Si substrate synthesized by thermal CVD and pillar-structured PDMS substrate were set in transfer-press equipment (show Figure 4b), and VACNTs were transfer to PDMS substrate. Conditions for the fabrication of hole-structured mold and for transfer press are presented in Table 5 and Table 6, respectively. Conditions for deposition of metal catalysts and for VACNTs synthesis are as in Table 1 and Table 2. The form of pillar-structured PDMS substrate and VACNTs-pillars array was observed by SEM. (a) 1. photolithography Hole-structured mold 2. Coating PDMS Pillar-structured PDMS substrate (b) Fig. 4 Load cell Sample Z-axis stage Z -axis stage Si wafer PDMS VACNTs Fabrication process of VACNTs-pillars array by molding and transfer press. (a) Fabrication process of hole-structured mold and pillar-structured PDMS substrate. (b) Transfer-press equipment. To prepare the mold for the fabrication of pillar-structured PDMS substrate, negative photoresist coated on Si substrate was hole-structured using a circular-patterned photomask by photolithography. PDMS was coated on this mold. After baking the sample at 60 o C for 1 h, pillar-structured PDMS substrate was peeled off from the mold. VACNTs on Si substrate synthesized by thermal CVD and pillar-structured PDMS substrate were set in transfer-press equipment, and VACNTs were transfer to PDMS substrate. Press VACNTs-pillars array Table 5 Photolithography conditions for hole-structures mold. Dose amount [mj/cm 2 ] 600 Developing time [min] 10 Table 6 Conditions for transfer press of VACNTs Press load [N] 5, 10 Press time [min] 10 24

5 3. Results and discussions 3.1 VACNTs patterning by photolithography and evaluation of protein adsorption property Figure 5 shows optical images of hole-structured photoresist film and circular-patterned metal catalysts on Si substrate, and a SEM image of VACNTs-pillars array on Si substrate. It is clarified that VACNTs pillars were synthesized retaining the form of circular-patterned metal catalysts. VACNTs-pillars array with different dimensions are presented in Figure 6. The diameters and heights of VACNTs pillars are approximately 10 m. It is indicated that the dimensions of VACNTs-pillars array can be controlled using photomasks with different dimensions. In previous studies on the fabrication of the reaction field of clumped CNTs by self-assembly (Kobayashi and Yang, 2009, Yang, et al., 2013), the fabrication process involved simple and low steps. Moreover, this process can control the structural dimensions of nanometer magnitude. However, the reproducibility of this process is low because self-assembly process is difficult to control the desired shape and size. On the other hand, the process proposed in this work can fabricate and control the micro structures with high aspect ratio which are required in the reaction field with high sensitivity and reaction efficiency. It is furthermore reasonable to expect that this fabrication method is highly reproducible due to the ease of control in the structure dimensions although this process involves complicated and multiple steps. (a) (b) (c) Fig μm 10 μm 10 μm (a) Optical image of hole-structured photoresist film. (b) Optical image of circular-patterned metal catalysts. (c) SEM image of VACNTs-pillars array. The dimension of the used photomask is (A) in Table 4. (a) (b) (c) Fig μm 10 μm 10 μm SEM images of VACNTs-pillars array. The pillar diameter in all images is 10 m. The gaps between pillars are 10 m, 30 m and 50 m in (a) ~ (c), respectively. The light absorbance of BSAs on the VACNTs reaction field is presented in Figure 7. The light absorbance of gap 50 m is not shown due to the low reproducibility of the fabrication for the VACNTs reaction field with this particular gap. The light absorbance of gap 10 m increases 1.9 times of gap 30 m. Furthermore, the specific surface area S S1 of the VACNTs reaction field was calculated as follows: S S1 = S 1,f + 4S 1,p V 1,f 4V 1,p = 2 3(d + g)2 + 4πdh h(2 3(d + g) 2 πd 2 ) (1) where S 1,f and S 1,p are the surface area of the unit-cell substrate and a VACNTs pillar in the VACNTs reaction field, respectively, V 1,f and V 1,p are the space volume of the unit cell and a VACNTs pillar in the VACNTs reaction field, respectively, d is the diameter of a VACNTs pillar, g is the gap between VACNTs pillars, and h is the height of a VACNTs pillar (show Figure 8). Specific surface areas in gap 10 m and gap 30 m are 0.25 m -1 and 0.13 m -1, respectively, and the increase rate of gap 10 m to gap 30 m is 1.9. Hence, the results imply that VACNTs pillars effectively contribute to BSAs adsorption within the scope of the applied gap scale. In the future, the relationship 25

6 between the increase rates of light absorbance and specific surface area in the VACNTs reaction field will be further examined. Additionally, the variation of the structural dimension, shape and surface properties of micro structures in the reaction field can affect the dynamic flow of biomolecules solution and the interactions between biomolecules and the reaction field surface occurred by van der Waals force and electric double layer effect which are dominant factors in the detection sensitivity and the reaction efficiency (Kanda, et al., 2007). Therefore, these properties can be significantly improved by considering the effect of VACNTs-structures designs on these phenomena. 0.4 Light absorbance of BSAs [a.u.] Fig. 7 0 Gap 10 μm Gap 30 μm Light absorbance of BSAs on VACNTs reaction fields with different gap. The light absorbance of gap 50 m is not shown due to the low reproducibility of the fabrication for the VACNTs reaction field with this particular gap. The light absorbance of gap 10 m increase 1.9 times of gap 30 m. Top view of VACTNs reaction field Unit cell of VACTNs reaction field h d Fig. 8 Definition of a unit cell in the VACNTs reaction field for the calculation of the specific surface area. d is the diameter of a VACNTs pillar, g is the gap between VACNTs pillars, and h is the height of a VACNTs pillar. 3.2 Molding of PDMS substrate and transfer press of VACNTs Figure 9 shows SEM images of pillar-structured PDMS substrate and VACNTs-pillar array after transfer press with press load 10 N. The heights of PDMS pillars and VACNTs pillars are approximately 20 m. In gap 10 m and 30 m, VACNTs are successfully transferred to the top of PDMS pillars. On the other hand, VACNTs are transferred to whole PDMS substrate in gap 50 m. This is due to the deformation of PDMS substrate in transfer press. It seems that PDMS pillars are more compressed to PDMS matrix because the stress in transfer press is more concentrated into pillars, decreasing the number of pillars per unit area. Hence, transfer press with press load 5 N was performed in gap 50 m. Figure 10 shows SEM images of VACNTs-pillar array in gap 50 m after transfer press with press load 5 N. This result indicates that VACNTs are transferred to the top of PDMS pillars which is similar to the case in gap 10 m and 30 m with press load 10 N. 26

