# Physics 106 Lecture 13. Fluid Mechanics

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 Physics 106 Lecture 13 Fluid Mechanics SJ 7 th Ed.: Chap 14.1 to 14.5 What is a fluid? Pressure Pressure varies with depth Pascal s principle Methods for measuring pressure Buoyant forces Archimedes principle Fluid dynamics assumptions An ideal fluid Continuity Equation Bernoulli s Equation Solids definite volume and shape Resist shear stress What is a fluid? Shear stress Force Force Fluids: substances that can flow, that is, liquid and gas no definite shape, cannot resist shear stress Liquids: definite volume often almost incompressible under pressure (from all sides) Molecules move while weakly interacting with each other Gases: no definite volume molecules move independently of each other comparatively easy to compress: density depends on temperature and pressure 1

2 Study on fluids Fluid Statics - fluids at rest (mechanical equilibrium) Fluid Dynamics fluid flow (continuity, energy conservation) Mass and Density Density is mass per unit volume at a point: Δm ρ ΔV or ρ m V scalar units are kg/m 3, gm/cm 3.. ρ water = 1000 kg/m 3 = 1.0 gm/cm 3 Volume and density vary with temperature - slightly in liquids Incompressible liquid: density is constant The average molecular spacing in gases is much greater than in liquids. 2

3 Forces/Stresses in Fluids Fluids do not allow shearing stresses or tensile stresses (pressures) Tension Shear Compression The only stress that can be exerted on an object submerged in a static fluid is one that tends to compress the object from all sides The force exerted by a static fluid on an object is always perpendicular to the surfaces of the object Area vector Imagine an area, either on the surface of or inside a fluid A = Anˆ For this area, define an area vector: A = Anˆ Magnitude, A: area Direction: perpendicular to the area ˆn : unit vector perpendicular to the area 3

4 Pressure The pressure P on a small area ΔA is the ratio of the magnitude of the net force to the area ΔF P = or P = F / A ΔA ΔF = PΔA = PΔAnˆ PΔA nˆ n Pressure is a scalar while force is a vector The direction of the force producing a pressure is perpendicular to some area of interest h At a point in a fluid (in mechanical equilibrium) the pressure is the same in any direction Pressure units: 1 Pascal (Pa) = 1 Newton/m 2 (SI) 1 PSI (Pound/sq. in) = 6894 Pa. 1 milli-bar = 100 Pa. A sensor to measure absolute pressure The spring is calibrated by a known force Vacuum is inside The force due to fluid pressure presses on the top of the piston and compresses the spring until the spring force and F are equal. The force the fluid exerts on the piston is then measured 4

5 The pressure inside a commercial airliner is maintained at 1 ATM (=10^5 N/m^2). What is the net force exerted on a 1 m x 2 m cabin door by the air inside and outside airliner if the outside pressure (at 10 km height) is 0.3 ATM? Pressure versus depth in a incompressible fluid in static equilibrium Fluid is in static equilibrium y=0 The net force on the shaded volume = 0 Incompressible liquid - constant density ρ Horizontal surface areas = A Forces on the shaded region: Weight of shaded fluid: Mg Downward force on top: F 1 =P 1 A Upward force on bottom: F 2 = P 2 A y 1 F 1 h P 1 y 2 Mg F 2 P 2 Fy = 0 = 2 1 P A P A Mg In terms of density, the mass of the shaded fluid is: M = ρδv = ρah P 2 A P1 A + ρgha The extra pressure at extra depth h is: P = P P = ρgh Δ 2 1 h y1 y2 5

6 Pressure relative to the surface of a liquid Example: The pressure at depth h is: P h = P 0 + ρgh P 0 is the local atmospheric (or ambient) pressure P h is the absolute pressure at depth h The difference is called the gauge pressure All points at the same depth are at the same pressure; otherwise, the fluid could not be in equilibrium The pressure at depth h does not depend on the shape of the container holding the fluid P 0 air h liquid P 0 P h Preceding equations also hold approximately for gases such as air if the density does not vary much across h P h Atmospheric pressure and units conversions P 0 is the atmospheric pressure if the liquid is open to the atmosphere. Atmospheric pressure varies locally due to altitude, temperature, motion of air masses, other factors. Sea level atmospheric pressure P 0 = 1.00 atm = x 10 5 Pa = kpa = mb (millibars) = Hg = mmhg ~ Torr = psi (pounds per square inch) Pascal (Pa) bar (bar) atmosphere (atm) torr (Torr) pound-force per square inch (psi) 1Pa 1N/m bar 100, dyn/cm 2 1 atm 101, atm torr Torr; mmhg 1 psi lbf/in 2 6

