Biology, Ongoing Expectations

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1 Biology, Ongoing Expectations Big Ideas/Key Concepts: Understandings about scientific inquiry and the ability to conduct inquiry are essential for living in the 21 st century. Society benefits when engineers apply scientific discoveries to design materials and processes that develop into enabling technologies. Science applies mathematics to investigate questions, solve problems, and communicate findings. Ongoing Expectations Note: Do not teach a separate unit at year s beginning. Embed inquiry, tech/engineering, and math throughout all 4 quarters within content where appropriate. Honors Addendum Note for Teachers of Honors: Do not teach this Honors Addendum at the end of the quarter. Embed the Honors Addendum within the regular Scope & Sequence (see end of quarter). Embedded Inquiry SPI 3210.Inq.1 Select a description or scenario that reevaluates and/or extends a scientific finding. SPI 3210.Inq.2 Analyze the components of a properly designed scientific investigation. SPI 3210.Inq.3 Determine appropriate tools to gather precise and accurate data. SPI 3210.Inq.4 Evaluate the accuracy and precision of data. SPI 3210.Inq.5 Defend a conclusion based on scientific evidence. SPI 3210.Inq.6 Determine why a conclusion is free of bias. SPI 3210.Inq.7 Compare conclusions that offer different, but acceptable explanations for the same set of experimental data.

2 Biology, Quarter 1 Big Ideas/Key Concepts: All living things are made of cells that perform functions necessary for life. Standards Cells Macromolecules: SPI Distinguish among proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. SPI 3210.Inq.2 Analyze the components of a properly designed scientific investigation. SPI 3210.Inq.3 Determine appropriate tools to gather precise and accurate data. SPI Identify positive tests for carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. SPI 3210.Inq.7 Compare conclusions that offer different, but acceptable explanations for the same set of experimental data. Enzymes: SPI Identify how enzymes control chemical reactions in the body. SPI 3210.Inq.3 Determine appropriate tools to gather precise and accurate data. SPI 3210.Inq.5 Defend a conclusion based on scientific evidence. SPI 3210.Inq.2 Analyze the components of a properly designed Student Friendly I Can Statements Cells Macromolecules: I can identify and model the structure and function of the four macromolecules. I can conduct a scientific investigation to test for the presence of macromolecules (simple sugars, complex carbohydrates, lipids and proteins). I can use data from indicator tests (Sudan Red, Iodine, Benedict s Solution, Biuret Reagent) to identify the presence of macromolecules in unknown solutions. I can compare conclusions that offer different, but acceptable explanations for the same set of experimental data. Enzymes: I can identify how enzymes control chemical reactions in the body. I can compare and contrast graphs showing a reaction without enzymes vs. an enzyme catalyzed reaction. I can design an experiment to test the effect of a variable (ph, temperature, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration) on enzyme rate of reaction. I can select appropriate tools to measure ph, concentration, temperature, and rate of enzyme reaction. I can defend a conclusion based on scientific evidence.

3 scientific investigation. SPI 3210.Inq.6 Determine why a conclusion is free of bias. I can analyze experimental results and reflect upon possible sources of bias or experimental error. I can model in 2D and 3D, the structure and function of an enzyme and the enzyme substrate relationship. Cell Parts: SPI Identify the cellular organelles associated with major cell processes. SPI Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Cell Parts: I can trace the historical development of cell theory. I can compare and contrast the structures and functions of cell organelles and components. I can use a microscope to differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and between plant and animal cells. I can recreate models that focus on organic molecules making up cellular structures. I can compare and contrast models, identify patterns and use structural and functional evidence to engage in an argument about the characteristics of life.

4 Diffusion and Osmosis: SPI Predict the movement of water and other molecules across selectively permeable membranes. Diffusion and Osmosis: I can explain the significance of the surface area-to-volume ratio of cells. I can predict the movement of water or particles, given a diagram of relative concentrations on either side of a selectively permeable membrane (hypotonic, hypertonic, isotonic solutions). I can choose and construct appropriate graphical representations for a data set showing the change in mass of a cell (dialysis tubing bag, egg, potato, etc.) in a hypotonic, hypertonic, isotonic solution. I can analyze experimental data showing the movement of materials from high concentration to low concentration or vice versa. SPI Compare and contrast active and passive transport. Cells Macromolecules: SPI Identify positive tests for carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. I can compare and contrast cellular examples of active and passive transport. Cells Macromolecules: I can design and conduct a scientific investigation that includes a testable question and a verifiable hypothesis to test for the presence of macromolecules (simple sugars, complex carbohydrates, lipids and proteins). I can design and write an experiment to test the effect of a variable (ph, temperature, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration) on enzyme rate of reaction.