7 (a) (b) (c) (d) 10 µm 10 µm 10 µm (e) (f) 25 µm 25 µm (g) (h) (i) 25 µm VACNTs Fig. 9 PDMS 5 µm 5 µm 5 µm SEM images of (a) ~ (c) pillar-structured PDMS substrate, (d) ~ (f) VACNTs-pillar array after transfer press with press load 10 N and (g) ~ (i) extended figures of (d) ~ (f). The diameter of PDMS pillars and VACNTs pillars is 10 m. (a), (d), (g) gap 10 m. (b), (e), (h) gap 30 m. (c), (f), (i) gap 50 m. (a) (b) Fig µm 5 µm (a) SEM images of VACNTs-pillar array in gap 50 m after transfer press with press load 5 N. (b) The extended figure of (a). However, the shape of a VACNTs pillar fabricated by molding and transfer press differs from that fabricated by the combination of photolithography and thermal CVD. Figure 11 shows schematic image of different shapes in VACNTs pillars obtained by the combination of photolithography and thermal CVD and by molding and transfer press. The specific surface area S S2 of the VACNTs reaction field fabricated by molding and transfer press was calculated as follows: S S2 = S 2,f + 4S 2,p V 2,f 4V 2,p = 2 3(d 3 + g) 2 + π {(d 1 + d 2 ) (d 1 d 2 ) 2 + 4h (d 3 + d 2 ) (d 3 d 2 ) 2 + 4h (d 2 1 d 2 3 )} 2 3(d 3 + g) 2 (h 1 + h 2 ) π 3 {h 1 (d 2 1 d 2 3 ) + h d 1 d 2 (d 2 3 d 3 2 )} 2 d 3 d 2 (2) where S 2,f and S 2,p are the surface area of the unit-cell substrate and a VACNTs pillar in the VACNTs reaction field, respectively, and V 2,f and V 2,p are the space volume of the unit cell and a VACNTs pillar in the VACNTs reaction field, respectively. d 1, d 2, and d 3 are the top, center, and bottom diameters of a VANCTs pillar. h 1 and h 2 are the heights of VACNTs and PDMS structure. d 1, d 2, d 3, h 1, and h 2 are approximately 9 m, 7.5 m, 10 m, 12 m, and 8 m, 27

8 respectively. Specific surface areas in gap 10 m and gap 30 m are 0.11 m -1 and 0.07 m -1, respectively. Although specific surface areas in the case of molding and transfer press decrease compared with the case of the combination of photolithography and thermal CVD, the aspect ratio of a VACNTs pillar in this case is twice larger than the case of the case of the combination of photolithography and thermal CVD. Therefore, this method can be utilized for fabricating the reaction field with high specific area controlled the aspect ratio of VACNTs pillars and the gap between pillars. Moreover, VACNTs are fixed on PDMS pillars by penetrating VACNTs to the pillars during transfer press. Hence, the stability of structures fabricated by this method is higher than the case of the combination of photolithography and thermal CVD. It is due to the low adhesion between VACNTs and Si substrate in the VACNTs synthesis. Finally, this advantage is also to enable the transfer of VACNTs with higher aspect ratio to PDMS substrate, which results in higher specific surface area. Furthermore, the cost efficiency of this method is expected to be lower than photolithography in terms of mass production because the mold for pillar-structured PDMS substrate can be reused after the fabrication of the substrate. d VACNTs pillar d 1 Fig. 11 h Silicon (a) PDMS (b) Schematic image of different shapes in VACNTs pillars in (a) the combination of photolithography and thermal CVD and (b) molding and transfer press. Mathematical symbols in (a) is as in Figure 8. In (b), d 1, d 2, and d 3 are the top, center, and bottom diameters of a VACNTs pillar, respectively. h 1 and h 2 are the heights of VACNTs and PDMS structure, respectively. d 2 d 3 h 1 h 2 4. Conclusions The fabrication of VACNTs-pillars array as the reaction field for high sensitivity of MBD by the combination of top-down process and VACNTs synthesis was performed. Two methods as top-down process were applied in the presented research. The first method is the combination of photolithography and thermal CVD as VACNTs synthesis. The second method is the molding process of pillar-structured PDMS substrate and the transfer press of VACNTs synthesized by thermal CVD on the substrate. In the first method, VACNTs-pillars array was fabricated by patterning metal catalysts on Si substrate. Using photomasks with different dimensions of the hole-pattern, the dimensions of VACNTs-pillars array was controlled. On the basis of the protein adsorption evaluation, it is indicated that the detection sensitivity of the reaction field would be much improved by considering the design of the form and the dimension in VACNTs structures. In the second method, pillar-structured PDMS substrate was molded using a photoresist mold by photolithography and VACNTs was transferred on this substrate by transfer-press equipment. The results show that VACNTs can be transferred on the top of micro pillars by controlling the load of transfer press. Furthermore, it is indicated that micro-pillar VACNTs structures can be fabricated by molding and transfer press with lower cost than the combination of photolithography and thermal CVD. References Chu, K., Wu, Q., Jia, C., Liang, X., Nie, J., Tian, W., Gai, G. and Guo, H., Fabrication and effective thermal conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced Cu matrix composites for heat sink applications, Composites Science and Technology, Vol.70, No.2 (2010), pp Delamarche, E., Juncker, D. and Schmid, H., Microfluidics for Processing Surfaces and Miniaturizing Biological Assays, Advanced Materials, Vol.17, No.24 (2005), pp

9 Han, S. W., Lee, S., Hong, J., Jang, E., Lee, T. and Koh, W., Multiscale substrates based on hydrogel-incorporated silicon nanowires for protein patterning and microarray-based immunoassays, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Vol.45, No.15 (2013), pp Hu, L., Choi, J. W., Yang, Y., Jeong, S., Mantia, F. L., Cui, L. and Cui, Y., Highly conductive paper for energy-storage devices, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol.106, No.51 (2009), pp Jomeh, S. and Hoorfar. M., Numerical modeling of mass transport in microfluidic biomolecule-capturing devices equipped with reactive surfaces, Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol.165, No.2 (2010), pp Kanda, K., Ogata, S., Jingu, K. and Yang, M., Measurement of Particle distribution in Microchannel Flow Using 3D-TIRM Method, Journal of Visualization, Vol.10, No.2 (2007), pp Kobayashi, R. and Yang, M., Nanostructured Surface by Self-Assembly of Carbon Nanotubes for Bio-Analysis, Journal of Solid Mechanics and Materials Engineering, Vol.3, No.2 (2009), pp Matsunaga, T., Elemental Technology and Application for Biochip (2009), p.228, CMC Publishing Co., LTD. (in Japanese) Moronuki, N., Surface functions brought by surface micro structures (2011), p.151, Morikita Publishing Co., LTD. (in Japanese) Scopes, R. K., Measurement of protein by spectrophotometry at 205 nm, Analytical Biochemistry, Vol. 59, No.1 (1974), pp Yang, M., Yabe, T. and Uchiyama K., Fabrication of Micro Device for Rapid and High-Sensitive Bio-Analysis, Journal of Solid Mechanics and Materials Engineering, Vol.7, No.2 (2013), pp