7 Pressure Measurement: Barometer near-vacuum Mercury (Hg) Invented by Torricelli ( ) Measures atmospheric pressure P 0 as it varies with the weather The closed end is nearly a vacuum (P = 0) One standard atm = x 10 5 Pa. P0 = ρ gh Hg How high is the Mercury column? 5 P Pa h = = = m ρ g Hg ( kg / m )( m/s ) One 1 atm = 760 mm of Hg = inches of Hg h = ρ How high would a water column be? P 0 water = g Pa = m ( kg / m )( m/s ) Height limit for a suction pump iclicker Q Superman with infinitely powerful lungs tries to drink a soda in an open cup on the ground from the top of a 20 m high building through a straw. Will he succeed? A)Yes B)No C)Not enough information 7

8 Pressure Measurements: Manometer Measures the pressure of the gas in the closed vessel One end of the U-shaped tube is open to the atmosphere at pressure P 0 The other end is connected to the pressure P A to be measured Points A and B are at the same elevation. The pressure P A supports a liquid column of height h The Pressure of the gas is: P A = PB = P0 + ρgh Absolute vs. Gauge Pressure The gauge pressure is pressure measured relative to atmospheric pressure, P A P 0 = ρgh What you measure in your tires Gauge pressure can be positive or negative. Find the pressure in atmospheres at the base of Dworshak Dam if the water in the reservoir is 200 meters deep. (10^5 N/m^2 = 1 ATM.) 8

### Chapter 9: Solids and Fluids

Chapter 9: Solids and Fluids State of matters: Solid, Liquid, Gas and Plasma. Solids Has definite volume and shape Can be crystalline or amorphous Molecules are held in specific locations by electrical

### Chapter 14. Lecture 1 Fluid Mechanics. Dr. Armen Kocharian

Chapter 14 Lecture 1 Fluid Mechanics Dr. Armen Kocharian States of Matter Solid Has a definite volume and shape Liquid Has a definite volume but not a definite shape Gas unconfined Has neither a definite

### Fluid Mechanics. The atmosphere is a fluid!

Fluid Mechanics The atmosphere is a fluid! Some definitions A fluid is any substance which can flow Liquids, gases, and plasmas Fluid statics studies fluids in equilibrium Density, pressure, buoyancy Fluid

### Chapter 12. Fluid Mechanics. A. The density ρ of a substance of uniform composition is defined as its mass M divided by its volume V.

Chapter 12 Fluid Mechanics 12.1 Density A. The density ρ of a substance of uniform composition is defined as its mass M divided by its volume V. That is,! = M V The density of water at 4 o C is 1000 kg/m

### Chapter 14. Fluid Mechanics

Chapter 14 Fluid Mechanics States of Matter Solid Has a definite volume and shape Liquid Has a definite volume but not a definite shape Gas unconfined Has neither a definite volume nor shape All of these

### Chapter 15 - Fluid Mechanics Thursday, March 24 th

Chapter 15 - Fluid Mechanics Thursday, March 24 th Fluids Static properties Density and pressure Hydrostatic equilibrium Archimedes principle and buoyancy Fluid Motion The continuity equation Bernoulli

### Chapter 14 - Fluids. -Archimedes, On Floating Bodies. David J. Starling Penn State Hazleton PHYS 213. Chapter 14 - Fluids. Objectives (Ch 14)

Any solid lighter than a fluid will, if placed in the fluid, be so far immersed that the weight of the solid will be equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. -Archimedes, On Floating Bodies David J.

### Phy 212: General Physics II. Daniel Bernoulli ( )

Phy 1: General Physics II Chapter 14: Fluids Lecture Notes Daniel Bernoulli (1700-178) Swiss merchant, doctor & mathematician Worked on: Vibrating strings Ocean tides Kinetic theory Demonstrated that as

### Physics 207 Lecture 18

Physics 07, Lecture 8, Nov. 6 MidTerm Mean 58.4 (64.6) Median 58 St. Dev. 6 (9) High 94 Low 9 Nominal curve: (conservative) 80-00 A 6-79 B or A/B 34-6 C or B/C 9-33 marginal 9-8 D Physics 07: Lecture 8,

