CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING Sixth Edition International Student Version


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1 CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING Sixth Edition International Student Version Norman S. Nise California State Polytechnic University, Pomona John Wiley fir Sons, Inc.
2 Contents PREFACE, vii 1. INTRODUCTION, Introduction, A History of Control Systems, System Configurations, Analysis and Design Objectives, 10 Case Study, The Design Process, ComputerAided Design, The Control Systems Engineer, 21 Summary, 23 Review Questions, 23 Problems, 24 Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 30 Bibliography, MODELING IN THE FREQUENCY DOMAIN, Introduction, Laplace Transform Review, The Transfer Function, Electrical Network Transfer Functions, Translational Mechanical System Transfer Functions, Rotational Mechanical System Transfer Functions, Transfer Functions for Systems with Gears, Electromechanical System Transfer Functions, Electric Circuit Analogs, Nonlinearities, Linearization, 89 Case Studies, 94 Summary, 97 Review Questions, 97 Problems, 98 Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 112 Bibliography, MODELING IN THE TIME DOMAIN, Introduction, Some Observations, The General StateSpace Representation, Applying the StateSpace Representation, Converting a Transfer Function to State Space, Converting from State Space to a Transfer Function, Linearization, 141 Case Studies, 144 Summary, 148 Review Questions, 149 Problems, 149 Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 157 Bibliography, TIME RESPONSE, Introduction, Poles, Zeros, and System Response, FirstOrder Systems, SecondOrder Systems: Introduction, The General SecondOrder System, Underdamped SecondOrder Systems, System Response with Additional Poles, System Response With Zeros, Effects of Nonlinearities Upon Time Response, 196 iii
3 iv Contents 4.10 Laplace Transform Solution of State Equations, Time Domain Solution of State Equations, 203 Case Studies, 207 Summary, 213 Review Questions, 214 Problems, 215 Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 228 Bibliography, REDUCTION OF MULTIPLE SUBSYSTEMS, Introduction, Block Diagrams, Analysis and Design of Feedback Systems, SignalFlow Graphs, Mason's Rule, SignalFlow Graphs of State Equations, Alternative Representations in State Space, Similarity Transformations, 266 Case Studies, 272 Summary, 278 Review Questions, 279 Problems, 280 Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 297 Bibliography, STABILITY, Introduction, RouthHurwitz Criterion, RouthHurwitz Criterion: Special Cases, RouthHurwitz Criterion: Additional Examples, Stability in State Space, 320 Case Studies, 323 Summary, 325 Review Questions, 325 Problems, 326 Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 335 Bibliography, STEADYSTATE ERRORS, Introduction, SteadyState Error for Unity Feedback Systems, Static Error Constants and System Type, SteadyState Error Specifications, SteadyState Error for Disturbances, SteadyState Error for Nonunity Feedback Systems, Sensitivity, SteadyState Error for Systems in State Space, 364 Case Studies, 368 Summary, 371 Review Questions, 372 Problems, 373 Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 384 Bibliography, ROOT LOCUS TECHNIQUES, Introduction, Defining the Root Locus, Properties of the Root Locus, Sketching the Root Locus, Refining the Sketch, An Example, Transient Response Design via Gain Adjustment, Generalized Root Locus, Root Locus for PositiveFeedback Systems, Pole Sensitivity, 424 Case Studies, 426 Summary, 431 Review Questions, 432 Problems, 432 Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 450 Bibliography, 452
4 Contents v 9. DESIGN VIA ROOT LOCUS, Introduction, Improving SteadyState Error via Cascade Compensation, Improving Transient Response via Cascade Compensation, Improving SteadyState Error and Transient Response, Feedback Compensation, Physical Realization of Compensation, 503 Case Studies, 508 Summary, 513 Review Questions, 514 Problems, 515 Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 530 Bibliography, FREQUENCY RESPONSE TECHNIQUES, Introduction, Asymptotic Approximations: Bode Plots, Introduction to the Nyquist Criterion, Sketching the Nyquist Diagram, Stability via the Nyquist Diagram, Gain Margin and Phase Margin via the Nyquist Diagram, Stability, Gain Margin, and Phase Margin via Bode Plots, Relation Between ClosedLoop Transient and ClosedLoop Frequency Responses, Relation Between Closed and OpenLoop Frequency Responses, Relation Between ClosedLoop Transient and OpenLoop Frequency Responses, SteadyState Error Characteristics from Frequency Response, Systems with Time Delay, Obtaining Transfer Functions Experimentally, 602 Case Study, 606 Summary, 607 Review Questions, 609 Problems, 610 Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 621 Bibliography, DESIGN VIA FREQUENCY RESPONSE, Introduction, Transient Response via Gain Adjustment, Lag Compensation, Lead Compensation, LagLead Compensation, 641 Case Studies, 650 Summary, 652 Review Questions, 653 Problems, 653 Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 660 Bibliography, DESIGN VIA STATE SPACE, Introduction, Controller Design, Controllability, Alternative Approaches to Controller Design, Observer Design, Observability, Alternative Approaches to Observer Design, SteadyState Error Design Via Integral Control, 700 Case Study, 704 Summary, 709 Review Questions, 710 Problems, 711 Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 719 Bibliography, DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS, Introduction, Modeling the Digital Computer, 727
5 VI Contents 13.3 The ztransform, Transfer Functions, Block Diagram Reduction, Stability, SteadyState Errors, Transient Response on the zplane, Gain Design on the zplane, Cascade Compensation via the splane, Implementing the Digital Compensator, 762 Case Studies, 765 Summary, 769 Review Questions, 770 Problems, 771 Cyber Exploration Laboratory, 778 Bibliography, 780 Appendix A List of Symbols, 783 Appendix В MATLAB Tutorial, 787 B.1 Introduction, 787 B.2 MATLAB Examples, 788 B.3 Command Summary, 833 Bibliography, 835 Appendix С MATLAB's Simulink Tutorial, 836 C.1 Introduction, 836 C.2 Using Simulink, 836 C.3 Examples, 841 Summary, 855 Bibliography, 856 Appendix D LabVIEW Tutorial, 857 D.1 Introduction, 857 D.2 Control Systems Analysis, Design, and Simulation, 858 D.3 Using LabVIEW, 859 D.4 Analysis and Design Examples, 862 D.5 Simulation Examples, 876 Summary, 885 Bibliography, 886 Glossary, 887 Answers to Selected Problems Credits, 903 Index, 907 Appendix E MATLAB's GUI Tools Tutorial Appendix F MATLAB's Symbolic Math Toolbox Tutorial Appendix G Matrices, Determinants, and Systems of Equations Appendix H Control System Computational Aids Appendix I Derivation of a Schematic for a DC Motor Appendix J Derivation of the Time Domain Solution of State Equations Appendix К Solution of State Equations for t 0 ф 0 Appendix L Derivation of Similarity Transformations Appendix M Root Locus Rules: Derivations Control Systems Engineering Toolbox Cyber Exploration Laboratory Experiments Covers Sheets Lecture Graphics Solutions to SkillAssessment Exercises Online location is
CONTROL * ~ SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
CONTROL * ~ SYSTEMS ENGINEERING H Fourth Edition NormanS. Nise California State Polytechnic University, Pomona JOHN WILEY& SONS, INC. Contents 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Introduction, 2 1.2 A History of Control
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