There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom

There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom 12/29/1959 Feynman asked why not put the entire Encyclopedia Britannica (24 volumes) on a pin head (requires atomic scale recording). He proposed to use electron microscope

More information

Techniken der Oberflächenphysik (Techniques of Surface Physics)

Techniken der Oberflächenphysik (Techniques of Surface Physics) Techniken der Oberflächenphysik (Techniques of Surface Physics) Prof. Yong Lei & Dr. Yang Xu (& Liying Liang) Fachgebiet 3D-Nanostrukturierung, Institut für Physik Contact: yong.lei@tu-ilmenau.de; yang.xu@tu-ilmenau.de;

More information

Supporting Information. Direct Growth of Graphene Films on 3D Grating. Structural Quartz Substrates for High-performance. Pressure-Sensitive Sensor

Supporting Information. Direct Growth of Graphene Films on 3D Grating. Structural Quartz Substrates for High-performance. Pressure-Sensitive Sensor Supporting Information Direct Growth of Graphene Films on 3D Grating Structural Quartz Substrates for High-performance Pressure-Sensitive Sensor Xuefen Song, a,b Tai Sun b Jun Yang, b Leyong Yu, b Dacheng

More information

Supplementary Information. Atomic Layer Deposition of Platinum Catalysts on Nanowire Surfaces for Photoelectrochemical Water Reduction

Supplementary Information. Atomic Layer Deposition of Platinum Catalysts on Nanowire Surfaces for Photoelectrochemical Water Reduction Supplementary Information Atomic Layer Deposition of Platinum Catalysts on Nanowire Surfaces for Photoelectrochemical Water Reduction Neil P. Dasgupta 1 ǂ, Chong Liu 1,2 ǂ, Sean Andrews 1,2, Fritz B. Prinz

More information

Fabrication of ordered array at a nanoscopic level: context

Fabrication of ordered array at a nanoscopic level: context Fabrication of ordered array at a nanoscopic level: context Top-down method Bottom-up method Classical lithography techniques Fast processes Size limitations it ti E-beam techniques Small sizes Slow processes

More information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Information ature anotechnology reference number: AO-06110617A Growth and alignment of polyaniline nanofibres with superhydrophobic, superhydrophilic and other properties an-rong Chiou 1,2,3, Chunmeng Lu 1, Jingjiao

More information

Introduction to Photolithography

Introduction to Photolithography http://www.ichaus.de/news/72 Introduction to Photolithography Photolithography The following slides present an outline of the process by which integrated circuits are made, of which photolithography is

More information

Analyses of LiNbO 3 wafer surface etched by ECR plasma of CHF 3 & CF 4

Analyses of LiNbO 3 wafer surface etched by ECR plasma of CHF 3 & CF 4 1998 DRY PROCESS SYMPOSIUM VI - 3 Analyses of LiNbO 3 wafer surface etched by ECR plasma of CHF 3 & CF 4 Naoki Mitsugi, Kaori Shima, Masumi Ishizuka and Hirotoshi Nagata New Technology Research Laboratories,

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Supporting Information Assembly and Densification of Nanowire Arrays via Shrinkage Jaehoon Bang, Jonghyun Choi, Fan Xia, Sun Sang Kwon, Ali Ashraf, Won Il Park, and SungWoo Nam*,, Department of Mechanical

More information

Micro Chemical Vapor Deposition System: Design and Verification

Micro Chemical Vapor Deposition System: Design and Verification Micro Chemical Vapor Deposition System: Design and Verification Q. Zhou and L. Lin Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley 2009 IEEE

More information

A Novel Approach to the Layer Number-Controlled and Grain Size- Controlled Growth of High Quality Graphene for Nanoelectronics

A Novel Approach to the Layer Number-Controlled and Grain Size- Controlled Growth of High Quality Graphene for Nanoelectronics Supporting Information A Novel Approach to the Layer Number-Controlled and Grain Size- Controlled Growth of High Quality Graphene for Nanoelectronics Tej B. Limbu 1,2, Jean C. Hernández 3, Frank Mendoza

More information

Nanotechnology Fabrication Methods.

Nanotechnology Fabrication Methods. Nanotechnology Fabrication Methods. 10 / 05 / 2016 1 Summary: 1.Introduction to Nanotechnology:...3 2.Nanotechnology Fabrication Methods:...5 2.1.Top-down Methods:...7 2.2.Bottom-up Methods:...16 3.Conclusions:...19

More information

Supplementary information for

Supplementary information for Supplementary information for Transverse electric field dragging of DNA in a nanochannel Makusu Tsutsui, Yuhui He, Masayuki Furuhashi, Rahong Sakon, Masateru Taniguchi & Tomoji Kawai The Supplementary

More information

Supplementary information

Supplementary information Supplementary information Electrochemical synthesis of metal and semimetal nanotube-nanowire heterojunctions and their electronic transport properties Dachi Yang, ab Guowen Meng,* a Shuyuan Zhang, c Yufeng

More information

Supplementary Figure 1 Detailed illustration on the fabrication process of templatestripped

Supplementary Figure 1 Detailed illustration on the fabrication process of templatestripped Supplementary Figure 1 Detailed illustration on the fabrication process of templatestripped gold substrate. (a) Spin coating of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) resist onto the silicon substrate with a thickness

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for Journal of Materials Chemistry A. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015 Supporting Information 1. Synthesis of perovskite materials CH 3 NH 3 I

More information

Supporting Information: Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Stamp Coated with a. Low-Surface-Energy, Diffusion-Blocking,

Supporting Information: Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Stamp Coated with a. Low-Surface-Energy, Diffusion-Blocking, Supporting Information: Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Stamp Coated with a Low-Surface-Energy, Diffusion-Blocking, Covalently Bonded Perfluoropolyether Layer and Its Application to the Fabrication of Organic Electronic