### ! =!"#\$% exerted by a fluid (liquid or gas) !"#\$ =!"# FUNDAMENTAL AND MEASURABLE INTENSIVE PROPERTIES PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE AND SPECIFIC VOLUME

FUNDAMENTAL AND MEASURABLE INTENSIVE PROPERTIES PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE AND SPECIFIC VOLUME PRESSURE, P! =!"#\$%!"#! exerted by a fluid (liquid or gas) Thermodynamic importance of pressure One of two independent

### Chapter 10. Solids & Liquids

Chapter 10 Solids & Liquids Next 6 chapters use all the concepts developed in the first 9 chapters, recasting them into a form ready to apply to specific physical systems. 10.1 Phases of Matter, Mass Density

### TOPICS. Density. Pressure. Variation of Pressure with Depth. Pressure Measurements. Buoyant Forces-Archimedes Principle

Lecture 6 Fluids TOPICS Density Pressure Variation of Pressure with Depth Pressure Measurements Buoyant Forces-Archimedes Principle Surface Tension ( External source ) Viscosity ( External source ) Equation

### CHAPTER 13. Liquids FLUIDS FLUIDS. Gases. Density! Bulk modulus! Compressibility. To begin with... some important definitions...

CHAPTER 13 FLUIDS Density! Bulk modulus! Compressibility Pressure in a fluid! Hydraulic lift! Hydrostatic paradox Measurement of pressure! Manometers and barometers Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle! Upthrust!

### Nicholas J. Giordano. Chapter 10 Fluids

Nicholas J. Giordano www.cengage.com/physics/giordano Chapter 10 Fluids Fluids A fluid may be either a liquid or a gas Some characteristics of a fluid Flows from one place to another Shape varies according

### Physics 153 Introductory Physics II. Week One: FLUIDS. Dr. Joseph J. Trout

Physics 153 Introductory Physics II Week One: FLUIDS Dr. Joseph J. Trout joseph.trout@drexel.edu 610-348-6495 States (Phases) of Matter: Solid: Fixed shape. Fixed size. Even a large force will not readily

### States of matter. Density high > high >> low (pressure dependent)

Fluids States of matter Solids Fluids crystalline amorphous liquids gasses Inter-atomic forces strong > strong >> very weak Density high > high >> low (pressure dependent) Density is an important material

### Chapter 15: Fluids. Mass Density = Volume. note : Fluids: substances which flow

Fluids: substances which flow Chapter 5: Fluids Liquids: take the shape of their container but have a definite volume Gases: take the shape and volume of their container Density m ρ = V Mass Density =

### Fluid Mechanics. If deformation is small, the stress in a body is proportional to the corresponding

Fluid Mechanics HOOKE'S LAW If deformation is small, the stress in a body is proportional to the corresponding strain. In the elasticity limit stress and strain Stress/strain = Const. = Modulus of elasticity.

### Chapter 9. Solids and Fluids. 1. Introduction. 2. Fluids at Rest. 3. Fluid Motion

Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids 1. Introduction 2. Fluids at Rest 3. Fluid Motion 1 States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma 2 Density and Specific Gravity What is Density? How do I calculate it? What are

### Liquids CHAPTER 13 FLUIDS FLUIDS. Gases. Density! Bulk modulus! Compressibility. To begin with... some important definitions...

CHAPTER 13 FLUIDS FLUIDS Liquids Gases Density! Bulk modulus! Compressibility Pressure in a fluid! Hydraulic lift! Hydrostatic paradox Measurement of pressure! Manometers and barometers Buoyancy and Archimedes

### Properties of Gases. The perfect gas. States of gases Gas laws Kinetic model of gases (Ch th ed, th ed.) Real gases

Properties of Gases Chapter 1 of Physical Chemistry - 6th Edition P.W. Atkins. Chapter 1 and a little bit of Chapter 24 of 7th Edition. Chapter 1 and a little bit of Chapter 21 of 8th edition. The perfect

### M o d u l e B a s i c A e r o d y n a m i c s

Category A B1 B2 B3 Level 1 2 3 M o d u l e 0 8-0 1 B a s i c A e r o d y n a m i c s P h y s i c s o f t h e A t m o s p h e r e 08-01- 1 Category A B1 B2 B3 Level 1 2 3 T a b l e o f c o n t e n t s

### Universität Duisburg-Essen Fakultät für Ingenieurwissenschaften WS 2012 Maschinenbau, IVG, Thermodynamik Dr. M. A. Siddiqi

1 Universität Duisburg-Essen 3. Semester Fakultät für Ingenieurwissenschaften WS 2012 Maschinenbau, IVG, Thermodynamik Dr. M. A. Siddiqi THERMODYNAMICS LAB (ISE) Pressure Measurement 2 2 Pressure Measurement

### CHAPTER 2 Pressure and Head

FLUID MECHANICS Gaza, Sep. 2012 CHAPTER 2 Pressure and Head Dr. Khalil Mahmoud ALASTAL Objectives of this Chapter: Introduce the concept of pressure. Prove it has a unique value at any particular elevation.