5 Enzymes: SPI Identify how enzymes control chemical reactions in the body Diffusion and Osmosis: SPI Predict the movement of water and other molecules across selectively permeable membranes. Enzymes: I can compare or combine experimental evidence from two or more investigations to draw conclusions about how enzymes would perform in various environments. Diffusion and Osmosis: I can design experiments and collect and analyze experimental data showing the movement of materials from high concentration to a low concentration or vice versa to distinguish between active and passive transport.

6 Biology, Quarter 2 Big Ideas/Key Concepts: Matter cycles and energy flows through the biosphere. All living things are made of cells that perform functions necessary for life. Organisms reproduce and transmit hereditary information. Standards Student Friendly I Can Statements Photosynthesis and Respiration: SPI Compare and contrast photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of energy transformation. Photosynthesis and Respiration: I can identify the organelles of photosynthesis and respiration and describe how their structure relates to their function. I can compare and contrast photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of energy transformation, reactants and products. I can demonstrate the relatedness of the equations for both photosynthesis and cellular respiration. I can investigate photosynthesis and respiration, including: the measure of photosynthesis and/or cellular respiration rates, testable questions, verifiable hypotheses, and appropriate variables to explore new phenomena or verify the experimental results of others. I can select appropriate tools and technology to collect precise and accurate quantitative and qualitative data while conducting scientific practice. SPI Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic respiration. I can compare and contrast aerobic respiration reactions to anaerobic respiration and fermentation reactions, identifying differences in reactants, products, cellular localization, and efficiency of energy transfer to ATP between these sets of reactions.

7 Heredity SPI Identify the structure and function of DNA. SPI Associate the process of DNA replication with its biological significance. SPI Recognize the interactions between DNA and RNA during protein synthesis. SPI Determine the relationship between cell growth and cell reproduction. Heredity I can model the structure and function of DNA and its significance as the basis for inheritance. I can analyze the organization and ability of DNA to encode information, and explain how transcriptional and translational processes are used by the cell to convert gene sequences based on 4 nucleotides, into protein sequences based on 20 amino acids. I can model the interactions of DNA, RNA, and amino acids to explain protein synthesis I can explain the relationship between a cell growing too large and the cell s need to divide and reproduce.

8 SPI Describe how meiosis is involved in the production of egg and sperm cells. I can describe how the process of meiosis controls the number of chromosomes in a gamete. SPI Describe how meiosis and sexual reproduction contribute to genetic variation in a population. I can explain the mechanism by which sexual reproduction produces offspring that contain genetic similarities and differences with parents, and how much this contributes to genetic variation in a population. Honors Addendum Note for Teachers of Honors: Do not teach this Honors Addendum at the end of the quarter. Embed the Honors Addendum within the regular Scope & Sequence. Photosynthesis and Respiration: SPI Compare and contrast photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of energy transformation. Photosynthesis and Respiration: I can design and conduct scientific investigations on the rates of photosynthesis and/or cellular respiration that include testable questions, verifiable hypotheses, and appropriate variables to explore new phenomena or verify the experimental results of others. SPI Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic respiration. I can design and conduct scientific investigations on fermentation that include testable questions, verifiable hypotheses, and appropriate variables to explore new phenomena or verify the experimental results of others. I can make and defend a claim about fermentation that reflects scientific knowledge, and student-generated evidence. Heredity SPI Identify the structure and function of DNA. SPI Determine the relationship between cell growth and cell reproduction. Heredity I can extract DNA using appropriate scientific tools and procedures. I can create and analyze graphs that interpret the cell cycle.

9 Biology, Quarter 3 Big Ideas/Key Concepts: Heredity & Evolution Organisms reproduce and transmit heredity information. A rich variety and complexity of organisms have developed in response to changes in the environment. Standards Heredity SPI Determine the probability of a particular trait in an offspring based on the genotype of the parents and the particular mode of inheritance. SPI 3210.Math.2 Predict the outcome of a cross between parents of known genotype. Student Friendly I Can Statements Heredity I can determine the probability of a particular trait in an offspring based on the genotype of the parents and the particular mode of inheritance. I can predict the outcome of monohybrid and dihybrid crosses. I can determine whether a trait is dominant or recessive, given information on the phenotypes of parents and offspring. I can explain co-dominance, incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, sex linkage, and polygenic traits. SPI Apply pedigree data to interpret various modes of genetic inheritance. SPI Determine the relationship between mutations and human genetic disorders. I can apply pedigree data to interpret and predict various modes of genetic inheritance. I can describe the relationship between human genetic disorders and mutations. I can analyze a karyotype to determine patterns, such as the presence or absence of a chromosomal disorder.