More information

Multiple-Patterning Nanosphere Lithography for Fabricating Periodic Three-Dimensional Hierarchical Nanostructures

Multiple-Patterning Nanosphere Lithography for Fabricating Periodic Three-Dimensional Hierarchical Nanostructures Supporting Information Multiple-Patterning Nanosphere Lithography for Fabricating Periodic Three-Dimensional Hierarchical Nanostructures Xiaobin Xu, 1,2 Qing Yang, 1,2 Natcha Wattanatorn, 1,2 Chuanzhen

More information

Electronic Supplementary Information. Continuous Flow Microfluidic-MS System for Efficient OBOC Screening

Electronic Supplementary Information. Continuous Flow Microfluidic-MS System for Efficient OBOC Screening Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for RSC Advances. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014 Electronic Supplementary Information Continuous Flow Microfluidic-MS System for Efficient OBOC

More information

Lessons from Nature: Adhesion and Structure

Lessons from Nature: Adhesion and Structure Lessons from Nature: Adhesion and Structure Alfred J. Crosby 1, Michael Bartlett 1, Andrew B. Croll 1, Duncan Irschick 2, Derek Breid 1, Chelsea Davis 1 University of Massachusetts Amherst 1 Polymer Science

More information

CARBON NANOSTRUCTURES SYNTHESIZED THROUGH GRAPHITE ETCHING

CARBON NANOSTRUCTURES SYNTHESIZED THROUGH GRAPHITE ETCHING CARBON NANOSTRUCTURES SYNTHESIZED THROUGH GRAPHITE ETCHING Q. Yang 1, C. Xiao 1, R. Sammynaiken 2 and A. Hirose 1 1 Plasma Physics Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place Saskatoon, SK

More information

Micro/nano and precision manufacturing technologies and applications

Micro/nano and precision manufacturing technologies and applications The 4th China-American Frontiers of Engineering Symposium Micro/nano and precision manufacturing technologies and applications Dazhi Wang School of Mechanical Engineering Dalian University of Technology

More information

Supplementary Figure 1 a) Scheme of microfluidic device fabrication by photo and soft lithography,

Supplementary Figure 1 a) Scheme of microfluidic device fabrication by photo and soft lithography, a b 1 mm Supplementary Figure 1 a) Scheme of microfluidic device fabrication by photo and soft lithography, (a1, a2) 50nm Pd evaporated on Si wafer with 100 nm Si 2 insulating layer and 5nm Cr as an adhesion

More information

Plasmonic Hot Hole Generation by Interband Transition in Gold-Polyaniline

Plasmonic Hot Hole Generation by Interband Transition in Gold-Polyaniline Supplementary Information Plasmonic Hot Hole Generation by Interband Transition in Gold-Polyaniline Tapan Barman, Amreen A. Hussain, Bikash Sharma, Arup R. Pal* Plasma Nanotech Lab, Physical Sciences Division,

More information

Nanostructures Fabrication Methods

Nanostructures Fabrication Methods Nanostructures Fabrication Methods bottom-up methods ( atom by atom ) In the bottom-up approach, atoms, molecules and even nanoparticles themselves can be used as the building blocks for the creation of

More information

Supplementary Material (ESI) for Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010

Supplementary Material (ESI) for Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010 Magnetic Solid Phase Microextraction on a Microchip Combined with Electrothermal Vaporization Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for Determination of, and in Cells Beibei Chen 1, Shujing Heng

More information

Nanostructure. Materials Growth Characterization Fabrication. More see Waser, chapter 2

Nanostructure. Materials Growth Characterization Fabrication. More see Waser, chapter 2 Nanostructure Materials Growth Characterization Fabrication More see Waser, chapter 2 Materials growth - deposition deposition gas solid Physical Vapor Deposition Chemical Vapor Deposition Physical Vapor

More information

Pattern Transfer- photolithography

Pattern Transfer- photolithography Pattern Transfer- photolithography DUV : EUV : 13 nm 248 (KrF), 193 (ArF), 157 (F 2 )nm H line: 400 nm I line: 365 nm G line: 436 nm Wavelength (nm) High pressure Hg arc lamp emission Ref: Campbell: 7

More information

Wafer Scale Homogeneous Bilayer Graphene Films by. Chemical Vapor Deposition

Wafer Scale Homogeneous Bilayer Graphene Films by. Chemical Vapor Deposition Supporting Information for Wafer Scale Homogeneous Bilayer Graphene Films by Chemical Vapor Deposition Seunghyun Lee, Kyunghoon Lee, Zhaohui Zhong Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science,

More information

Supplementary Figure 1 shows overall fabrication process and detailed illustrations are given

Supplementary Figure 1 shows overall fabrication process and detailed illustrations are given Supplementary Figure 1. Pressure sensor fabrication schematics. Supplementary Figure 1 shows overall fabrication process and detailed illustrations are given in Methods section. (a) Firstly, the sacrificial

More information

Carbon Nanotube Thin-Films & Nanoparticle Assembly

Carbon Nanotube Thin-Films & Nanoparticle Assembly Nanodevices using Nanomaterials : Carbon Nanotube Thin-Films & Nanoparticle Assembly Seung-Beck Lee Division of Electronics and Computer Engineering & Department of Nanotechnology, Hanyang University,

More information

Interaction between Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes and Water Molecules

Interaction between Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes and Water Molecules Workshop on Molecular Thermal Engineering Univ. of Tokyo 2013. 07. 05 Interaction between Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes and Water Molecules Shohei Chiashi Dept. of Mech. Eng., The Univ. of Tokyo, Japan

More information

CURRENT STATUS OF NANOIMPRINT LITHOGRAPHY DEVELOPMENT IN CNMM

CURRENT STATUS OF NANOIMPRINT LITHOGRAPHY DEVELOPMENT IN CNMM U.S. -KOREA Forums on Nanotechnology 1 CURRENT STATUS OF NANOIMPRINT LITHOGRAPHY DEVELOPMENT IN CNMM February 17 th 2005 Eung-Sug Lee,Jun-Ho Jeong Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials U.S. -KOREA Forums

More information

Supplementary Information. Rapid Stencil Mask Fabrication Enabled One-Step. Polymer-Free Graphene Patterning and Direct

Supplementary Information. Rapid Stencil Mask Fabrication Enabled One-Step. Polymer-Free Graphene Patterning and Direct Supplementary Information Rapid Stencil Mask Fabrication Enabled One-Step Polymer-Free Graphene Patterning and Direct Transfer for Flexible Graphene Devices Keong Yong 1,, Ali Ashraf 1,, Pilgyu Kang 1,