### Physics 201 Chapter 13 Lecture 1

Physics 201 Chapter 13 Lecture 1 Fluid Statics Pascal s Principle Archimedes Principle (Buoyancy) Fluid Dynamics Continuity Equation Bernoulli Equation 11/30/2009 Physics 201, UW-Madison 1 Fluids Density

### Physics 201 Chapter 13 Lecture 1

Physics 201 Chapter 13 Lecture 1 Fluid Statics Pascal s Principle Archimedes Principle (Buoyancy) Fluid Dynamics Continuity Equation Bernoulli Equation 11/30/2009 Physics 201, UW-Madison 1 Fluids Density

### Chapter 5: Gases. Definitions: Phases of Matter 10/27/2011

Chapter 5: Gases 5.1 Definitions 5.2 The First Laws 5.3 The Ideal Gas Law 5.4 Stoichiometry and Gases 5.5 Mixtures of Gases (Partial Pressures) 5.6 Kinetic Molecular Theory 5.7 Effusion and Diffusion 5.8-9

### MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS

CHAPTER-10 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS QUESTIONS 1 marks questions 1. What are fluids? 2. How are fluids different from solids? 3. Define thrust of a liquid. 4. Define liquid pressure. 5. Is pressure

### Lagrangian description from the perspective of a parcel moving within the flow. Streamline Eulerian, tangent line to instantaneous velocity field.

Chapter 2 Hydrostatics 2.1 Review Eulerian description from the perspective of fixed points within a reference frame. Lagrangian description from the perspective of a parcel moving within the flow. Streamline

### Chapter 11. Fluids. continued

Chapter 11 Fluids continued 11.2 Pressure Pressure is the amount of force acting on an area: Example 2 The Force on a Swimmer P = F A SI unit: N/m 2 (1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 ) Suppose the pressure acting on the

### 11.1 Mass Density. Fluids are materials that can flow, and they include both gases and liquids. The mass density of a liquid or gas is an

Chapter 11 Fluids 11.1 Mass Density Fluids are materials that can flow, and they include both gases and liquids. The mass density of a liquid or gas is an important factor that determines its behavior

### Fluids. Fluid = Gas or Liquid. Density Pressure in a Fluid Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle Fluids in Motion

Chapter 14 Fluids Fluids Density Pressure in a Fluid Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle Fluids in Motion Fluid = Gas or Liquid MFMcGraw-PHY45 Chap_14Ha-Fluids-Revised 10/13/01 Densities MFMcGraw-PHY45 Chap_14Ha-Fluids-Revised

### PHYSICS 220 Lecture 16 Fluids Textbook Sections

PHYSICS 220 Lecture 16 Fluids Textbook Sections 10.1-10.4 Lecture 16 Purdue University, Physics 220 1 States of Matter Fluids Solid Hold Volume Hold Shape Liquid Hold Volume Adapt Shape Gas Adapt Volume

### m V DEFINITION OF MASS DENSITY The mass density of a substance is the mass of a substance divided by its volume: SI Unit of Mass Density: kg/m 3

Chapter 11 Fluids 11.1 Mass Density DEFINITION OF MASS DENSITY The mass density of a substance is the mass of a substance divided by its volume: ρ m V SI Unit of Mass Density: kg/m 3 11.1 Mass Density

### Chapter 3 Fluid Statics

Chapter 3 Fluid Statics 3.1 Pressure Pressure : The ratio of normal force to area at a point. Pressure often varies from point to point. Pressure is a scalar quantity; it has magnitude only It produces

### Chapter 9. Solids and Fluids 9.3 DENSITY AND PRESSURE

9.3 DENSITY AND PRESSURE Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids The density of an object having uniform composition is defined as its mass M divided by its volume V: M V [9.6] SI unit: kilogram per meter cubed (kg/m

### MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS:

Important Definitions: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS: Fluid: A substance that can flow is called Fluid Both liquids and gases are fluids Pressure: The normal force acting per unit area of a surface is

### Physics 207 Lecture 20. Chapter 15, Fluids

Chapter 15, Fluids This is an actual photo of an iceberg, taken by a rig manager for Global Marine Drilling in St. Johns, Newfoundland. The water was calm and the sun was almost directly overhead so that

### Lecture 8 Equilibrium and Elasticity

Lecture 8 Equilibrium and Elasticity July 19 EQUILIBRIUM AND ELASTICITY CHAPTER 12 Give a sharp blow one end of a stick on the table. Find center of percussion. Baseball bat center of percussion Equilibrium

### Chapter 15: Fluid Mechanics Dynamics Using Pascal s Law = F 1 = F 2 2 = F 2 A 2

Lecture 24: Archimedes Principle and Bernoulli s Law 1 Chapter 15: Fluid Mechanics Dynamics Using Pascal s Law Example 15.1 The hydraulic lift A hydraulic lift consists of a small diameter piston of radius

### Fluid Mechanics. Forces on Fluid Elements. Fluid Elements - Definition:

Fluid Mechanics Chapter 2: Fluid Statics Lecture 3 Forces on Fluid Elements Fluid Elements - Definition: Fluid element can be defined as an infinitesimal region of the fluid continuum in isolation from

### Hydrostatic. Pressure distribution in a static fluid and its effects on solid surfaces and on floating and submerged bodies.

Hydrostatic Pressure distribution in a static fluid and its effects on solid surfaces and on floating and submerged bodies. M. Bahrami ENSC 283 Spring 2009 1 Fluid at rest hydrostatic condition: when a

### Chapter 9. Solids and Fluids

Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Solids Have definite volume Have definite shape Atoms or molecules are held in specific locations By electrical forces Vibrate about

### States of Matter. Physics 201, Lecture 25. Density ρ. Fluids

Physics 201, Lecture 25 Today s Topics n Fluid Mechanics (chapter 14) n Solids, Liquids, Gases, Plasmas n Pressure (14.1) n Pascal s Principle, Pressure Variation with Depth (14.2) n Pressure Measurement

### The word thermodynamics is derived from two Greek words Therm which means heat Dynamis which means power

THERMODYNAMICS INTRODUCTION The word thermodynamics is derived from two Greek words Therm which means heat Dynamis which means power Together the spell heat power which fits the time when the forefathers

### CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS. Prepared by Engr. John Paul Timola

CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS Prepared by Engr. John Paul Timola ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS Science that involves design and analysis of devices and systems for energy conversion Deals with heat and work and

### Course: TDEC202 (Energy II) dflwww.ece.drexel.edu/tdec

Course: TDEC202 (Energy II) Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach Course Director/Lecturer: Dr. Michael Carchidi Course Website URL dflwww.ece.drexel.edu/tdec 1 Course Textbook Cengel, Yunus A. and Michael

### Physics 201 Lecture 26

Phsics 0 Lecture 6 Lecture 6 Goals: Understand pressure in s v Use rchimedes principle to understand buoanc v Understand the equation of continuit v Use an ideal-fluid model to stud fluid flow. luids l

### Pressure in a fluid P P P P

Fluids Gases (compressible) and liquids (incompressible) density of gases can change dramatically, while that of liquids much less so Gels, colloids, liquid crystals are all odd-ball states of matter We

### s and FE X. A. Flow measurement B. properties C. statics D. impulse, and momentum equations E. Pipe and other internal flow 7% of FE Morning Session I

Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam General Section Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering October 26, 2010 s and FE X. A. Flow measurement B. properties C. statics D. impulse, and momentum

### CHARACTERISTIC OF FLUIDS. A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted on by a shearing stress at any magnitude.

