CONTROL * ~ SYSTEMS ENGINEERING


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1 CONTROL * ~ SYSTEMS ENGINEERING H Fourth Edition NormanS. Nise California State Polytechnic University, Pomona JOHN WILEY& SONS, INC.
2 Contents 1. Introduction Introduction, A History of Control Systems, The Control Systems Engineer, Response Characteristics and System Configurations, Analysis and Design Objectives, 14 Introduction to a Case Study, The Design Process, ComputerAided Design, 26 Summary, 28 Review Questions, 29 Problems, 29 Bibliography, Modeling in the Frequency Domain 37 xiv 2.1 Introduction, Laplace Transform Review, The Transfer Function, 49
3 Contents xv 2.4 Electric Network Transfer Functions, Translational Mechanical System Transfer Functions, Rotational Mechanical System Transfer Functions, Transfer Functions for Systems with Gears, Electromechanical System Transfer Functions, Electric Circuit Analogs, Nonlinearities, Linearization, 99 Case Studies, 105 Summary, 109 Review Questions, 109 Problems, 110 Bibliography, Modeling in the Time Domain Introduction, Some Observations, The General StateSpace Representation, Applying the StateSpace Representation, Converting a Transfer Function to State Space, Converting from State Space to a Transfer Function, Linearization, 154 Case Studies, 157 Summary, 162 Review Questions, 163 Problems, 163 Bibliography, Time Response Introduction, Poles, Zeros, and System Response, 175
4 xvi Contents 4.3 FirstOrder Systems, SecondOrder Systems: Introduction, The General SecondOrder System, Underdamped SecondOrder Systems, System Response with Additional Poles, System Response with Zeros, Effects of Nonlinearities upon Time Response, Laplace Transform Solution of State Equations, Time Domain Solution of State Equations, 219 Case Studies, 227 Summary, 230 Review Questions, 232 Problems, 233 Design Problems, 244 Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 248 Bibliography, Reduction of Multiple Subsystems 5.1 Introduction, Block Diagrams, Analysis and Design of Feedback Systems, SignalFlow Graphs, Mason's Rule, SignalFlow Graphs of State Equations, Alternative Representations in State Space, Similarity Transformations, 286 Case Studies, 293 Summary, 299 Review Questions, 300 Problems, 301 Design Problems, 318
5 Contents xvii Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 321 Bibliography, Stability Tntroduction, RouthHurwitz Criterion, RouthHurwitz Criterion: Special Cases, RouthHurwitz Criterion: Additional Examples, Stability in State Space, 348 Case Studies, 351 Summary, 353 Review Questions, 354 Problems, 354 Design Problems, 362 Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 365 Bibliography, SteadyState Errors Introduction, SteadyState Error for Unity Feedback Systems, Static Error Constants and System Type, SteadyState Error Specifications, SteadyState Error for Disturbances, SteadyState Error for Nonunity Feedback Systems, Sensitivity, SteadyState Error for Systems in State Space, 396 Case Studies, 400 Summary, 403 Review Questions, 404 Problems, 405 Design Problems, 419 Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 422 Bibliography, 423
6 xviii Contents 8. Root Locus Techniques Introduction, Defining the Root Locus, Properties of the Root Locus, Sketching the Root Locus, Refining the Sketch, AnExample, Transient Response Design via Gain Adjustment, Generalized Root Locus, Root Locus for PositiveFeedback Systems, Pole Sensitivity, 465 CaseStudies, 467 Summary, 472 Review Questions, 473 Problems, 474 Design Problems, 489 Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 496 Bibliography, Design via Root Locus Introduction, Improving SteadyState Error via Cascade Compensation, Improving Transient Response via Cascade Compensation, Improving SteadyState Error and Transient Response, Feedback Compensation, Physical Realization of Compensation, 558 Case Studies, 564 Summary, 570 Review Questions, 571 Problems, 572 Design Problems, 582 Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 588 Bibliography, 589
7 Contents xix 10. Frequency Response Techniques Introduction, Asymptotic Approximations: Bode Plots, Introduction to the Nyquist Criterion, Sketching the Nyquist Diagram, Stability via the Nyquist Diagram, Gain Margin and Phase Margin via the Nyquist Diagram, Stability, Gain Margin, and Phase Margin via Bode Plots, Relation between ClosedLoop Transient and ClosedLoop Frequency Responses, Relation between Closed and OpenLoop Frequency Responses, Relation between ClosedLoop Transient and OpenLoop Frequency Responses, SteadyState Error Characteristics from Frequency Response, Systems with Time Delay, Obtaining Transfer Functions Experimentally, 665 Case Study, 670 Summary, 672 Review Questions, 673 Problems, 674 Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 687 Bibliography, Design via Frequency Response Introduction, Transient Response via Gain Adjustment, Lag Compensation, Lead Compensation, LagLead Compensation, 707 Case Studies, 713 Summary, 715
8 xx Contents Review Questions, 716 Problems, 716 Design Problems, 721 Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 724 Bibliography, Design via State Space Introduction, Controller Design, Controllability, Alternative Approaches to Controller Design, Observer Design, Observability, Alternative Approaches to Observer Design, SteadyState Error Design via Integral Control, 764 Case Study, 768 Summary, 773 Review Questions, 775 Problems, 776 Design Problems, 781 Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 783 Bibliography, Digital Control Systems Introduction, Modeling the Digital Computer, The ztransform, Transfer Functions, Block Diagram Reduction, Stability, SteadyState Errors, 813
9 Contents xxi 13.8 Transient Response on the zplane, Gain Design on the zplane, Cascade Compensation via the splane, Implementing the Digital Compensator, 828 Case Studies, 831 Summary, 836 Review Questions, 837 Problems, 838 Design Problems, 844 Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 845 Bibliography, 847 Appendix A List of Symbols 848 Appendix B MATLAB Tutorial 852 Appendix C MATLAB's Simulink Tutorial 906 Appendix D MATLAB's GUI Tools Tutorial 922 Appendix E MATLAB's Symbolic Math Toolbox Tutorial 940 Glossary 953 Answers to Selected Problems 962 Credits 968 Index 970 Appendix F Matrices, Determinants, and Systems of Equations G.l Matrix Definitions and Notations G.2 Matrix Operations G.3 Matrix and Determinant Identities G.4 Systems of Equations Bibliography Appendix G Control System Computational Aids G.l Step Response of a System Represented in State Space G.2 Root Locus and Frequency Response
10 xxii Contents Appendix H Derivation of a Schematic for a DC Motor Appendix I Derivation of the Time Domain Solution of State Equations Appendix J Solution of State Equations for t 0 = 0 Appendix K Derivation of Similarity Transformations Appendix L Root Locus Rules: Derivations L.l Behavior of the Root Locus at Infinity L.2 Derivation of Transition Method for Breakaway and Breakin Points Solutions to SkillAssessment Exercises Control Systems Engineering Toolbox Lecture Graphics Cyber Exploration Laboratory Experiments
CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING Sixth Edition International Student Version
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