More information

3D Micropatterned Surface Inspired by Salvinia

3D Micropatterned Surface Inspired by Salvinia Supporting information 3D Micropatterned Surface Inspired by Salvinia molesta via Direct Laser Lithography. Omar Tricinci*,, Tercio Terencio,#, Barbara Mazzolai, Nicola M. Pugno,,, Francesco Greco*,, Virgilio

More information

Outline. Chemical Microsystems Applications. Microfluidic Component Examples Chemical Microsystems for Analysis Chemical Microsystems for Synthesis

Outline. Chemical Microsystems Applications. Microfluidic Component Examples Chemical Microsystems for Analysis Chemical Microsystems for Synthesis Outline Chemical Microsystems Applications Microfluidic Component Examples Chemical Microsystems for Analysis Chemical Microsystems for Synthesis Fundamentals of Micromachining Dr. Bruce Gale With Special

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Supporting Information Highly Sensitive, Reproducible, and Stable SERS Sensors Based on Well-Controlled Silver Nanoparticles Decorated Silicon Nanowire Building Blocks Xue Mei Han, Hui Wang, Xue Mei Ou,

More information

DEPOSITION OF THIN TiO 2 FILMS BY DC MAGNETRON SPUTTERING METHOD

DEPOSITION OF THIN TiO 2 FILMS BY DC MAGNETRON SPUTTERING METHOD Chapter 4 DEPOSITION OF THIN TiO 2 FILMS BY DC MAGNETRON SPUTTERING METHOD 4.1 INTRODUCTION Sputter deposition process is another old technique being used in modern semiconductor industries. Sputtering

More information

Kavli Workshop for Journalists. June 13th, CNF Cleanroom Activities

Kavli Workshop for Journalists. June 13th, CNF Cleanroom Activities Kavli Workshop for Journalists June 13th, 2007 CNF Cleanroom Activities Seeing nm-sized Objects with an SEM Lab experience: Scanning Electron Microscopy Equipment: Zeiss Supra 55VP Scanning electron microscopes

More information

Low Power Phase Change Memory via Block Copolymer Self-assembly Technology

Low Power Phase Change Memory via Block Copolymer Self-assembly Technology Low Power Phase Change Memory via Block Copolymer Self-assembly Technology Beom Ho Mun 1, Woon Ik Park 1, You Yin 2, Byoung Kuk You 1, Jae Jin Yun 1, Kung Ho Kim 1, Yeon Sik Jung 1*, and Keon Jae Lee 1*

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Supporting Information Clustered Ribbed-Nanoneedle Structured Copper Surfaces with High- Efficiency Dropwise Condensation Heat Transfer Performance Jie Zhu, Yuting Luo, Jian Tian, Juan Li and Xuefeng Gao*

More information

Figure 1: Graphene release, transfer and stacking processes. The graphene stacking began with CVD

Figure 1: Graphene release, transfer and stacking processes. The graphene stacking began with CVD Supplementary figure 1 Graphene Growth and Transfer Graphene PMMA FeCl 3 DI water Copper foil CVD growth Back side etch PMMA coating Copper etch in 0.25M FeCl 3 DI water rinse 1 st transfer DI water 1:10

More information

Nanostrukturphysik (Nanostructure Physics)

Nanostrukturphysik (Nanostructure Physics) Nanostrukturphysik (Nanostructure Physics) Prof. Yong Lei & Dr. Yang Xu Fachgebiet 3D-Nanostrukturierung, Institut für Physik Contact: yong.lei@tu-ilmenau.de; yang.xu@tu-ilmenau.de Office: Unterpoerlitzer

More information

Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube Channels on Three- Dimensional Building Blocks and Their Applications

Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube Channels on Three- Dimensional Building Blocks and Their Applications AOARD Report Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube Channels on Three- Dimensional Building Blocks and Their Applications Principal Investigator : Haiwon Lee Grant Number : AOARD 104106 Affiliation of Researcher(s):

More information

MICROCHIP MANUFACTURING by S. Wolf

MICROCHIP MANUFACTURING by S. Wolf by S. Wolf Chapter 15 ALUMINUM THIN-FILMS and SPUTTER-DEPOSITION 2004 by LATTICE PRESS CHAPTER 15 - CONTENTS Aluminum Thin-Films Sputter-Deposition Process Steps Physics of Sputter-Deposition Magnetron-Sputtering

More information

SUPPLEMENTARY FIGURES

SUPPLEMENTARY FIGURES SUPPLEMENTARY FIGURES a b c Supplementary Figure 1 Fabrication of the near-field radiative heat transfer device. a, Main fabrication steps for the bottom Si substrate. b, Main fabrication steps for the

More information

Revealing High Fidelity of Nanomolding Process by Extracting the Information from AFM Image with Systematic Artifacts

Revealing High Fidelity of Nanomolding Process by Extracting the Information from AFM Image with Systematic Artifacts Revealing High Fidelity of Nanomolding Process by Extracting the Information from AFM Image with Systematic Artifacts Sajal Biring* Department of Electronics Engineering and Organic Electronics Research

More information

LAYER BY LAYER (LbL) SELF-ASSEMBLY STRATEGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS

LAYER BY LAYER (LbL) SELF-ASSEMBLY STRATEGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS LAYER BY LAYER (LbL) SELF-ASSEMBLY STRATEGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS A. Z. Cheng 1, R. Swaminathan 2 1 Nanotechnology Engineering, University of Waterloo, azcheng@uwaterloo.ca; 2 Nanotechnology Engineering,

More information

Stretchable Graphene Transistors with Printed Dielectrics and Gate Electrodes

Stretchable Graphene Transistors with Printed Dielectrics and Gate Electrodes Stretchable Graphene Transistors with Printed Dielectrics and Gate Electrodes Seoung-Ki Lee, Beom Joon Kim, Houk Jang, Sung Cheol Yoon, Changjin Lee, Byung Hee Hong, John A. Rogers, Jeong Ho Cho, Jong-Hyun

More information

Introduction to Nanotechnology Chapter 5 Carbon Nanostructures Lecture 1

Introduction to Nanotechnology Chapter 5 Carbon Nanostructures Lecture 1 Introduction to Nanotechnology Chapter 5 Carbon Nanostructures Lecture 1 ChiiDong Chen Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica chiidong@phys.sinica.edu.tw 02 27896766 Carbon contains 6 electrons: (1s) 2,