CHARACTERISTIC OF FLUIDS A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted on by a shearing stress at any magnitude. In a fluid at rest, normal stress is called pressure. 1 Dimensions,

### Physics 107 HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT #9

Physics 07 HOMEORK ASSIGNMENT #9 Cutnell & Johnson, 7 th edition Chapter : Problems 6, 8, 33, 40, 44 *6 A 58-kg skier is going down a slope oriented 35 above the horizontal. The area of each ski in contact

### General Physics I. Lecture 16: Fluid Mechanics. Prof. WAN, Xin ( 万歆 )

General Physics I Lecture 16: Fluid Mechanics Prof. WAN, Xin ( 万歆 ) xinwan@zju.edu.cn http://zimp.zju.edu.cn/~xinwan/ Motivations Newton s laws for fluid statics? Force pressure Mass density How to treat

### Today s Discussion: Fluids Pressure and Pascal s principle Bouyancy, Archimedes principle Bernoulli s equation

1 Physics 213 Waves, Fluids and Thermal Physics Summer 2007 Lecturer: Mike Kagan (mak411@psu.edu, 322 Whitmore) Today s Discussion: Fluids Pressure and Pascal s principle Bouyancy, Archimedes principle

### Eric G. Paterson. Spring 2005

Eric G. Paterson Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Pennsylvania State University Spring 2005 Reading and Homework Read Chapter 3. Homework Set #2 has been posted. Due date: Friday 21 January.

### Lecture 10 March 15, 2010, Monday. Atmospheric Pressure & Wind: Part 1

Lecture 10 March 15, 2010, Monday Atmospheric Pressure & Wind: Part 1 Speed, Velocity, Acceleration, Force, Pressure Atmospheric Pressure & Its Measurement Ideal Gas Law (Equation of State) Pressure Gradient

### Physical Sciences 2: Assignments for Oct Oct 31 Homework #7: Elasticity and Fluid Statics Due Tuesday, Oct 31, at 9:30AM

Physical Sciences 2: Assignments for Oct. 24 - Oct 31 Homework #7: Elasticity and Fluid Statics Due Tuesday, Oct 31, at 9:30AM After completing this homework, you should Be able to describe what is meant

### Physics 123 Unit #1 Review

Physics 123 Unit #1 Review I. Definitions & Facts Density Specific gravity (= material / water) Pressure Atmosphere, bar, Pascal Barometer Streamline, laminar flow Turbulence Gauge pressure II. Mathematics

### 1.4 Perform the following unit conversions: (b) (c) s. g s. lb min. (d) (e) in. ft s. m 55 h. (f) ft s. km h. (g)

1.4 Perform the following unit conversions: 0.05 ft 1 in. (a) 1L 61in. 1L 1ft (b) 1kJ 650 J 10 J 1Btu 1.0551kJ 0.616 Btu (c) 41 Btu/h 0.15 kw 1kW 1h 600 s 778.17 ft lbf 1Btu ft lbf 99.596 s (d) g 78 s

### Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering September 25, 2013

Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam Mechanics Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering September 25, 2013 s and FE Morning ( Mechanics) A. Flow measurement 7% of FE Morning B. properties Session

### Chapter 9. Solids and Fluids. States of Matter. Solid. Liquid. Gas

Chapter 9 States of Matter Solids and Fluids Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Solids Have definite volume Have definite shape Molecules are held in specific locations By electrical forces Vibrate about equilibrium

### Chapter 9. Solids and Fluids

Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Solids Have definite volume Have definite shape Molecules are held in specific locations By electrical forces Vibrate about equilibrium

### Fluids, Thermodynamics, Waves, and Optics Fluids

Fluids, Thermodynamics, Waves, and Optics Fluids Lana Sheridan De Anza College April 10, 2018 Overview static fluids pressure liquid pressure Pascal s law Elastic Properties of Solids We are considering

### 11/4/2003 PHY Lecture 16 1

Announcements 1. Exams will be returned at the end of class. You may rework the exam for up to 1 extra credit points. Turn in your old exam and your new work (clearly indicated). Due 11/11/3. You may sign

### Temperature Thermal Expansion Ideal Gas Law Kinetic Theory Heat Heat Transfer Phase Changes Specific Heat Calorimetry

Temperature Thermal Expansion Ideal Gas Law Kinetic Theory Heat Heat Transfer Phase Changes Specific Heat Calorimetry Zeroeth Law Two systems individually in thermal equilibrium with a third system (such

### SOLID 1. Make sure your state of matter is set on solid. Write your observations below:

Chemistry Ms. Ye Name Date Block Properties of Matter: Particle Movement Part 1: Follow the instructions below to complete the activity. Click on the link to open the simulation for this activity: http://phet.colorado.edu/sims/states-of-matter/states-of-matterbasics_en.jnlp***note:

### CHAPTER 28 PRESSURE IN FLUIDS

CHAPTER 8 PRESSURE IN FLUIDS EXERCISE 18, Page 81 1. A force of 80 N is applied to a piston of a hydraulic system of cross-sectional area 0.010 m. Determine the pressure produced by the piston in the hydraulic