10 SPI Evaluate the scientific and ethical issues associated with gene technologies: genetic engineering, genetically modified foods, cloning, transgenic organism production, stem cell research, and DNA fingerprinting. SPI 3210.T/3 Evaluate the overall benefit to cost ratio of a new technology. I can describe the connection between mutations and human genetic disorders while assessing the scientific and ethical ramifications of emerging genetic technologies. I can obtain, evaluate and communicate information on how molecular biotechnology (PCR, electrophoresis, restriction enzyme digestion of DNA, DNA sequence, plasmid-based transformation and transfection) may be used in a variety of fields (medicine, agriculture, biomedical engineering and forensic science). I can explore how the unintended consequences of new technologies (genetic engineering) can impact human and non-human communities. SPI 3210.T/1 Distinguish among tools and procedures best suited to conduct a specified scientific inquiry. SPI Compare and contrast the structural, functional, and behavioral adaptations of animals or plants found in different environments. SPI Recognize the relationship between form and function in living things. SPI Recognize the relationships among environmental change, genetic variation, natural selection, and the emergence of a new species. I can infer how an adaptation has helped a species survive in its environment. I can compare and contrast the structural, functional, and behavioral adaptations of animals or plants in different environments. I can determine the relationship between form and function in living things. I can model the role of mutation and variation in the process of natural selection. I can explain how natural selection is responsible for the accumulation of progressively complex adaptive traits in a population over time within a given environment. I can evaluate evidence supporting claims that isolation and/or environmental changes that persist over generations can result in speciation.

11 SPI Describe the relationship between the amount of biodiversity and the ability of a population to adapt to a changing environment. SPI 3210.Inq.1 Select a description or scenario that reevaluates and/or extends a scientific finding. SPI 3210.Inq.7 Compare conclusions that offer different, but acceptable explanations for the same set of experimental data. I can explain how changing environments and natural selection over time can lead to an increase in biodiversity over the history of life on earth. I can investigate using a model, the process of change in a population through several generations with a modifiable environment, to compare the processes of selection (natural selection, sexual selection, artificial selection) and genetic drift. I can investigate using a model, the effects of interdependent relationships between species, nonrandom mating, resource availability, and other environmental factors affecting this process of change. I can compare the biodiversity observed in various biomes, identify patterns that reflect the latitudinal diversity gradient, and gather evidence for explanation of global biodiversity patterns. I can summarize the main threats to biodiversity in our world today. SPI 3210.Inq.4 Evaluate the accuracy and precision of data. SPI Apply evidence from the fossil record, comparative anatomy, amino acid sequences, and DNA structure that support modern classification systems. I can evaluate the accuracy and precision of data. I can infer the relatedness of species given amino acid sequences or DNA sequences to compare. I can infer the relatedness of species by comparing similar anatomical, embryological, or cellular structures. I can compare the relative ages of fossils, given a diagram of the rock layers in which they were found. I can evaluate scientific data collected from analyses of: fossil records, biogeography, DNA and protein sequences, and embryological development.

12 Honors Course Addendum Note for Teachers of Honors: Do not teach this Honors Addendum at the end of the quarter. Embed the Honors Addendum within the regular Scope & Sequence. Heredity SPI Determine the probability of a particular trait in an offspring based on the genotype of the parents and the particular mode of inheritance. Heredity I can analyze and determine the probability of a particular trait in an offspring based on the genotype of the parents and the particular mode of inheritance. I can research and present the characteristics of various human proteins and discuss the relationships to genetic disorders. I can construct and analyze a pedigree given data to interpret various modes of genetic inheritance. I can research various genetic disorders and present my findings. SPI Evaluate the scientific and ethical issues associated with gene technologies: genetic engineering, cloning, transgenic organism production, stem cell research, and DNA fingerprinting. I can explore how the unintended consequences of new technologies (genetic engineering) can impact human and non-human communities and present the findings in a public service announcement. I can research and defend a claim about the scientific and ethical issues concerned with genetic engineering. SPI Recognize the relationships among environmental change, genetic variation, natural selection, and the emergence of a new species. SPI Apply evidence from the fossil record, comparative anatomy, amino acid sequences, and DNA structure that support modern classification systems. I can conduct and present research on current bioengineering technologies that advance health and contribute to improvements in our daily lives. I can design and use multiple types of models to represent and support explanations of phenomena (mutation modeling lab). I can construct and analyze graphs to interpret biological events. I can apply the concepts of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to explain the change in frequency of alleles.

