# CYBER EXPLORATION LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS

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1 CYBER EXPLORATION LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS 1

2 2 Cyber Exploration oratory Experiments Chapter 2 Experiment 1 Objectives To learn to use MATLAB to: (1) generate polynomial, (2) manipulate polynomials, (3) generate transfer functions, (4) manipulate transfer functions and (5) perform partial-fraction expansion. Minimum required software packages MATLAB, the Control System Toolbox 1. Calculate by hand or with a calculator the following: (a) The roots of P 1 ¼ s 6 þ 7s 5 þ 2s 4 þ 9s 3 þ 10s 2 þ 12s þ 15 (b) The roots of P 2 ¼ s 6 þ 9s 5 þ 8s 4 þ 9s 3 þ 12s 2 þ 15s þ 20 (c) P 3 ¼ P 1 þ P 2 ; P 4 ¼ P 1 P 2 ; P 5 ¼ P 1 P 2 2. Calculate by hand or with a calculator the polynomial P 6 ¼ðs þ 7Þðs þ 8Þðs þ 3Þðs þ 5Þðs þ 9Þðs þ 10Þ 3. Calculate by hand or with a calculator the transfer function: 20ðs þ 2Þðs þ 3Þðs þ 6Þðs þ 8Þ (a) G 1 ðsþ ¼ sðs þ 7Þðs þ 9Þðs þ 10Þðs þ 15Þ, represented as a numerator polynomial divided by a denominator polynomial. s 4 þ 17s 3 þ 99s 2 þ 223s þ 140 (b) G 2 ðsþ ¼ s 5 þ 32s 4 þ 363s 3 þ 2092s 2 þ 5052s þ 4320, expressed as factors in the numerator divided by factors in the denominator, similar to the form of G 1 ðsþ in Part 3(a). (c) G 3 ðsþ ¼G 1 ðsþþg 2 ðsþ; G 4 ðsþ ¼G 1 ðsþ G 2 ðsþ; G 5 ðsþ ¼G 1 ðsþg 2 ðsþ expressed as factors divided by factors and expressed as polynomials divided by polynomials. 4. Calculate by hand or with a calculator the partial fraction expansion of the following transfer functions: 5ðs þ 2Þ (a) G6 ¼ sðs 2 þ 8s þ 15Þ (b) G7 ¼ (c) G8 ¼ 5ðs þ 2Þ sðs 2 þ 6s þ 9Þ 5ðs þ 2Þ sðs 2 þ 6s þ 34Þ 1. Use MATLAB to find P 3 ; P 4, and P 5 in Use only one MATLAB command to find P 6 in Use only two MATLAB commands to find G 1 ðsþ in 3(a) represented as a polynomial divided by a polynomial.

3 4. Use only two MATLAB commands to find G 2 ðsþ expressed as factors in the numerator divided by factors in the denominator. 5. Using various combinations of G 1 ðsþ and G 2 ðsþ find G 3 ðsþ, G 4 ðsþ, and G 5 ðsþ. Various combinations implies mixing and matching G 1 ðsþ and G 2 ðsþ expressed as factors and polynomials. For example, in finding G 3 ðsþ, G 1 ðsþ can be expressed in factor form and G 2 ðsþ expressed in polynomial form. Another combination is G 1 ðsþ and G 2 ðsþ both expressed as polynomials. Still another combination is G 1 ðsþ and G 2 ðsþ both expressed in factored form. 6. Use MATLAB to evaluate the partial fraction expansions shown in 4. Cyber Exploration oratory Experiments 3 Postlab 1. Discuss your findings for Part 5 of the. What can you conclude? 2. Discuss the use of MATLAB to manipulate transfer functions and polynomials. Discuss any shortcomings in using MATLAB to evaluate partial fraction expansions.

