Text of objective. Investigate and describe the structure and functions of cells including: Cell organelles

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1 This document is designed to help North Carolina educators teach the s (Standard Course of Study). NCDPI staff are continually updating and improving these tools to better serve teachers. Biology 2009-to-2004 Standards Crosswalk This document is a general comparison of the current 2004 Science Standard Course of Study and the new 2009 Science Essential Standards. It provides initial insight into sameness and difference between these two sets of standards. This document is not intended to answer all questions about the nuance of the new standards versus the old - in fact, we imagine you will develop questions as you do a close reading of the new standards. Please send the science section of NC DPI any thoughts, feedback, questions and ideas about additional resources that would help you start preparing to teach the s. Beverly Vance at Important Note: The current 2004 SCOS will continue to be the operational standards in the and school years as resource materials are developed to support the new Science s, professional development is conducted and assessments are designed to align to the new Science s. We expect the new s to be taught and assessed in schools for the first time in the school year. That said, we are providing s resources now and over the next two-years so that schools and teachers can get a head start on internalizing and planning to teach the new standards s 2004 NC SCOS Structures and Functions of Living Organisms Understand the relationship between the structures of cells and their organelles. Summarize the structure and function of organelles in eukaryotic cells (including: the nucleus, plasma membrane, cell wall, mitochondria, vacuoles, chloroplasts, and ribosomes) and ways that these organelles interact with each other to perform the function of the cell. Bio Physical, Chemical and Cellular Basis of Life 2.02 Investigate and describe the structure and functions of cells including: Cell organelles This is the only bullet that addresses this clarifying objective. in clarifying objective Bio Cell specialization Communication among cells within an organism Draft Page 1 of 10

2 2009 s 2004 NC SCOS Bio Bio Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells in terms of their general structures (plasma membrane and genetic material) and degree of complexity. Explain how instructions in DNA lead to cell differentiation and result in cells specialized to perform specific functions in multicellular organisms. Unity and Diversity of Life Physical, Chemical 2.02 Investigate and describe the structure and functions of cells including: Cell organelles Analyze the classification of organisms according to their evolutionary relationships. Similarities and differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms Investigate and describe the structure and functions of cells including: Cell specialization Communication among cells within an organism This is the only bullet that addresses this clarifying objective. in clarifying objective Bio Cell specialization Communication among cells within an organism This is the only sub part of objective 4.01 that addresses this clarifying objective. as indicated in parentheses: The historical development and changing nature of classification systems (Bio.3.5.1) Similarities and differences among the eukaryotic kingdoms: Protists, Fungi, Plants, Animals (Addressed in Middle Grades 8.L.4.1 and subsumed in historical development) (Bio.3.5.1) Classify organisms using keys (Bio.3.5.2) These are the only bullets that address the clarifying objective. The following bullet is addressed in clarifying objective Bio Cell organelles Page 2 of 10

3 2009 s 2004 NC SCOS Structures and Functions of Living Organisms Ecosystems Analyze the cell as a living system. Explain how homeostasis is maintained in a cell and within an organism in various environments (including: temperature and ph). Bio Bio Bio Analyze how cells grow and reproduce in terms of interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis. Explain how specific cell adaptations help cells survive in particular environments (focus on unicellular organisms). Analyze the interdependence of living organisms within their environments. Analyze the flow of energy and cycling of matter (such as water, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen) through ecosystems relating the significance of each to maintaining the health and sustainability of an ecosystem. Bio Life and the Changes of 3.01 Physical, Chemical and 2.03 Life and the 3.02 Ecological Relationships 5.02 Analyze the molecular basis of heredity including: Gene regulation Investigate and analyze the cell as a living system. Maintenance of homeostasis Movement of materials into and out of cells Compare and contrast the characteristics of asexual and sexual reproduction. Analyze the flow of energy and the cycling of matter in the ecosystem. Relationship of the carbon cycle to photosynthesis and respiration Trophic levels- direction and efficiency of energy transfer This is the only bullet that addresses the clarifying objective. in 3.1: DNA replication Protein synthesis (transcription, translation). These are the only bullets that address the clarifying objective. The following bullet is addressed in clarifying objective Bio Energy use and release in biochemical reactions In the 2004 Curriculum (objective 4.03), structural adaptations of plants and animals were discussed. Clarifying objective Bio focuses mainly on unicellular organisms. Page 3 of 10