13 Biology, Quarter 4 Big Ideas/Key Concepts: Classification & Ecology Matter cycles and energy flows through the biosphere. All life is interdependent and interacts with the environment. A rich variety and complexity of organisms have developed in response to changes in the environment. Standards Student Friendly I Can Statements SPI Recognize the relationship between form and function in living things. SPI Infer relatedness among different organisms using modern classification systems. Interdependence SPI Predict how population changes of organisms at different trophic levels affect an ecosystem. SPI Interpret the relationship between environmental factors and fluctuations in population size. SPI Determine how the carrying capacity of an ecosystem is affected by interactions among organisms. SPI Predict how various types of human activities affect the environment. I can compare and contrast the major phyla of the animal kingdom in terms of the presence of symmetry and body systems. I can compare and contrast the major structures of plants. I can infer the relatedness of species given their taxonomic classification. Interdependence I can analyze graphs of predator prey population fluctuations. I can analyze population growth curves and age structure diagrams. I can determine how the carrying capacity of an ecosystem for one species can be affected by changes in the populations of other species in that ecosystem. I can predict in writing through evidence-based research how a specific environmental change, both natural and/or man-made, may lead to environmental stress that can affect the amount of biodiversity, and/or lead to the extinction of a species. Page 1 of 3

14 SPI Make inferences about how a specific environmental change can affect the amount of biodiversity. SPI Predict how a specific environmental change may lead to the extinction of a particular species. SPI Analyze factors responsible for the changes associated with biological succession. SPI Interpret a diagram that illustrates energy flow in an ecosystem. SPI Predict how changes in a biogeochemical cycle can affect an ecosystem. I can research and communicate an evidence-based argument that supports the claim that greater biodiversity and complex interactions within an ecosystem tend to enhance ecosystem stability in response to disturbances. I can analyze examples of ecological succession, identifying and explaining the factors and order of events responsible for the formation of a new ecosystem in response to extreme fluctuation in environmental conditions or catastrophic events. I can model the flow of energy through an ecosystem, such as a food chain, web, and pyramid for a given ecosystem. I can use a mathematical model to describe the transfer of energy between trophic levels and explain 1) how the inefficiency of energy transfer between trophic levels affects the relative number of organisms supported at each trophic level, and 2) how energy loss and organic matter loss between trophic levels remains consistent with the laws of conservation of energy and matter. I can describe the major events which occur during the carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles. I can model the tracking of carbon atoms between inorganic molecules and organic molecules in an ecosystem, identifying the processes that transform carbon between each carbon pool, including: photosynthesis, respiration, consumption, decomposition, combustion, and diffusion. I can use a carbon tracking model to predict size effects on carbon pools when a given process is enhanced or diminished. Page 2 of 3

15 Honors Course Addendum Note for Teachers of Honors: Do not teach this Honors Addendum at the end of the quarter. Embed the Honors Addendum within the regular Scope & Sequence. SPI Infer relatedness among different organisms using modern classification systems. Given a group of organisms and characteristics, I can construct a cladogram illustrating relatedness. I can construct a dichotomous key to help identify a group of organisms. I can formulate and revise scientific explanations and models using logic and evidence. I can research and defend a claim about a cladogram that reflects scientific knowledge, and student-generated evidence. I can evaluate and present the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind currently accepted explanations or solutions to determine the merits of arguments. Interdependence SPI Predict how population changes of organisms at different trophic levels affect an ecosystem. SPI Interpret the relationship between environmental factors and fluctuations in population size. SPI Predict how various types of human activities affect the environment SPI Interpret a diagram that illustrates energy flow in an ecosystem. Interdependence I can construct and analyze graphs of predator prey population fluctuations. I can construct and analyze population growth curves and age structure diagrams. I can research and debate how various types of human activities affect the populations of organisms. I can create a food chain, web, and pyramid and calculate the change of energy from each tropic level. Page 3 of 3

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