4 4 Cyber Exploration oratory Experiments Chapter 2 Experiment 2 Objective To learn to use MATLAB and the Symbolic Math Toolbox to: (1) find LaPlace transforms for time functions, (2) find time functions from Laplace transforms, (3) create LTI transfer functions from symbolic transfer functions, (4) perform solution of symbolic simultaneous equations. Minimum required software packages MATLAB, the Symbolic Math Toolbox, and the Control System Toolbox 1. Using a hand calculation, find the Laplace transform of: f ðtþ ¼0:0075 0:00034 e 2:5 t cosð22:tþþ0:087 e 2:5 t sinð22:tþ 0:0072 e 8 t 2. Using a hand calculation, find the inverse Laplace transform of: FðsÞ ¼ 2ðs þ 3Þðs þ 5Þðs þ 7Þ sðs þ 8Þðs 2 þ 10s þ 100Þ 3. Use a hand calculation to solve the circuit shown in Figure P2.41 for the loop currents. 1 Ω 1 F 4 5 Ω i (t) 3 1 H 2 Ω 1 F 5 V(t) + 1 H 2 Ω 1 F 3 i (t) 1 Figure P2.41 i (t) 2 1. Use MATAB and the Symbolic Math Toolbox to: (a) Generate symbolically the time function f ðtþ shown in 1. (b) Generate symbolically FðsÞ shown in 2. Obtain your result symbolically in both factored and polynomial forms. (c) Find the LaPlace transform of f ðtþ shown in 1. (d) Find the inverse Laplace transform of FðsÞ shown in 2. (e) Generate an LTI transfer function for your symbolic representation of FðsÞ in 2 in both polynomial form and factored form. Start with the FðsÞ you generated symbolically. (f) Solve for the loop currents in 3.

5 Postlab 1. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages between the Symbolic Math Toolbox and MATLAB alone to convert a transfer function from factored form to polynomial form and vice versa. 2. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using the Symbolic Math Toolbox to generate LTI transfer functions. 3. Discuss the advantages of using the Symbolic Math Toolbox to solve simultaneous equations of the type generated by the electric network in 3. Is it possible to solve the equations via MATLAB alone? Explain. 4. Discuss any other observations you had using the Symbolic Math Toolbox. Cyber Exploration oratory Experiments 5

6 6 Cyber Exploration oratory Experiments Chapter 3 Experiment 1 Objective To learn to use MATLAB to: (1) generate an LTI state-space representation of a system, (2) convert an LTI state-space representation of a system to an LTI transfer function. Minimum required software packages MATLAB, the Control System Toolbox 1. Derive the state-space representation of the translational mechanical system shown in Skill-Assessment Exercise 3.2 if you haven t already done so. Consider the output to be x 3 ðtþ. 2. Derive the transfer function, X 3ðsÞ, from the equations of motion for the translational FðsÞ mechanical system shown in Skill-Assessment Exercise Use MATLAB to generate the LTI state-space representation derived in Use MATLAB to convert the LTI state-space representation found in 1 to the LTI transfer function found in 2. Postlab 1. Compare your transfer functions as found from 2 and Discuss the use of MATLAB to create LTI state-space representations and the use of MATLAB to convert these representations to transfer functions.

7 Chapter 3 Experiment 2 Objectives To learn to use MATLAB and the Symbolic Math Toolbox to: (1) find a symbolic transfer function from the state-space representation, (2) find a state-space representation from the equations of motion. Minimum required software packages MATLAB, the Symbolic Math Toolbox, and the Control System Toolbox 1. Perform 1 and 2 of Experiment 3.1 if you have not already done so. 2. Using the equation, TðsÞ ¼C ððsi AÞ 1 Þ B, to find a transfer function from a state-space representation, write a MATLAB program using the Symbolic Math Toolbox to find the symbolic transfer function from the state-space representation found in 1 of the mechanical translational system shown in Skill-Assessment Exercise Using the equations of motion of the mechanical translational system shown in Skill- Assessment Exercise 3.2 and found in 1, write a symbolic MATLAB program to find the transfer function, X 3ðsÞ, for the mechanical translational system shown in FðsÞ Skill-Assessment Exercise 3.2 and found in Run the programs composed in s 2 and 3 and obtain the symbolic transfer functions by the two methods. Postlab 1. Compare the symbolic transfer function obtained from TðsÞ ¼C ððsi AÞ 1 Þ B with the symbolic transfer function obtained from the equations of motion. 2. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages between the two methods. Cyber Exploration oratory Experiments 7 3. Describe how you would obtain an LTI state-space representation and an LTI transfer function from your symbolic transfer function.

