Fluid Mechanics. Chapter 14. Modified by P. Lam 6_7_2012


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1 Chapter 14 Fluid Mechanics PowerPoint Lectures for University Physics, Twelfth Edition Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman Lectures by James Pazun Modified by P. Lam 6_7_2012
2 Goals for Chapter 14 To study density and pressure To study pressure in a fluid at rest  hydrostatics To study buoyancy To study fluids in motion  hydrodynamics
3 Density of a substance  definition Definition: Density = mass per volume; it is an intrinsic property of the substance, it does not depends on the size or shape of the object. Density values are sometimes divided by the density of water to be tabulated as an unitless quantity called specific gravity. Example: A substance whose specific gravity =2 => its density is twice that of water.
4 Densities of common substances Table 14.1
5 Pressure in a fluid Pressure = force per area. P=F/A SI unit for pressure= N/ m 2 =Pascal. In a fluid, the pressure comes from the molecules striking the surface. Pressure in a fluid depends on the density of fluid molecules and the speed of the molecules.
6 Pressure in a fluid at rest  hydrostatic pressure Consider an element of fluid at rest! net! F=0! pa(p+dp)amg=0! dpa=mg=(!ady)g! dp dy = "!g! Pressure decrease with height If! = constant (independent of y) (approximated valid for liquids, not valid for gas),then integrate => p=p o "!gy let d # y =depth! p=p o +!gd! pressure increase with depth
7 Pressure, depth, and Pascal s Law In a uniform fluid : Same depth => same pressure
8 Pressure, depth, and Pascal s Law Consider a practical application in Figure Pascal s Law. Given : A 1 / A 2 = 0.01 and the weight of the car is 2,000 lbs. What is the amount force (F 1 ) need to keep the car lifted?
9 Measuring atmospheric pressure Measuring atmospheric pressure using a mercury barometer. "Same depth => same pressure" P outside = P inside P atm = P o +!gh!!gh Knowing! and g, measuring h " deduce P atm. E.g.! mercury =13.6x10 3 kg / m 3, g = 9.8m / s 2, h =.76m " P atm =!gh =1.01x10 5 N / m 2 If the fluid in the barometer were water (!=10 3 kg / m 3 ), then how high is the column of water at 1 atmospheric pressure?
10 Gauge pressure Typically these gauges measure gauge pressure When the absolute presssure of gas inside is 1 atmospheric pressure, the gauge reads zero. The gauge reading represent pressure above atmospheric pressure.
11 Measuring the density of a liquid A hydrometer measures the density of a liquid by how much it floats on the liquid; the scale on hydrometer is calibrated against a liquid with known density (such as water) This device is based on the buoyancy principle  see next slide.
12 Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle The buoyancy force (B) comes from the net effect that the pressure pushing up from the bottom of the object is greater the pressure pushing down on an object from the top (remember: pressure increases with depth). Numerically the buoynacy force equals to the weight of the displaced fluid Β=ρ fluid V d g, V d = volume of fluid displaced. An object floats if the buoyancy force (B) balances the weight An object floats when B = w!! fluid V d g =! object V o g!! object! fluid = V d V o Example : If the displaced volume is 1/2 of the object volume then the density of the object is 1/2 the density of the fluid. Since the displaced volume cannot be greater than the object's volume, an object float when! object <! fluid.
13 Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle Example A 15kg gold statue is being raised from a sunken ship. What is the tension in the cable when the statue is at rest and fully submerged in seawater? Given :! gold =19.3x10 3 kg / m 3 ;! seawater =1.03x10 3 kg / m 3
14 Weighing an elephant using Archimedes Principle A rectangular boat with crosssectional area = 20 m 2 is floating on water. After an elephant stepped into the boat, the boat sinks down by 0.15m. Find the weight of the elephant. (Given the density of water is 10 3 kg/m 3 ).
15 Surface tension How is it that water striders can walk on water (although they are more dense than the water)? Refer to Figure for the water strider and then Figures and to see what s occurring from a molecular perspective.
16 Fluid flow  types The flow lines at left in Figure are laminar. The flow at the top of Figure is turbulent.
17 Fluid flow flow rate and conservation of mass Flow rate = mass of fluid crossing an area / time " Flow rate = #Av Conservation of mass => flow rate remain the same at different part of the pipe. " # 1 A 1 v 1 = # 2 A 2 v 2 Gases are very compressible " # 1 and # 2 can be quite different. Most liquids are not very compressible, # 1 $ # 2. If we approximate liquids as "imcompressible" (# 1 = # 2 ), then A 1 v 1 = A 2 v 2. The conservation of mass equation is also called the continuity equation.
18 Bernoulli s equationassumes laminar flow Similar to workkinetic energy theorem: Work = change of kinetic energy (P 2 A 2 ds 2 + P 1 A 1 ds 1 ) + (mgy 1 " mgy 2 ) = 1 2 mv 2 2 " 1 2 mv 2 1 (Note : m = #A 1 ds 1 = #A 2 ds 2 $ A 1 ds 1 = A 2 ds 2 ) $ ("P 2 + P 1 ) + (#gy 1 " #gy 2 ) = 1 2 #v 2 2 " 1 2 #v 2 1 $ P 1 + #gy #v 2 1 = P 2 + #gy #v 2 2
19 The Venturi meter (Bernoulli s Eq.+ continuity Eq.) Consider Example A 1 v 1 = A 2 v 2! v 2 > v 1 Bernoulli's equation! P 2 < P 1 1 2!v P 1 = 1 2!v P 2 P 1 " P 2 = 1 2!v 2 2 " 1 2!v 2 1 P 1 " P 2 = 1 2! # A & 1 % ( $ ' P 1 " P 2 = 1 ) 2! # A & + 1 % ( * + $ A 2 ' Measure the pressure difference => find v 1 A v 2 1 " 1 2!v 2 1, "1. . v 1 2
20 Lift on an airplane wing Refer to Conceptual Example
21 Viscosity and turbulence Figures 14.28, In real fluids (as compared to idealized model), molecules can attract or repel one another and can interact with container walls give rise to viscosity. Molecular interactions can also result in turbulence.
22 A curve ball (Bernoulli s equation applied to sports) Bernoulli s equation allows us to explain why a curve ball would curve.
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