More information

Large Scale Direct Synthesis of Graphene on Sapphire and Transfer-free Device Fabrication

Large Scale Direct Synthesis of Graphene on Sapphire and Transfer-free Device Fabrication Supplementary Information Large Scale Direct Synthesis of Graphene on Sapphire and Transfer-free Device Fabrication Hyun Jae Song a, Minhyeok Son a, Chibeom Park a, Hyunseob Lim a, Mark P. Levendorf b,

More information

nmos IC Design Report Module: EEE 112

nmos IC Design Report Module: EEE 112 nmos IC Design Report Author: 1302509 Zhao Ruimin Module: EEE 112 Lecturer: Date: Dr.Zhao Ce Zhou June/5/2015 Abstract This lab intended to train the experimental skills of the layout designing of the

More information

Nanofabrication/Nano-Characterization Calixarene and CNT Control Technology

Nanofabrication/Nano-Characterization Calixarene and CNT Control Technology Nanofabrication/Nano-Characterization Calixarene and CNT Control Technology ISHIDA Masahiko, FUJITA Junichi, NARIHIRO Mitsuru, ICHIHASHI Toshinari, NIHEY Fumiyuki, OCHIAI Yukinori Abstract The world of

More information

Template Synthesis of Nano-Structured Carbons

Template Synthesis of Nano-Structured Carbons Template Synthesis of Nano-Structured Carbons Takashi Kyotani Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, JAPAN For controlling complicated carbon structure at nanometer

More information

Two-Dimensional (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 PbBr 4 Perovskite Crystals for. High-Performance Photodetector. Supporting Information for

Two-Dimensional (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 PbBr 4 Perovskite Crystals for. High-Performance Photodetector. Supporting Information for Supporting Information for Two-Dimensional (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 PbBr 4 Perovskite Crystals for High-Performance Photodetector Zhenjun Tan,,ǁ, Yue Wu,ǁ, Hao Hong, Jianbo Yin, Jincan Zhang,, Li Lin, Mingzhan

More information

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, KY, USA

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, KY, USA Synthesis and Characterization of Hydrogels Grown on Surfaces by ATRP Hariharasudhan Chirra 1, James Z. Hilt 2 1 Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, KY, USA 40508.

More information

UNIT 3. By: Ajay Kumar Gautam Asst. Prof. Dev Bhoomi Institute of Technology & Engineering, Dehradun

UNIT 3. By: Ajay Kumar Gautam Asst. Prof. Dev Bhoomi Institute of Technology & Engineering, Dehradun UNIT 3 By: Ajay Kumar Gautam Asst. Prof. Dev Bhoomi Institute of Technology & Engineering, Dehradun 1 Syllabus Lithography: photolithography and pattern transfer, Optical and non optical lithography, electron,

More information

Lecture 18: Microfluidic MEMS, Applications

Lecture 18: Microfluidic MEMS, Applications MECH 466 Microelectromechanical Systems University of Victoria Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Lecture 18: Microfluidic MEMS, Applications 1 Overview Microfluidic Electrokinetic Flow Basic Microfluidic

More information

A Novel Self-aligned and Maskless Process for Formation of Highly Uniform Arrays of Nanoholes and Nanopillars

A Novel Self-aligned and Maskless Process for Formation of Highly Uniform Arrays of Nanoholes and Nanopillars Nanoscale Res Lett (2008) 3: 127 DOI 10.1007/s11671-008-9124-6 NANO EXPRESS A Novel Self-aligned and Maskless Process for Formation of Highly Uniform Arrays of Nanoholes and Nanopillars Wei Wu Æ Dibyendu

More information

ESS 5855 Surface Engineering for. MicroElectroMechanicalechanical Systems. Fall 2010

ESS 5855 Surface Engineering for. MicroElectroMechanicalechanical Systems. Fall 2010 ESS 5855 Surface Engineering for Microelectromechanical Systems Fall 2010 MicroElectroMechanicalechanical Systems Miniaturized systems with integrated electrical and mechanical components for actuation

More information

Supporting Information Available:

Supporting Information Available: Supporting Information Available: Photoresponsive and Gas Sensing Field-Effect Transistors based on Multilayer WS 2 Nanoflakes Nengjie Huo 1, Shengxue Yang 1, Zhongming Wei 2, Shu-Shen Li 1, Jian-Bai Xia

More information

Wafer-scale fabrication of graphene

Wafer-scale fabrication of graphene Wafer-scale fabrication of graphene Sten Vollebregt, MSc Delft University of Technology, Delft Institute of Mircosystems and Nanotechnology Delft University of Technology Challenge the future Delft University

More information

Synthesis and Characterization of Silver-Titanium Nanocomposite via Horizontal Vapor Phase Growth (HVPG) Technique

Synthesis and Characterization of Silver-Titanium Nanocomposite via Horizontal Vapor Phase Growth (HVPG) Technique Presented at the DLSU Research Congress 215 March 2-4, 215 Synthesis and Characterization of Silver-tanium Nanocomposite via Horizontal Vapor Phase Growth (HVPG) Technique Muhammad A. Muflikhun 1, Gil

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Supporting Information Superstructural Raman Nanosensors with Integrated Dual Functions for Ultrasensitive Detection and Tunable Release of Molecules Jing Liu #, Jianhe Guo #, Guowen Meng and Donglei Fan*

More information

Development of Lift-off Photoresists with Unique Bottom Profile

Development of Lift-off Photoresists with Unique Bottom Profile Transactions of The Japan Institute of Electronics Packaging Vol. 8, No. 1, 2015 [Technical Paper] Development of Lift-off Photoresists with Unique Bottom Profile Hirokazu Ito, Kouichi Hasegawa, Tomohiro

More information

Supporting Information. for. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Z Wiley-VCH 2004

Supporting Information. for. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Z Wiley-VCH 2004 Supporting Information for Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Z53009 Wiley-VCH 2004 69451 Weinheim, Germany Shear Patterning of Microdominos: A New Class of Procedures for Making Micro- and Nanostructures ** Byron

More information

Supplementary Information. High-Performance, Transparent and Stretchable Electrodes using. Graphene-Metal Nanowire Hybrid Structures

Supplementary Information. High-Performance, Transparent and Stretchable Electrodes using. Graphene-Metal Nanowire Hybrid Structures Supplementary Information High-Performance, Transparent and Stretchable Electrodes using Graphene-Metal Nanowire Hybrid Structures Mi-Sun Lee, Kyongsoo Lee, So-Yun Kim, Heejoo Lee, Jihun Park, Kwang-Hyuk