8 8 Cyber Exploration oratory Experiments Chapter 4 Experiment 1 Objective To evaluate the effect of pole and zero location upon the time response of first- and second-order systems. Minimum required software packages MATLAB, Simulink, and the Control System Toolbox 1. Given the transfer function, GðsÞ ¼ a : Evaluate settling time and rise time for the s þ a following values of a: 1, 2, 3, 4. Also, plot the poles. b 2. Given the transfer function, GðsÞ ¼ s 2 þ as þ b. (a) Evaluate percent overshoot, settling time, peak time, and rise time for the following values: a ¼ 4; b ¼ 25. Also, plot the poles. (b) Calculate the values of a and b so that the imaginary part of the poles remains the same, but the real part is increased 2times over that of (a), and repeat 2(a). (c) Calculate the values of a and b so that the imaginary part of the poles remains the same, but the real part is decreased ½ time over that of (a), and repeat the 2(a). 3. (a) For the system of 2(a), calculate the values of a and b so that the real part of the poles remains the same, but the imaginary part is increased 2 times over that of 2(a), and repeat 2(a). (b) For the system of 2(a), calculate the values of a and b so that the real part of the poles remains the same, but the imaginary part is increased 4 times over that of 2(a), and repeat 2(a). 4. (a) For the system of 2(a), calculate the values of a and b so that the damping ratio remains the same, but the natural frequency is increased 2 times over that of 2(a), and repeat 2(a). (b) For the system of 2(a), calculate the values of a and b so that the damping ratio remains the same, but the natural frequency is increased 4 times over that of 2(a), and repeat 2(a). 5. Briefly describe the effects on the time response as the poles are changed in each of 2, 3, and Using Simulink, set up the systems of 1 and plot the step response of each of the 4 transfer functions on a single graph by using the Simulink LTI Viewer. Also, record the values of settling time and rise time for each step response. 2. Using Simulink, set up the systems of 2. Using the Simulink LTI Viewer, plot the step response of each of the 3 transfer functions on a single graph. Also, record the values of percent overshoot, settling time, peak time, and rise time for each step response. 3. Using Simulink, set up the systems of 2(a) and 3. Using the Simulink LTI Viewer, plot the step response of each of the 3 transfer functions on a single

9 Cyber Exploration oratory Experiments 9 graph. Also, record the values of percent overshoot, settling time, peak time, and rise time for each step response. 4. Using Simulink, set up the systems of 2(a) and 4. Using the Simulink LTI Viewer, plot the step response of each of the 3 transfer functions on a single graph. Also, record the values of percent overshoot, settling time, peak time, and rise time for each step response. Postlab 1. For the first-order systems, make a table of calculated and experimental values of settling time, rise time, and pole location. 2. For the second-order systems of 2, make a table of calculated and experimental values of percent overshoot, settling time, peak time, rise time, and pole location. 3. For the second-order systems of 2(a) and 3, make a table of calculated and experimental values of percent overshoot, settling time, peak time, rise time, and pole location. 4. For the second-order systems of 2(a) and 4, make a table of calculated and experimental values of percent overshoot, settling time, peak time, rise time, and pole location. 5. Discuss the effect of pole location upon the time response for both first- and secondorder systems. Discuss any discrepancies between your calculated and experimental values.

11 Postlab Cyber Exploration oratory Experiments Discuss the effect upon the transient response of the proximately of a higher-order pole to the dominant second-order pole pair. 2. Discuss the effect upon the transient response of the proximately of a zero to the dominant second-order pole pair. Explore the relationship between the length of the vector from the zero to the dominant pole and the zero s effect upon the pure secondorder step response. 3. Discuss the effect of pole-zero cancellation upon the transient response of a dominant second-order pole pair. Allude to how close the canceling pole and zero should be and the relationships of (1) the distance between them and (2) the distance between the zero and the dominant second-order poles.