4 2009 s 2004 NC SCOS Bio Bio Analyze the survival and reproductive success of organisms in terms of behavioral, structural, and reproductive adaptations. Explain various ways organisms interact with each other (including predation, competition, parasitism, mutualism) and with their environments resulting in stability within ecosystems. Unity and Diversity of Life Ecological Relationships 5.01 Analyze the processes by which organisms representative of the following groups accomplish essential life functions. Assess, describe and explain adaptations affecting survival and reproductive success. Structural adaptations in plants and animals (form to function) Analyze the broad patterns of animal behavior as adaptations to the environment. Innate behavior Learned behavior Social behavior Analyze and explain the interactive role of internal and external factors in health and disease: Parasites Investigate and analyze the interrelationships among organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Abiotic and biotic factors Carrying capacity The specific groups have been omitted. It was believed that this objective alone could be a comparative physiology course. Please note general focus in the Detailed Description of Course Content. This is the only bullet that directly applies to this clarifying objective. The following bullets are removed: Disease-causing viruses and microorganisms Co-evolution Only this bullet addresses interaction of organisms. as indicated in parentheses: Genetics (Bio.3.2.3) Immune response (removed) Nutrition (Bio.3.2.3) Toxins (Bio.3.4.3) The bullet Techniques of Field Ecology has been eliminated. This can be integrated into laboratory experiences. Page 4 of 10

5 2009 s 2004 NC SCOS Bio Explain why ecosystems can be relatively stable over hundreds or thousands of years, even though populations may fluctuate (emphasizing availability of food, availability of shelter, number of predators and disease) Investigate and analyze the interrelationships among organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Abiotic and biotic factors Carrying capacity Assess human population and its impact on local ecosystems and global environments. Historic and potential changes in population Factors associated with those changes Commensalism has been purposely left out. There is much debate about whether commensalistic relationships are just early mutualism. We may just not understand the benefits to each organism. Teachers may want to stress that some mutualistic relationships become so obligatory (lichen) that organisms cannot live without them and other relationships are more casual (oxpecker and ox). The bullet Techniques of Field Ecology has been eliminated. This can be integrated into laboratory experiences. These are the only bullets that directly apply to the clarifying objective. The remaining bullet topics are addressed in Bio.2.2: Climate change Resource use Sustainable practices/ stewardship Page 5 of 10

6 2009 s 2004 NC SCOS Ecosystems Evolution and Genetics Understand the impact of human activities on the environment (one generation affects the next). Infer how human activities (including population growth, pollution, global warming, burning of fossil fuels, habitat destruction and introduction of nonnative species) may impact the environment. Explain how the use, protection and conservation of natural resources by humans impact the environment from one generation to the next. Bio Bio Explain how traits are determined by the structure and function DNA. Explain the double-stranded, complementary nature of DNA as related to its function in the cell. Bio Bio Bio Explain how DNA and RNA code for proteins and determine traits. Explain how mutations in DNA that result from interactions with the environment (i.e. radiation and chemicals) or new combinations in existing genes lead to changes in function and phenotype. Ecological Relationships Among Organisms 5.03 Continuity of Life and the Changes of Organisms Over Time 3.01 Assess human population and its impact on local ecosystems and global environments: Historic and potential changes in population Factors associated with those changes Climate change Resource use Sustainable practices/stewardship Assess human population and its impact on local ecosystems and global environments: Historic and potential changes in population Factors associated with those changes Climate change Resource use Sustainable practices/stewardship Analyze the molecular basis of heredity including: DNA replication Analyze the molecular basis of heredity including: Protein synthesis (transcription, translation). This is the only bullet that addresses this clarifying objective. in clarifying objective indicated in parenthesis. Protein synthesis (transcription, translation) (Bio.3.1.2) Gene regulation (Bio.1.1.3) This was included in the 2004 Support Document within the Content Description for It is now a Clarifying. Page 6 of 10

7 2009 s 2004 NC SCOS Evolution and Genetics Understand how the environment, and/or the interaction of alleles, influences the expression of genetic traits. Explain the role of meiosis in sexual reproduction and genetic variation. Bio Bio Bio Predict offspring ratios based on a variety of inheritance patterns (including: dominance, codominance, incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, and sex-linked traits). Explain how the environment can influence the expression of genetic traits. Continuity of Life and the Changes of Organisms Over Time Unity and Diversity of Life Compare and contrast the characteristics of asexual and sexual reproduction. Interpret and predict patterns of inheritance. Dominant, recessive and intermediate traits Multiple alleles Polygenic inheritance Sex-linked traits Independent assortment Test cross Pedigrees Punnett squares Analyze and explain the interactive role of internal and external factors in health and disease: Genetics Nutrition Clarifying objective Bio deals with meiosis only. Students are expected to do monohybrid crosses only. Test cross has been omitted in the 2009 Curriculum. While teachers should not necessarily expect students at this level to distinguish between codominance and incomplete dominance inheritance on a biochemical level, they should be able to solve problems involving apparent intermediate phenotypes. These are the only bullets that directly apply to the clarifying objective. as indicated in parentheses: Immune response (removed) Parasites (Bio.2.1.3) Toxins (Bio.3.4.3) Page 7 of 10