More information

29: Nanotechnology. What is Nanotechnology? Properties Control and Understanding. Nanomaterials

29: Nanotechnology. What is Nanotechnology? Properties Control and Understanding. Nanomaterials 29: Nanotechnology What is Nanotechnology? Properties Control and Understanding Nanomaterials Making nanomaterials Seeing at the nanoscale Quantum Dots Carbon Nanotubes Biology at the Nanoscale Some Applications

More information

Determining Carbon Nanotube Properties from Raman. Scattering Measurements

Determining Carbon Nanotube Properties from Raman. Scattering Measurements Determining Carbon Nanotube Properties from Raman Scattering Measurements Ying Geng 1, David Fang 2, and Lei Sun 3 1 2 3 The Institute of Optics, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Laboratory for Laser

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for ChemComm. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014 Supporting Information Controllable Atmospheric Pressure Growth of Mono-layer, Bi-layer and Tri-layer

More information

Supporting Information. Near infrared light-powered Janus mesoporous silica nanoparticle motors

Supporting Information. Near infrared light-powered Janus mesoporous silica nanoparticle motors Supporting Information Near infrared light-powered Janus mesoporous silica nanoparticle motors Mingjun Xuan,, Zhiguang Wu,, Jingxin Shao, Luru Dai, Tieyan Si,, * and Qiang He, * State Key Laboratory of

More information

Nanosphere Lithography

Nanosphere Lithography Nanosphere Lithography Derec Ciafre 1, Lingyun Miao 2, and Keita Oka 1 1 Institute of Optics / 2 ECE Dept. University of Rochester Abstract Nanosphere Lithography is quickly emerging as an efficient, low

More information

Nanoscale Issues in Materials & Manufacturing

Nanoscale Issues in Materials & Manufacturing Nanoscale Issues in Materials & Manufacturing ENGR 213 Principles of Materials Engineering Module 2: Introduction to Nanoscale Issues Top-down and Bottom-up Approaches for Fabrication Winfried Teizer,

More information

Supporting Information s for

Supporting Information s for Supporting Information s for # Self-assembling of DNA-templated Au Nanoparticles into Nanowires and their enhanced SERS and Catalytic Applications Subrata Kundu* and M. Jayachandran Electrochemical Materials

More information

Fabrication Methods. Often two methods are typical. Top Down Bottom up. Begins with atoms or molecules. Begins with bulk materials

Fabrication Methods. Often two methods are typical. Top Down Bottom up. Begins with atoms or molecules. Begins with bulk materials Fabrication Methods Often two methods are typical Top Down Bottom up Begins with bulk materials Begins with atoms or molecules Reduced in size to nano By thermal, physical Chemical, electrochemical means

More information

Integrating MEMS Electro-Static Driven Micro-Probe and Laser Doppler Vibrometer for Non-Contact Vibration Mode SPM System Design

Integrating MEMS Electro-Static Driven Micro-Probe and Laser Doppler Vibrometer for Non-Contact Vibration Mode SPM System Design Tamkang Journal of Science and Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 399 407 (2009) 399 Integrating MEMS Electro-Static Driven Micro-Probe and Laser Doppler Vibrometer for Non-Contact Vibration Mode SPM System

More information

SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Supplementary Note 1: Fabrication of Scanning Thermal Microscopy Probes

SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Supplementary Note 1: Fabrication of Scanning Thermal Microscopy Probes SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Supplementary Note 1: Fabrication of Scanning Thermal Microscopy Probes Fabrication of the scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) probes is summarized in Supplementary Fig. 1 and proceeds

More information

Fabrication Methods: Chapter 4. Often two methods are typical. Top Down Bottom up. Begins with atoms or molecules. Begins with bulk materials

Fabrication Methods: Chapter 4. Often two methods are typical. Top Down Bottom up. Begins with atoms or molecules. Begins with bulk materials Fabrication Methods: Chapter 4 Often two methods are typical Top Down Bottom up Begins with bulk materials Begins with atoms or molecules Reduced in size to nano By thermal, physical Chemical, electrochemical

More information

PERIODIC ARRAYS OF METAL NANOBOWLS AS SERS-ACTIVE SUBSTRATES

PERIODIC ARRAYS OF METAL NANOBOWLS AS SERS-ACTIVE SUBSTRATES PERIODIC ARRAYS OF METAL NANOBOWLS AS SERS-ACTIVE SUBSTRATES Lucie ŠTOLCOVÁ a, Jan PROŠKA a, Filip NOVOTNÝ a, Marek PROCHÁZKA b, Ivan RICHTER a a Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear

More information

Direct Measurement of Adhesion Energy of Monolayer Graphene As-Grown. on Copper and Its Application to Renewable Transfer Process

Direct Measurement of Adhesion Energy of Monolayer Graphene As-Grown. on Copper and Its Application to Renewable Transfer Process SUPPORTING INFORMATION Direct Measurement of Adhesion Energy of Monolayer Graphene As-Grown on Copper and Its Application to Renewable Transfer Process Taeshik Yoon 1, Woo Cheol Shin 2, Taek Yong Kim 2,

More information

Selective Manipulation of Molecules by Electrostatic Force and Detection of Single Molecules in Aqueous Solution

Selective Manipulation of Molecules by Electrostatic Force and Detection of Single Molecules in Aqueous Solution Supporting Information Selective Manipulation of Molecules by Electrostatic Force and Detection of Single Molecules in Aqueous Solution Zhongbo Yan, Ming Xia, Pei Zhang, and Ya-Hong Xie* Department of

More information

Supporting Information. CdS/mesoporous ZnS core/shell particles for efficient and stable photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible light

Supporting Information. CdS/mesoporous ZnS core/shell particles for efficient and stable photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible light Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for Energy & Environmental Science. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014 Supporting Information CdS/mesoporous ZnS core/shell particles for efficient

More information

Supporting Information. Temperature dependence on charge transport behavior of threedimensional

Supporting Information. Temperature dependence on charge transport behavior of threedimensional Supporting Information Temperature dependence on charge transport behavior of threedimensional superlattice crystals A. Sreekumaran Nair and K. Kimura* University of Hyogo, Graduate School of Material

More information

Nanocarbon Technology for Development of Innovative Devices

Nanocarbon Technology for Development of Innovative Devices Nanocarbon Technology for Development of Innovative Devices Shintaro Sato Daiyu Kondo Shinichi Hirose Junichi Yamaguchi Graphene, a one-atom-thick honeycomb lattice made of carbon, and a carbon nanotube,