12 12 Cyber Exploration oratory Experiments Chapter 5 Experiment 1 Objectives To verify the equivalency of the basic forms, including cascade, parallel and feedback forms. To verify the equivalency of the basic moves, including moving blocks past summing junctions, and moving blocks past pickoff points. Minimum required software packages MATLAB, Simulink, and the Control System Toolbox 1. Find the equivalent transfer function of three cascaded blocks, G 1 ðsþ ¼ 1 s þ 1, G 2 ðsþ ¼ 1 s þ 4, and G 3ðsÞ ¼ s þ 3 s þ Find the equivalent transfer function of three parallel blocks, G 1 ðsþ ¼sþ1 1, G 2 ðsþ ¼ 1 s þ 4, and G 3ðsÞ ¼ s þ 3 s þ Find the equivalent transfer function of the negative feedback system of Figure P5.42 if GðsÞ ¼ s þ 1 þ 3 and HðsÞ ¼s sðs þ 2Þ s þ 4. R(s) + G(s) C(s) H(s) Figure P For the system of 3, push H(s) to the left past the summing junction and draw the equivalent system. 5. For the system of 3, push H(s) to the right past the pickoff point and draw the equivalent system. 1. Using Simulink, set up the cascade system of 1 and the equivalent single block. Make separate plots of the step response of the cascaded system and its equivalent single block. Record the values of settling time and rise time for each step response. 2. Using Simulink, set up the parallel system of 2 and the equivalent single block. Make separate plots of the step response of the parallel system and its equivalent single block. Record the values of settling time and rise time for each step response. 3. Using Simulink, set up the negative feedback system of 3 and the equivalent single block. Make separate plots of the step response of the negative feedback system and its equivalent single block. Record the values of settling time and rise time for each step response.

13 4. Using Simulink, set up the negative feedback systems of s 3, 4, and 5. Make separate plots of the step responses of each of the systems. Record the values of settling time and rise time for each step response. Postlab 1. Using your lab data, verify the equivalent transfer function of blocks in cascade. 2. Using your lab data, verify the equivalent transfer function of blocks in parallel. 3. Using your lab data, verify the equivalent transfer function of negative feedback systems. 4. Using your lab data, verify the moving of blocks past summing junctions and pickoff points. 5. Discuss your results. Were the equivalencies verified? Cyber Exploration oratory Experiments 13

14 14 Cyber Exploration oratory Experiments Chapter 6 Experiment 1 Objectives To verify the effect of pole location upon stability. To verify the effect upon stability of loop gain in a negative feedback system. Minimum required software packages MATLAB, Simulink, and the Control System Toolbox 1. Find the equivalent transfer function of the negative feedback system of K Figure P6.17 if GðsÞ ¼ and HðsÞ ¼1. 2 sðs þ 2Þ R(s) + G(s) C(s) H(s) Figure P For the system of 1, find two values of gain that will yield closed-loop overdamped second-order poles. Repeat for underdamped poles. 3. For the system of 1, find the value of gain, K, that will make the system critically damped. 4. For the system of 1, find the value of gain, K, that will make the system marginally stable. Also, find the frequency of oscillation at that value of K that makes the system marginally stable. 5. For each of 2 through 4, plot on one graph the pole locations for each case and write the corresponding value of gain, K, at each pole. 1. Using Simulink, set up the negative feedback system of 1. Plot the step response of the system at each value of gain calculated to yield overdamped, underdamped, critically damped, and marginally stable responses. 2. Plot the step responses for two values of gain, K, above that calculated to yield marginal stability. 3. At the output of the negative feedback system cascade the transfer function, G 1 ðsþ ¼ 1 s 2. Set the gain, K, at a value below that calculated for marginal stability and plot þ 4 the step response. Repeat for K calculated to yield marginal stability. Postlab 1. From your plots, discuss the conditions that lead to unstable responses 2. Discuss the effect of gain upon the nature of the step response of a closed-loop system.

16 16 Cyber Exploration oratory Experiments 2. Use your plots from 2 and compare the expected steady-state errors to those calculated in the. Explain the reasons for any discrepancies. 3. Use your plots from 3 and compare the expected steady-state errors to those calculated in the. Explain the reasons for any discrepancies.

17 Chapter 8 Experiment 1 Cyber Exploration oratory Experiments 17 Objective To verify the effect of open-loop poles and zeros upon the shape of the root locus. To verify the root locus as a tool for estimating the effect of open-loop gain upon the transient response of closed-loop systems. Minimum required software packages MATLAB and the Control System Toolbox 1. Sketch two possibilities for the root locus of a unity negative-feedback system with the open-loop pole/zero configuration shown in Figure P8.23. jω σ Figure P8.23 Kðs þ 1:5Þ 2. If the open-loop system of 1 is GðsÞ ¼, estimate the sðs þ 0:5Þðs þ 10Þ percent overshoot at the following values of gain, K: 20, 50, 85, 200, and Using Matlab s SISO Design Tool, set up a negative unity-feedback system with Kðs þ 6Þ GðsÞ ¼ to produce a root locus. For convenience set up the sðs þ 0:5Þðs þ 10Þ zero at 6 using SISO Design Tool s compensator function by simply dragging a zero to 6 on the resulting root locus. Print the root locus for the zero at 6. Move the zero to the following locations and print out a root locus at each location: 2; 1:5; 1:37, and 1:2. 2. Using Matlab s SISO Design Tool, set up a negative unity-feedback system with Kðs þ 1:5Þ GðsÞ ¼ to produce a root locus. Open the LTI Viewer for SISO sðs þ 0:5Þðs þ 10Þ Design Tool to show step responses. Using the values of K specified in 2, record the percent overshoot and settling time and print the root loci and step response for each value of K.