### Summary PHY101 ( 2 ) T / Hanadi Al Harbi

الكمية Physical Quantity القانون Low التعريف Definition الوحدة SI Unit Linear Momentum P = mθ be equal to the mass of an object times its velocity. Kg. m/s vector quantity Stress F \ A the external force

### PHY131H1F Summer Class 11. What term is used to describe an oscillator that runs down and eventually stops?

PHY131H1F Summer Class 11 Today: Hanging Springs The Pendulum Damped Oscillations; Shock Absorbers Driven Oscillations; Resonance Fluids Pressure Pascal s Law Gauge Pressure Italian opera singer Luigi

### CPO Science Foundations of Physics. Unit 8, Chapter 27

CPO Science Foundations of Physics Unit 8, Chapter 27 Unit 8: Matter and Energy Chapter 27 The Physical Properties of Matter 27.1 Properties of Solids 27.2 Properties of Liquids and Fluids 27.3 Properties

### Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1 The Fluid. 1-2 Dimensions. 1-3 Units. 1-4 Fluid Properties. 1 1-1 The Fluid: It is the substance that deforms continuously when subjected to a shear stress. Matter Solid Fluid

### Thermodynamic Systems

Thermodynamic Systems For purposes of analysis we consider two types of Thermodynamic Systems: Closed System - usually referred to as a System or a Control Mass. This type of system is separated from its

### FE Fluids Review March 23, 2012 Steve Burian (Civil & Environmental Engineering)

Topic: Fluid Properties 1. If 6 m 3 of oil weighs 47 kn, calculate its specific weight, density, and specific gravity. 2. 10.0 L of an incompressible liquid exert a force of 20 N at the earth s surface.

### Fluids, Continuity, and Bernouli

Fluids, Continuity, and Bernouli Announcements: Exam Tomorrow at 7:30pm in same rooms as before. Web page: http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phys1110/phys1110_sp12/ Clicker question 1 A satellite, mass m,

### Fluids, Thermodynamics, Waves, and Optics Overview of Course Fluids

Fluids, Thermodynamics, Waves, and Optics Overview of Course Fluids Lana Sheridan De Anza College April 10, 2017 Overview of the Course There are 4 main sections to this course. Topics fluids thermodynamics

### Page 1. Physics 131: Lecture 23. Today s Agenda. Announcements. States of Matter

Physics 131: Lecture 3 Today s Agenda Description of Fluids at Rest Pressure vs Depth Pascal s Principle: hydraulic forces Archimedes Principle: objects in a fluid Bernoulli s equation Physics 01: Lecture

### Fluid Mechanics. Chapter 14. Modified by P. Lam 6_7_2012

Chapter 14 Fluid Mechanics PowerPoint Lectures for University Physics, Twelfth Edition Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman Lectures by James Pazun Modified by P. Lam 6_7_2012 Goals for Chapter 14 To study

### If we change the quantity causing the deformation from force to force per unit area, we get a relation that does not depend on area.

2/24 Chapter 12 Solids Recall the rigid body model that we used when discussing rotation. A rigid body is composed of a particles constrained to maintain the same distances from and orientations relative

### Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 6 Laws about gases

Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 6 Laws about gases Charles law Volume is directly proportional to temperature. V = ct, where c > 0 is constant. French balloonist Jacque Charles noticed that

### AMME2261: Fluid Mechanics 1 Course Notes

Module 1 Introduction and Fluid Properties Introduction Matter can be one of two states: solid or fluid. A fluid is a substance that deforms continuously under the application of a shear stress, no matter

### Why do we need to study thermodynamics? Examples of practical thermodynamic devices:

Why do we need to study thermodynamics? Knowledge of thermodynamics is required to design any device involving the interchange between heat and work, or the conversion of material to produce heat (combustion).

