Biol 1409: Study Guide for Exam I. Introduction to Diversity

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1 Biol 1409: Study Guide for Exam I Introduction to Diversity 1. Define Biosphere and describe where it is found 2. Describe why our planet is so hospitable to life 3. Name and briefly describe the major kinds (kingdoms) of life 4. Compare how many species of living organisms scientists have actually described and named compared to the total number of different organisms probably living on the earth. Why is there such a difference 5. Name the two ecosystems with the greatest diversity of life 6. Explain why we have not yet collected and identified all the species of life on the planet 7. Name the group(s) of organisms that accounts for most of the diversity of life 8. Describe the role of extinction in the history of life on the planet 9. Distinguish between the normal extinction rate and mass extinctions 10. Describe an example of a mass extinction 11. Explain why scientists believe we are currently in the middle of a mass extinction and explain how it is different from the mass extinctions of the past 12. Give the two major reasons why this current mass extinction is much different than mass extinctions of the past 13. List and describe some specific examples of each of the 4 main human causes of species extinctions. biosphere biodiversity kingdom species extinction mass extinction habitat destruction hunting/harvesting bioinvasions pollution rate of extinction Laboratory Safety 1. Describe several examples of how your dress code and conduct can affect safety in the lab 2. Describe the two major course specific precautions that you must be aware of for biol 1409 labs 3. Describe the location of the fire extinguisher, emergency eyewash station and first aid kit in the lab 4. State the first thing you should do when entering the lab and the last thing you should do before leaving the lab room material safety data sheets blood-borne pathogens body fluids

2 Taxonomy & Classification 1. Define taxonomy 2. What was the advantage of the classification system of Linnaeus over the way species were named and categorized before 3. Why do we need to be so careful about naming species 4. What is a binomial name and give a specific example 5. Define species and explain why this definition is sometimes not very useful 6. Distinguish between taxonomy, systematics and phylogeny 7. Describe the hierarchy of classification 8. Name and describe the major kingdoms of life and give examples of organisms found in each kingdom classification primitive advanced generalized specialized homologous analogous taxon evolutionary tree convergent evolution monophyletic Defining Life & Its Requirements 1. List and describe the characteristics of life 2. What does the phrase hierarchical complexity mean, give an example 3. Compare and contrast the meanings of metabolism and physiology 4. Define, distinguish between and give some specific examples of sexual and asexual reproduction 5. Give an example of environmental conditions that are fairly constant throughout the biosphere 6. Give some specific examples of organisms that can survive at the extremes of specific environmental conditions 7. Why do organisms require liquid water for survival 8. Most organisms cannot survive at temperatures greater than about 50º C(~120ºF); explain why, be specific. 9. What a nutrient is, which nutrients are required in large amounts, and give examples of nutrients that are required in only very small amounts 10. Describe what specifically happens when most organism are subjected to extremely low pressures? to extremely high pressures essential nutrient neutral ph 1 atm pressure compartmentalization hierarchical complexity genetic program DNA metabolism development growth ecology ethology nutrient wastes free oxygen cell membranes effects of temperature hydrothermal vents antifreeze salt/water balance

3 Microscopy, Cells & Tissues 1. Describe the functions of the ocular, objectives, iris diaphragm, condenser, light switch, coarse and fine focus knobs and mechanical stage 2. Explain when it is appropriate to use the microscope, dissecting scope and hand lense 3. State the total magnification of an object you are viewing through the microscope or dissecting scope 4. Make a wet mount to view living cells and tissues 5. Be able to identify a cell under a microscope 6. Be able to distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and describe some of the major differences between them 7. Name and describe some of the major organelles of plant cells and of animal cells 8. Name and describe some of the bacterial cell structures that you viewed under the microscope 9. Name and describe some of the eucaryotic cell structures that you viewed under the microscope 10. Distinguish between cells and tissues 11. Describe some examples of plant tissues and animal tissues magnification wet mount hand lens chlorophyll spores multicellular motile nonmotile tissues capsule bacterial flagella nucleus chromosome nucleolus vacuole cell wall chloroplast cilia & flagella mitochondria Reproduction, Development & Life Cycles 1. Describe and distinguish between sexual and asexual reproduction 2. Describe several different kinds of asexual reproduction 3. Describe several different kinds of sexual reproduction 4. Distinguish between an embryo, larva, nymph and fetus 5. Define and give a specific example of a life cycle 6. Define alternation of generations and describe a specific example fission budding asexual spores vegetative propagation regeneration conjugation sexual spores heterogamy pollen monoecious Ecology & Ecosystems 1. Describe the three major abiotic components of the biosphere 2. Distinguish between biosphere and ecosystem

4 3. Describe some of the major characteristics or features of the biotic portion of the biosphere 4. Dompare and distinguish between producers, consumers, herbivores and carnivores, predator and prey 5. Define symbiosis and describe the three major kinds of symbioses found in the biotic portion of the biosphere 6. Explain how all terrestrial ecosystems are similar; what are the major environmental factors that create different kinds of terrestrial ecosystems 7. Explain how all freshwater ecosystems are similar; what are the major environmental factors that create different kinds of freshwater ecosystems 8. Explain how all marine ecosystems are similar; what are the major environmental factors that create different kinds of marine ecosystems ecology ecosystem community population parasitism productivity competition biosphere symbiosis photosynthesis climate mutualism commensalism Origin of Life 1. Describe the characteristics that are shared by all forms of life 2. Explain why there is such a diversity of life, yet all have the same basic characteristics 3. Explain what Darwin meant by the mystery of mysteries 4. Define spontaneous generation and describe some of the experiments that disproved the concept 5. Describe the most significant problems that must be explained to understand how life originated 6. Describe the general sequence of events in the origin of the earth, 7. Explain how was the early atmosphere different from the one we have today; what were the advantages and disadvantages of this kind of atmosphere to the origin of life on our planet 8. Describe where exactly do you believe life began on the earth (ie. what kind of habitat), defend your opinion with facts from lecture, text or web 9. List and describe the probable characteristics of the first living cells on earth. evolution natural selection fossil genetic material DNA RNA proteins prokaryote heterotroph autotroph organic polymer hydrothermal vents History of Life After completing this section your should be able to: 1. Distinguish between anaerobic and aerobic respiration; which is the more efficient method of energy production 2. Describe in as much detail as possible the characteristics of the first living cell 3. Explain why the evolution of photosynthesis changed the world forever 4. Describe the general sequence of major events in the history of life on earth

5 5. Explain why most of the history of the earth is considered the age of bacteria 6. Describe and provide some evidence for the current theories about how eukaryotes originated 7. Describe the ways in which eukaryotic life differs from prokaryotic life natural selection prokaryotes heterotrophs anaerobic archaea fermentation organic molecules autotrophs ozone mitochondria photosynthesis oxygen gas aerobic respiration chloroplast eukaryotes multicellularity

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