18 18 Cyber Exploration oratory Experiments Postlab 1. Discuss your findings from Pre 1 and 1. What conclusions can you draw? 2. Make a table comparing percent overshoot and settling time from your calculations in 2 and your experimental values found in 2. Discuss the reasons for any discrepancies. What conclusions can you draw?

20 20 Cyber Exploration oratory Experiments Chapter 10 Experiment 1 Objective To examine the relationships between open-loop frequency response and stability, open-loop frequency response and closed-loop transient response, and the effect of additional closed-loop poles and zeros upon the ability to predict closed-loop transient response. Minimum required software packages MATLAB, and the Control System Toolbox 1. Sketch the Nyquist diagram for a unity negative feedback system with a forward K transfer function of GðsÞ ¼. From your Nyquist plot determine the sðs þ 2Þðs þ 10Þ range of gain, K, for stability. 2. Find the phase margins required for second-order closed-loop step responses with the following percent overshoot: 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%. 1. Using the Sisotool produce the following plots simultaneously for the system of 1: root locus, Nyquist diagram, and step response. Make plots of the root locus, Nyquist diagram, and step response for the following values of K: 50, 100, the value for marginal stability found in 1, and a value above that found for marginal stability. Use the zoom tools when required to produce an illustrative plot. Finally, change the gain by grabbing and moving the closed-loop poles along the root locus and note the changes in the Nyquist diagram and step response. 2. Using the Sisotool, produce Bode plots and closed-loop step responses for a unity K negative feedback system with a forward transfer function of GðsÞ ¼ sðs þ 10Þ 2. Produce these plots for each value of phase margin found in 2. Adjust the gain to arrive at the desired phase margin by grabbing the Bode magnitude curve and moving it up or down. Observe the effects, if any, upon the Bode phase plot. For each case, record the value of gain and the location of the closed-loop poles. K 3. Repeat 2 for GðsÞ ¼ sðs þ 10Þ. Postlab 1. Make a table showing calculated and actual values for the range of gain for stability as found in 1 and Make a table from the data obtained in 2 itemizing phase margin, percent overshoot, and the location of the closed-loop poles. 3. Make a table from the data obtained in 3 itemizing phase margin, percent overshoot, and the location of the closed-loop poles. 4. For each Postlab task 1 to 3 above, explain any discrepancies between the actual values obtained and those expected.

21 Chapter 11 Experiment 1 Objective To design a PID controller using MATLAB s SISO Design Tool. To see the effect of a PI and a PD controller upon the magnitude and phase responses at each step of the design of a PID controller. Minimum Required Software Packages MATLAB, and the Control System Toolbox 1. What is the phase margin required for 12% overshoot? 2. What is the bandwidth required for 12% overshoot and a peak time of 2 seconds? K 3. Given a unity feedback system with GðsÞ ¼, what is the gain, K, sðs þ 1Þðs þ 4Þ required to yield the phase margin found in 1? What is the phase-margin frequency? 4. Design a PI controller to yield a phase margin 5 more than that found in Complete the design of a PID controller for the system of 3. Cyber Exploration oratory Experiments Using MATLAB s SISO Design Tool, set up the system of 3 and display the open-loop Bode plots and the closed-loop step response. 2. Drag the Bode magnitude plot in a vertical direction until the phase margin found in 1 is obtained. Record the gain, K, the phase margin, the phase-margin frequency, the percent overshoot, and the peak time. Move the magnitude curve up and down and note the effect upon the phase curve, the phase margin, and the phasemargin frequency. 3. Design the PI controller by adding a pole at the origin and a zero one decade below the phase-margin frequency found in 2. Readjust the gain to yield a phase margin 5 higher than that found in 1. Record the gain, K, the phase margin, the phasemargin frequency, the percent overshoot, and the peak time. Move the zero back and forth in the vicinity of its current location and note the effect upon the magnitude and phase curve. Move the magnitude curve up and down and note its effect upon the phase curve, the phase margin, and the phase-margin frequency. 4. Design the PD portion of the PID controller by first adjusting the magnitude curve to yield a phase-margin frequency slightly below the bandwidth calculated in 2. Add a zero to the system and move it until you obtain the phase margin calculated in 1. Move the zero and note its effect. Move the magnitude curve and note its effect. Postlab 1. Compare the PID design with that obtained via the SISO Design Tool. In particular, compare the gain, K, the phase margin, the phase-margin frequency, the percent overshoot, and the peak time. 2. For the uncompensated system, describe the effect of changing gain upon the phase curve, the phase margin, and the phase-margin frequency.