### Physics 220: Classical Mechanics

Lecture 10 1/34 Phys 220 Physics 220: Classical Mechanics Lecture: MWF 8:40 am 9:40 am (Phys 114) Michael Meier mdmeier@purdue.edu Office: Phys Room 381 Help Room: Phys Room 11 schedule on course webpage

### Physics General Physics. Lecture 17 Gases. Fall 2016 Semester Prof. Matthew Jones

Physics 22000 General Physics Lecture 17 Gases Fall 2016 Semester Prof. Matthew Jones 1 2 Structure of Matter Not everything around us is a rigid body Do we need new laws of physics to describe things

### m V DEFINITION OF MASS DENSITY The mass density of a substance is the mass of a substance divided by its volume: SI Unit of Mass Density: kg/m 3

Chapter Fluids . Mass Density DEFINITION OF MASS DENSITY The mass density of a substance is the mass of a substance divided by its volume: m V SI Unit of Mass Density: kg/m 3 . Mass Density . Mass Density

### EQUILIBRIUM OBJECTIVES PRE-LECTURE

27 FE3 EQUILIBRIUM Aims OBJECTIVES In this chapter you will learn the concepts and principles needed to understand mechanical equilibrium. You should be able to demonstrate your understanding by analysing

### Properties of Gases. Molecular interactions van der Waals equation Principle of corresponding states

Properties of Gases Chapter 1 of Atkins and de Paula The Perfect Gas States of gases Gas laws Real Gases Molecular interactions van der Waals equation Principle of corresponding states Kinetic Model of

### In steady flow the velocity of the fluid particles at any point is constant as time passes.

Chapter 10 Fluids Fluids in Motion In steady flow the velocity of the fluid particles at any point is constant as time passes. Unsteady flow exists whenever the velocity of the fluid particles at a point

### GATE PSU. Chemical Engineering. Fluid Mechanics. For. The Gate Coach 28, Jia Sarai, Near IIT Hauzkhas, New Delhi 16 (+91) ,

For GATE PSU Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics GATE Syllabus Fluid statics, Newtonian and non-newtonian fluids, Bernoulli equation, Macroscopic friction factors, energy balance, dimensional analysis,

### Pressure in stationary and moving fluid. Lab-On-Chip: Lecture 2

Pressure in stationary and moving fluid Lab-On-Chip: Lecture Fluid Statics No shearing stress.no relative movement between adjacent fluid particles, i.e. static or moving as a single block Pressure at

### cos(θ)sin(θ) Alternative Exercise Correct Correct θ = 0 skiladæmi 10 Part A Part B Part C Due: 11:59pm on Wednesday, November 11, 2015

skiladæmi 10 Due: 11:59pm on Wednesday, November 11, 015 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due Grading Policy Alternative Exercise 1115 A bar with cross sectional

### Gases. Chapter 11. Preview. 27-Nov-11

Chapter 11 Gases Dr. A. Al-Saadi 1 Preview Properties and measurements of gases. Effects of temperature, pressure and volume. Boyle s law. Charles s law, and Avogadro s law. The ideal gas equation. Gas

### General Physics I (aka PHYS 2013)

General Physics I (aka PHYS 2013) PROF. VANCHURIN (AKA VITALY) University of Minnesota, Duluth (aka UMD) OUTLINE CHAPTER 12 CHAPTER 19 REVIEW CHAPTER 12: FLUID MECHANICS Section 12.1: Density Section 12.2:

### Fig Note the three different types of systems based on the type of boundary between system and surroundings.

CHAPTER 1 LECTURE NOTES System, Surroundings, and States Fig. 1.4 Note the three different types of systems based on the type of boundary between system and surroundings. Intensive and Extensive Properties

### Fluid Mechanics-61341

An-Najah National University College of Engineering Fluid Mechanics-61341 Chapter [2] Fluid Statics 1 Fluid Mechanics-2nd Semester 2010- [2] Fluid Statics Fluid Statics Problems Fluid statics refers to

### Chapter 1 Introduction

Fundamentals of Thermodynamics Chapter 1 Introduction Prof. Siyoung Jeong Thermodynamics I MEE2022-01 Thermodynamics : Science of energy and entropy - Science of heat and work and properties related to

### Recap. Transitions from one state into another are initiated by heating/cooling the material. Density is mass per volume: Pressure is force per area:

Recap There are 4 aggregates states of matter: - Solid: Strong interatomic bonds, particles cannot move freely. - Liquid: Weaker bonds, particles move more freely - Gas: No interatomic bonds, particles

### Introduction. Chemistry the science of matter and the changes it can undergo.

Introduction Chemistry the science of matter and the changes it can undergo. Physical Chemistry concerned with the physical principles that underlie chemistry. Seeks to account for the properties of matter

### Chapter 13 - States of Matter. Section 13.1 The nature of Gases

Chapter 13 - States of Matter Section 13.1 The nature of Gases Kinetic energy and gases Kinetic energy: the energy an object has because of its motion Kinetic theory: all matter is made if particles in