8 2009 s 2004 NC SCOS Evolution and Genetics Evolution and Genetics Understand the application of DNA technology. Interpret how DNA is used for comparison and identification of organisms. Bio Bio Summarize how transgenic organisms are engineered to benefit society. Evaluate some of the ethical issues surrounding the use of DNA technology (including: cloning, genetically modified organisms, stem cell research, and Human Genome Project). Explain the theory of evolution by natural selection as a mechanism for how species Bio change over time. Bio Bio Bio Explain how fossil, biochemical, and anatomical evidence support the theory of evolution. Explain how natural selection influences the changes in species over time. Explain how various disease agents (bacteria, viruses, chemicals) can influence natural selection. Continuity of Life and the Changes of Organisms Over Time 3.04 Continuity of Life and the Changes of Organisms Over Time 3.05 Assess the impact of advances in genomics on individuals and society. Applications of biotechnology Assess the impact of advances in genomics on individuals and society. Applications of biotechnology Assess the impact of advances in genomics on individuals and society. Human genome project Applications of biotechnology Examine the development of the theory of evolution by natural selection including: Development of the theory The origin and history of life Fossil and biochemical evidence Examine the development of the theory of evolution by natural selection including: Mechanisms of evolution Examine the development of the theory of evolution by natural selection including: Applications (pesticide and antibiotic resistance) Human genome project is addressed in clarifying objective Bio Human genome project is addressed in clarifying objective Bio in clarifying objectives Bio and Bio Mechanisms of evolution Applications (pesticide and antibiotic resistance) Page 8 of 10

9 2009 s 2004 NC SCOS Evolution and Genetics Molecular Biology Analyze how classification systems are developed upon speciation. Explain the historical development and changing nature of classification systems. Bio Analyze the classification of organisms according to their evolutionary relationships (including: dichotomous keys and phylogenetic trees). Understand how biological molecules are Bio essential to the survival of living organisms. Compare the structures and functions of the major biological molecules (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids) as related to the survival of living organisms. Bio Unity and 4.04 Unity and Diversity of Life 4.01 Physical, Chemical and 2.01 Analyze and explain the interactive role of internal and external factors in health and disease: Toxins Analyze the classification of organisms according to their evolutionary relationships. The historical development and changing nature of classification systems Analyze the classification of organisms according to their evolutionary relationships. Classify organisms using keys Compare and contrast the structure and functions of the following organic molecules: Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic acids This is the only bullet that directly applies to the clarifying objective. See comments for clarifying objective Bio The following bullets in clarifying objective 4.01 are addressed as indicated in parentheses. Similarities and differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms (Bio.1.1.2) Similarities and differences among the eukaryotic kingdoms: Protists, Fungi, Plants, Animals (Addressed in Middle Grades 8.L.4.1 and subsumed in historical development) Classify organisms using keys (Bio.3.5.2) See objective Bio Page 9 of 10

10 2009 s 2004 NC SCOS Bio Bio Summarize the relationship among DNA, amino acids and proteins in carrying out the work of cells and how this is similar in all organisms. Explain how enzymes act as catalysts for biological reactions Continuity of Life and 3.01 Physical, Chemical 2.04 Investigate and analyze the cell as a living system including: Energy use and release in biochemical reactions Compare and contrast the structure and functions of the following organic molecules: Proteins Nucleic acids Analyze the molecular basis of heredity including: DNA replication Protein synthesis (transcription, translation) Gene regulation Investigate and describe the structure and function of enzymes and explain their importance in biological systems. in clarifying objectives Bio and Bio Maintenance of homeostasis Movement of materials into and out of cells in clarifying objective Bio Carbohydrates Lipids Molecular Biology Analyze the relationships between biochemical processes and energy use in the cell. Analyze photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of how energy is stored, released, and transferred within and between these systems. Explain ways that organisms use released energy for maintaining homeostasis (active transport). Bio Bio Physical, Chemical and Cellular Basis of Life Investigate and analyze the bioenergetic reactions: Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration Photosynthesis Investigate and analyze the cell as a living system including: Maintenance of homeostasis Movement of materials into and out of cells Energy use and release in biochemical reactions 1 in 2004 SCOS, develop abilities necessary to do and understand scientific inquiry, should be integrated in classroom instructional unit design. Page 10 of 10

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