22 22 Cyber Exploration oratory Experiments 3. For the PI compensated system, describe the effect of changing gain upon the phase curve, the phase margin, and the phase-margin frequency. Repeat for changes in the zero location. 4. For the PID compensated system, describe the effect of changing gain upon the phase curve, the phase margin, and the phase-margin frequency. Repeat for changes in the PD zero location.

24 24 Cyber Exploration oratory Experiments Chapter 13 Experiment 1 Objective To design the gain of a digital control system to meet a transient response requirement; to simulate a digital control system to test a design; to see the effect of sampling rate upon the time response of a digital system. Minimum Required Software Packages MATLAB, Simulink, and the Control System Toolbox 1. Given the antenna azimuth control system shown on the inside front endpapers, use Configuration 2 to find the discrete transfer function of the plant. Neglect the dynamics of the power amplifier and include the preamplifier, motor, gears, and load. Assume a zero-order hold and a sampling interval of 0.01 second. 2. Using the digital plant found in 1, find the preamplifier gain required for a closed-loop digital system response with 10% overshoot and a sampling interval of 0.01 second. What is the peak time? 3. Given the antenna azimuth control system shown on the inside front endpapers, use Configuration 2 to find the preamplifier gain required for the continuous system to yield a closed-loop step response with 10% overshoot. Consider the open-loop system to be the preamplifier, motor, gears, and load. Neglect the dynamics of the power amplifier. 1. Verify your value of preamplifier gain found in 2 using the SISO Design Tool to generate the root locus for the digital open-loop transfer function found in 1. Use the Design Constraints capability to generate the 10% overshoot curve and place your closed-loop poles at this boundary. Obtain a plot of the root locus and the design boundary. Record the value of gain for 10% overshoot. Also, obtain a plot of the step response using the LTI Viewer and record the values of percent overshoot and peak time. Use the same tool to find the range of gain for stability. 2. Using Simulink set up the closed-loop digital system whose plant was found in 1. Make two diagrams: one with the digital transfer function for the plant and another using the continuous transfer function for the plant preceded by a zero-order sample and hold. Use the same step input for both diagrams and obtain the step response of each. Measure the percent overshoot and peak time. 3. Using Simulink, set up both the digital and continuous systems calculated in s 2 and 3, respectively, to yield 10% overshoot. Build the digital system with a sample and hold rather than the z-transform function. Plot the step response of each system and record the percent overshoot and the peak time. 4. For one of the digital systems built in 2, vary the sampling interval and record the responses for a few values of sampling interval above 0.01 second. Record sampling interval, percent overshoot, and peak time. Also, find the value of sampling interval that makes the system unstable.

25 Postlab 1. Make a table containing the percent overshoot, peak time, and gain for each of the following closed-loop responses: the digital system using the SISO Design Tool; the digital system using Simulink and the digital transfer functions; the digital system using Simulink and the continuous transfer functions with the zero-order sample and hold; the continuous system using Simulink. 2. Using the data from 4, make a table containing sampling interval, percent overshoot, and peak time. Also, state the sampling interval that makes the system unstable. 3. Compare the responses of all of the digital systems with a sampling interval of 0.01 second and the continuous system. Explain any discrepancies. 4. Compare the responses of the digital system at different sampling intervals with the continuous system. Explain the differences. 5. Draw some conclusions about the effect of sampling. Cyber Exploration oratory Experiments 25

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