Linear Control Systems Lecture #3  Frequency Domain Analysis. Guillaume Drion Academic year


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1 Linear Control Systems Lecture #3  Frequency Domain Analysis Guillaume Drion Academic year
2 Goal and Outline Goal: To be able to analyze the stability and robustness of a closedloop system Outline: The loop transfer function The Nyquist plot The simplified and general Nyquist criteria Stability margins 2
3 Design in frequency domain: transfer functions We work in frequency domain for the analysis and design of the stability and performance of control systems ( ). 3
4 Design in frequency domain: transfer functions In frequency domain, systems dynamics are described by a transfer function. LTI system LTI system 4
5 Design in frequency domain: transfer functions The dynamical behavior of LTI systems depends on the shape of the transfer function (mostly its poles and zeros). Poles 5
6 Design in frequency domain: transfer functions The frequency response of a system can be analyzed using the Bode plots. 100s s s Example: H(s) =. ( 6
7 Design in frequency domain: transfer functions Transfer functions are ideal for the study of system interconnections: Series interconnection: H 1 H 2 H=H 1 H 2 Feedback interconnection: H 1 H 2 H=H 1 /(1+H 1 H 2 ) 7
8 Goal and Outline Goal: To be able to analyze the stability and robustness of a closedloop system Outline: The loop transfer function The Nyquist plot The simplified and general Nyquist criteria Stability margins 8
9 Stability of closedloop systems Can we easily assess the stability of the closedloop system (a) while designing the control system transfer function? Nyquist: we can assess the stability of a closedloop system by looking at the loop transfer function: L(s) =P (s)c(s) (b). This approach is very convenient for the design of control systems. 9
10 Stability of closedloop systems Can we easily assess the stability of the closedloop system (a) while designing the control system transfer function? Nyquist: we can assess the stability of a closedloop system by looking at the loop transfer function: L(s) =P (s)c(s) (b). This approach is very convenient for the design of control systems. 10
11 Condition of stability and the loop transfer function What are the conditions under which oscillations occur? Let s first break the loop! The limit of stability is when an oscillation is maintained over time, i.e. if A =! 0 then. B =! 0 Knowing that, at that frequency, B = L(j! 0 )A, the closedloop system oscillate if L(j! 0 )= 1. 11
12 Condition of stability and the loop transfer function Nyquist approach: we look at the stability and robustness of a feedback system by looking at the properties of the loop transfer function. L(s) =P (s)c(s) Example: we need to tune the control system transfer function in order to avoid the value L(j! 0 )= 1. For this, Nyquist developed a specific tool: the Nyquist plot. 12
13 Goal and Outline Goal: To be able to analyze the stability and robustness of a closedloop system Outline: The loop transfer function The Nyquist plot The simplified and general Nyquist criteria Stability margins 13
14 The Nyquist plot Nyquist plot: plot of the loop transfer function L(s) for different values of the complex frequency s = + j! (i.e. mapping in the complex plane). For this, we introduce the Nyquist D contour, which defines the path in the complex plane containing the values of s = + j! for which we plot L(s). 14
15 Mapping in the complex plane: examples To give intuition on how to sketch and interpret a Nyquist plot, we will first see some examples of mapping of functions in the complex plane. Examples and matlab GUI are taken from (the whole website is a great source of information!!!). 15
16 Mapping in the complex plane: examples Illustration: let s take the contour s = re j, =0! 2 (clockwise). Effect of a zero: L(s) =s + a = re j + a, =0! 2. Same rotation as contour, shifted of a to the right. Effect of a single pole: L(s) = 1. s = 1 re j = 1 r e j, =0! 2 Rotates in the opposite direction as the contour, and radius varies in the opposite direction. Illustrations using the matlab function. 16
17 The Nyquist D contour In general, L(s) goes to 0 as s gets big. i.e. the semicircle at infinity maps to the origin in the Nyquist plot. The D contour does not include poles on the imaginary axis! Examples of Nyquist plots using the matlab function. 17
18 The Nyquist D contour and Nyquist plot Example: Nyquist plot for. L(s) = 1.4e s (s + 1) 2 18
19 Goal and Outline Goal: To be able to analyze the stability and robustness of a closedloop system Outline: The loop transfer function The Nyquist plot The simplified and general Nyquist criteria Stability margins 19
20 The simplified Nyquist criterion Let L(s) be the loop transfer function for a negative feedback system and assume that L(s) has no poles in the open right halfplane (except for single poles on the imaginary axis). Then the closed loop system is stable if and only if the closed contour given by = {L(j!) : 1 <! < 1} C has no net encirclements of the critical point s = 1. 20
21 The simplified Nyquist criterion Let L(s) be the loop transfer function for a negative feedback system and assume that L(s) has no poles in the open right halfplane (except for single poles on the imaginary axis). Then the closed loop system is stable if and only if the closed contour given by = {L(j!) : 1 <! < 1} C has no net encirclements of the critical point s = 1. The Nyquist criterion does not require that!!! L(j!) < 1 8! The Nyquist plot/criterion shows how system stability is influenced by changes in the controller parameters (see stability margins). 21
22 Correspondance between Nyquist plot and Bode plots The frequency at which the Nyquist curve crosses the real axis at negative values corresponds to the frequency at which the phase crosses 180 in the corresponding Bode plot. 22
23 Relationships between Nyquist plot and Bode plots Closedloop systems can often be destabilized by an increase in feedback gain (= radial dilation of the Nyquist plot, in red). 23
24 Conditional stability There are, however, situations where a system can be stabilized by increasing the gain. In other words, where the loop transfer function is unstable (poles in the right halfplane), but the closedloop system is stable. 24
25 The general Nyquist criterion Consider a closed loop system with the loop transfer function L(s) that has P poles in the region enclosed by the Nyquist contour. Let N be the net number of clockwise encirclements of 1 by L(s) when encircles the Nyquist contour in the clockwise direction. Counterclockwise encirclement: N= 1. s The closed loop system then has Z = N +P poles in the right halfplane. 25
26 The general Nyquist criterion Example: stabilizing the inverted pendulum using a PD controller. L(s) =P (s)c(s) = 1 s 2 1 k(s + 2) (Pole at s =1 ) 2k 26
27 Goal and Outline Goal: To be able to analyze the stability and robustness of a closedloop system Outline: The loop transfer function The Nyquist plot The simplified and general Nyquist criteria Stability margins 27
28 Stability margins on the Nyquist plot Phase crossover frequency Gain crossover frequency g m : Gain margin ' m : phase margin s m : stability margin 28
29 Gain margin g m Gain margin ( ): smallest increase of the openloop gain at which the closedloop system becomes unstable Gain margin is infinite if the phase of L(s) never crosses 180! 29
30 Phase margin Phase margin (' m ): phase at unit gain. Any time delay in the system rotates the Nyquist curve, hence reduces the phase margin. Phase margin is infinite if the gain of L(s) is always smaller than1. 30
31 Sensitivity margin Sensitivity margin ( point (1). s m ): Shortest distance from the Nyquist curve to the critical Sensitivity margin is related to disturbance attenuation. 31
32 Stability margins on the Nyquist plot Phase crossover frequency Gain crossover frequency g m : Gain margin ' m : phase margin s m : stability margin 32
x(t) = x(t h), x(t) 2 R ), where is the time delay, the transfer function for such a e s Figure 1: Simple Time Delay Block Diagram e i! =1 \e i!t =!
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