More information

NANOMEDICINE. WILEY A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Publication DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS OF MAGNETIC NANOMATERIALS, NANOSENSORS AND NANOSYSTEMS

NANOMEDICINE. WILEY A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Publication DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS OF MAGNETIC NANOMATERIALS, NANOSENSORS AND NANOSYSTEMS NANOMEDICINE DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS OF MAGNETIC NANOMATERIALS, NANOSENSORS AND NANOSYSTEMS Vijay K. Varadan Linfeng Chen Jining Xie WILEY A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Publication Preface About the Authors

More information

Supporting Information. Metallic Adhesion Layer Induced Plasmon Damping and Molecular Linker as a Non-Damping Alternative

Supporting Information. Metallic Adhesion Layer Induced Plasmon Damping and Molecular Linker as a Non-Damping Alternative Supporting Information Metallic Adhesion Layer Induced Plasmon Damping and Molecular Linker as a Non-Damping Alternative Terefe G. Habteyes, Scott Dhuey, Erin Wood, Daniel Gargas, Stefano Cabrini, P. James

More information

Effect of Spiral Microwave Antenna Configuration on the Production of Nano-crystalline Film by Chemical Sputtering in ECR Plasma

Effect of Spiral Microwave Antenna Configuration on the Production of Nano-crystalline Film by Chemical Sputtering in ECR Plasma THE HARRIS SCIENCE REVIEW OF DOSHISHA UNIVERSITY, VOL. 56, No. 1 April 2015 Effect of Spiral Microwave Antenna Configuration on the Production of Nano-crystalline Film by Chemical Sputtering in ECR Plasma

More information

CHARACTERIZATION AND FIELD EMISSION PROPERTIES OF FIELDS OF NANOTUBES

CHARACTERIZATION AND FIELD EMISSION PROPERTIES OF FIELDS OF NANOTUBES CHARACTERIZATION AND FIELD EMISSION PROPERTIES OF FIELDS OF NANOTUBES Martin MAGÁT a, Jan PEKÁREK, Radimír VRBA a Department of microelectronics, The Faculty of Electrical Engineeering and Communication,

More information

Photolithography 光刻 Part II: Photoresists

Photolithography 光刻 Part II: Photoresists 微纳光电子材料与器件工艺原理 Photolithography 光刻 Part II: Photoresists Xing Sheng 盛兴 Department of Electronic Engineering Tsinghua University xingsheng@tsinghua.edu.cn 1 Photolithography 光刻胶 负胶 正胶 4 Photolithography

More information

Electron-beam SAFIER process and its application for magnetic thin-film heads

Electron-beam SAFIER process and its application for magnetic thin-film heads Electron-beam SAFIER process and its application for magnetic thin-film heads XiaoMin Yang, a) Harold Gentile, Andrew Eckert, and Stanko R. Brankovic Seagate Research Center, 1251 Waterfront Place, Pittsburgh,

More information

ORION NanoFab: An Overview of Applications. White Paper

ORION NanoFab: An Overview of Applications. White Paper ORION NanoFab: An Overview of Applications White Paper ORION NanoFab: An Overview of Applications Author: Dr. Bipin Singh Carl Zeiss NTS, LLC, USA Date: September 2012 Introduction With the advancement

More information

Controlled self-assembly of graphene oxide on a remote aluminum foil

Controlled self-assembly of graphene oxide on a remote aluminum foil Supplementary Information Controlled self-assembly of graphene oxide on a remote aluminum foil Kai Feng, Yewen Cao and Peiyi Wu* State key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Department of

More information

Multilayer Wiring Technology with Grinding Planarization of Dielectric Layer and Via Posts

Multilayer Wiring Technology with Grinding Planarization of Dielectric Layer and Via Posts Tani et al.: Multilayer Wiring Technology with Grinding Planarization (1/6) [Technical Paper] Multilayer Wiring Technology with Grinding Planarization of Dielectric Layer and Via Posts Motoaki Tani, Kanae

More information

Anti-icing surfaces based on enhanced self-propelled jumping of condensed water microdroplets

Anti-icing surfaces based on enhanced self-propelled jumping of condensed water microdroplets Anti-icing surfaces based on enhanced self-propelled jumping of condensed water microdroplets Qiaolan Zhang, a,b Min He, a Jing Chen, a,b Jianjun Wang,* a Yanlin Song* a and Lei Jiang a a Beijing National

More information

Millimeter-Thick Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Forests: Hidden Role of Catalyst Support

Millimeter-Thick Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Forests: Hidden Role of Catalyst Support Millimeter-Thick Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Forests: Hidden Role of Catalyst Support Suguru Noda 1*, Kei Hasegawa 1, Hisashi Sugime 1, Kazunori Kakehi 1, Zhengyi Zhang 2, Shigeo Maruyama 2 and Yukio

More information

Large scale growth and characterization of atomic hexagonal boron. nitride layers

Large scale growth and characterization of atomic hexagonal boron. nitride layers Supporting on-line material Large scale growth and characterization of atomic hexagonal boron nitride layers Li Song, Lijie Ci, Hao Lu, Pavel B. Sorokin, Chuanhong Jin, Jie Ni, Alexander G. Kvashnin, Dmitry

More information

Supporting Infromation

Supporting Infromation Supporting Infromation Transparent and Flexible Self-Charging Power Film and Its Application in Sliding-Unlock System in Touchpad Technology Jianjun Luo 1,#, Wei Tang 1,#, Feng Ru Fan 1, Chaofeng Liu 1,

More information

Electronic Supplementary Information

Electronic Supplementary Information Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for Journal of Materials Chemistry A. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2017 Electronic Supplementary Information A coaxial triboelectric nanogenerator

More information

Resistance Thermometry based Picowatt-Resolution Heat-Flow Calorimeter

Resistance Thermometry based Picowatt-Resolution Heat-Flow Calorimeter Resistance Thermometry based Picowatt-Resolution Heat-Flow Calorimeter S. Sadat 1, E. Meyhofer 1 and P. Reddy 1, 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 48109 Department

More information

Programmable Magnetic Actuation of Biomolecule Carriers using NiFe Stepping Stones

Programmable Magnetic Actuation of Biomolecule Carriers using NiFe Stepping Stones Journal of Magnetics 16(4), 363-367 (2011) http://dx.doi.org/10.4283/jmag.2011.16.4.363 Programmable Magnetic Actuation of Biomolecule Carriers using NiFe Stepping Stones Byunghwa Lim, Ilgyo Jeong, S.

More information