Bio10 Practice Lab Exam 1

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1 Bio10 Practice Lab Exam 1 Instructions: Answer the following questions using the concepts pertaining to laboratory exercises. This information is in your textbook, lab manual, or instructor provided handouts. 1. Suppose an experimental set-up is designed in a pair. In one of the pair nothing is altered, in the other only one thing is changed. What is the name given to the setup that is not altered? 2. In a controlled experiment the one thing that is different within the treatment group is called the experimental. 3. In common language people often use the word theory to mean something other than a scientific theory. To avoid confusion what term in the scientific method would be more appropriate to use for a common theory? 4. Scientific hypotheses must be both relevant and 5. Which step in the scientific method involves an awareness of a natural event or phenomenon? 6. Which step in the scientific method involves gathering data and making additional observations? 7. The most fundamental characteristic of living organisms is that they are composed at least one. 8. What two scientific names are given to an organism? 9. Metabolism, growth and reproduction are important characteristics of life. Name one non-living substance may display one more of these characteristics. 10. According to the table of taxa, in your classification assignment, which kingdom of organisms would be characterized as being heterotrophic and non-motile? A. Bacteria B. Archaea C. Fungi D. Animals E. Plants 11. What kingdom is characterized by the following traits: multicellular, eukaryotic cells, heterotrophic, and motile? 12. What kingdom is characterized by the following traits: multicellular, eukaryotic cells, autotrophic, and non-motile?

2 13. Viruses are not considered living organisms. List one characteristic of life that they lack. 14. What do we call the naming system developed by Carolus Linnaeus? 15. Which would be more closely related; organisms that share a Domain or a Kingdom? 16. Which would be more closely related; organisms that share a Phylum or a Class? 17. How many atoms are present in H2SO4? 18. How many elements are present in H2SO4 19. When the element sodium loses an electron, what is the charge of the ion it forms? 20. When the element chlorine gains an electron, what is the charge of the chloride ion it forms? 21. When oppositely charged ions combine into a molecule, is the bond they form covalent, ionic, or a hydrogen bond? (Please note: hydrogen bonding is also known as a polar bond). 22. Which chemical bond is formed when two or more atoms share electrons? Is it a covalent, ionic, or hydrogen bond? 23. What group of biological molecules is represented by simple sugars? 24. A polar substance dissolves in water because a bond forms between the substance and the water molecule. 25. We used Sudan IV in lab to detect lipids. Oil is a substance which means it is insoluble in water. 26. What class of biological molecule makes up cell and organelle membranes? 27. How does the arrangement of DNA in prokaryotic cells differ from that seen in eukaryotic cells? 28. What is the magnification of a specimen when viewed with the 40X objective? 29. Which focus knob (fine or coarse) is used only with the 4X objective?

3 30. What microscope control is used to adjust specimen illumination? 31. What organelle, found in plant cells, allows them to photosynthesize? 32. Name one difference between plant and animal cells. 33. What structure represents the major difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells? 34. To what Domain do cyanobacteria belong? 35. Are cyanobacteria autotrophic or heterotrophic? 36. Are cyanobacteria prokaryotes or eukaryotes? 37. Why do plants have a cell wall in addition to a plasma membrane? 38. How is the concave shape of red blood cells (erythrocytes) appropriate to their function? 39. What missing organelle allows red blood cells to achieve their concave shape? 40. What is the function of the contractile vacuole in Paramecium?

4 Basic Prokaryotic Cell Structure: Bacteria Be able to list the major differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Which type of cell evolved first (is the most primitive)? List the two domains of organisms that have prokaryotic cells Name the four basic structures that both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have in common Prokaryotic Cell Be able to identify the cell wall, plasma membrane, circular DNA, cytoplasm, and ribosomes on the diagram below. Cell wall Plasma membrane Cytoplasm DNA in Nucleoid region Ribosomes

5 Plant Cell: Be able to identify the plasma membrane, nucleus (containing DNA), cytoplasm, central vacuole, mitochondria, cell wall, and chloroplast. Cell wall Central vacuole Plasma membrane Nucleus Mitochondria Cytoplasm Chloroplast Name three structures or organelles found in this plant cell that do not occur in animal cells (refer to the animal cell diagram).

6 Animal Cell: Be able to identify the plasma membrane, nucleus (containing DNA), cytoplasm, and mitochondria. Plasma membrane Mitochondria Nucleus Cytoplasm

7 Answers: 1. Control 2. Experimental variable 3. Hypothesis 4. Testable (Falsifiable) 5. Observation 6. Experiment 7. Cell 8. Genus and species 9. Fire, some crystal structures, or viruses 10. C. Fungi 11. D. Animals 12. E. Plants 13. Cells 14. Binomial Nomenclature 15. Kingdom 16. Class 17. Seven atoms 18. Three elements 19. positive 20. negative 21. ionic bond 22. covalent bond 23. carbohydrates 24. Hydrogen (polar) bond 25. Non-polar (hydrophobic) 26. Lipid 27. No nucleus x : Total magnification using the 40x objective = 40(10x Ocular) = 400x 29. coarse 30. iris diaphragm 31. chloroplasts 32. cell wall, central vacuole, chloroplasts 33. nucleus 34. bacteria 35. autotrophic 36. prokaryotes 37. support (structure) 38. increases surface area (for carrying oxygen) 39. nucleus 40. pumps excess water from cytoplasm (maintain homeostasis)

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