States of Matter. Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids. Solids: Stress and Strain. Solids: Stress and Strain. Stress = Force Area. Strain =!L L. Example 9.


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1 Elasticity Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids Archimedes Principle Bernoulli s Equation Solid Liquid Gas Plasmas States of Matter Solids: Stress and Strain Solids: Stress and Strain Stress = Measure of force felt by material Strain = Measure of deformation F Stress = Force Area Strain =!L L A!L SI units are Pascals, 1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 (same as pressure) dimensionless L Young s Modulus (Tension) Example 9.1 Y = ( F A ) ( )!L L tensile stress tensile strain A F!L King Kong (a 8.0x10 4 kg monkey) swings from a 320 m cable from the Empire State building. If the 3.0 cm diameter cable is made of steel (Y=1.8x10 11 Pa), by how much will the cable stretch? Measure of stiffness Tensile refers to tension L 1.97 m
2 Shear Modulus S = ( F A ) ( )!x h Sheer Stress Sheer Strain "F B =! A =! "P "V "V V V ( ) Bulk Modulus Change in Pressure Volume Strain B = Y 3 Example 9.2 Pascals as units for Pressure A large solid steel (Y=1.8x10 11 Pa) block (L 5 m, W=4 m, H=3 m) is submerged in the Mariana Trench where the pressure is 7.5x10 7 Pa. P = F A 1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 a) By what percentage does the length change? % b) What are the changes in the length, width and height? mm, mm, mm c) By what percentage does the volume change? % Solids and Liquids Solids have Young s, Bulk, and Shear moduli Liquids have only bulk moduli Ultimate Strength Maximum F/A before fracture or crumbling Different for compression and tension
3 Densities Density and Specific Gravity! = M V Densities depend on temperature, pressure... Specific gravity = ratio of density to density of H 2 O at 4 C. Example 9.3 Pressure & Pascal s Principle The specific gravity of gold is What is the mass (in kg) and weight (in lbs.) of 1 cubic meter of gold? P = F A Pressure applied to any part of an enclosed fluid is transmitted undimished to every point of the fluid and to the walls of the container 19,300 kg lbs Each face feels same force Transmitting force P = F 1 A 1 = F 2 A 2 An applied force F 1 can be amplified : F 2 = F 1 A 2 A 1 Hydraulic press Examples: hydraulic brakes, forklifts, car lifts, etc. Pressure and Depth w is weight w = Mg =!Vg =!Ahg Sum forces to zero, PA! P 0 A! w = 0 Factor A P = P 0 +!gh
4 Example 9.5 (skip) Find the pressure at 10,000 m of water. DATA: Atmospheric pressure = 1.015x10 5 Pa. Example 9.6 Assume the ultimate strength of legos is 4.0x10 4 Pa. If the density of legos is 150 kg/m 3, what is the maximum possible height for a lego tower? 27.2 m 9.82x10 7 Pa Example 9.7 Estimate the mass of the Earth s atmosphere given that atmospheric pressure is 1.015x10 5 Pa. Data: R earth =6.36x10 6 m Archimedes Principle Any object completely or partially submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force whose magnitude is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. 5.26x10 18 kg A D Proving Archimedes Principle Example 9.8 A helicopter lowers a probe into Lake Michigan which is suspended on a cable. The probe has a mass of 500 kg and its average density is 1400 kg/m 3. What is the tension in the cable? h 1401 N
5 Example 9.9a A wooden ball of mass M and volume V floats on a swimming pool. The density of the wood is " wood <" H20. The buoyant force acting on the ball is: a) Mg upward b) " H20 gv upward c) (" H20 " wood )gv upward Example 9.9b A steel ball of mass M and volume V rests on the bottom of a swimming pool. The density of the steel is " steel >" H20. The buoyant force acting on the ball is: a) Mg upward b) " H20 gv upward c) (" steel " H20 )gv upward Example 9.10 A small swimming pool has an area of 10 square meters. A wooden 4000kg statue of density 500 kg/m 3 is then floated on top of the pool. How far does the water rise? Data: Density of water = 1000 kg/m 3 Floating Coke Demo (SKIP) The can will a) Float b) Sink 40 cm Paint Thinner Demo (SKIP) When I pour in the paint thinner, the cylinder will: Equation of Continuity What goes in must come out! mass density!m = "A!x = "Av!t a) Rise b) Fall Mass that passes a point in pipe during time!t Eq. of Continuity! 1 A 1 v 1 =! 2 A 2 v 2
6 Example 9.11 Water flows through a 4.0 cm diameter pipe at 5 cm/s. The pipe then narrows downstream and has a diameter of of 2.0 cm. What is the velocity of the water through the smaller pipe? Laminar or Streamline Flow Fluid elements move along smooth paths Friction in laminar flow is called viscosity 20 cm/s Turbulence Fluid elements move along irregular paths Sets in for high velocity gradients (small pipes) or instabilities Ideal Fluids Laminar Flow > No turbulence Nonviscous > No friction between fluid layers Incompressible > Density is same everywhere Bernoulli s Equation P + 1 2!v2 +!gy = constant Sum of P, KE/V and PE/V is constant Bernoulli s Equation: derivation Consider a volume!v of mass!m of incompressible fluid,!ke = 1 2 Mv 2 2 " 1 2 Mv 2 1 = 1 2 #!Vv 2 2 " 1 2 #!Vv 1 2!PE = Mgy 2 " Mgy 1 = #!Vgy 2 " #!Vgy 1 W = F 1!x 1 " F 2!x 2 = P 1 A 1!x 1 " P 2 A 2!x 2 = P 1!V " P 2!V How can we derive this? P 1 +!gh !v 1 2 = P 2 +!gh !v 2 2
7 Example 9.12 A very large pipe carries water with a very slow velocity and empties into a small pipe with a high velocity. If P 2 is 7000 Pa lower than P 1, what is the velocity of the water in the small pipe? 3.74 m/s Venturi Meter Applications of Bernoulli s Equation Venturi meter Curve balls Airplanes Beach Ball & Straws Demos Example 9.13a Example 9.13b Consider an ideal incompressible fluid, choose >, < or = " 1 " 2 a) = b) < c) > Consider an ideal incompressible fluid, choose >, < or = Mass that passes 1 in one second mass that passes 2 in one second a) = b) < c) > Example 9.13c Example 9.13d Consider an ideal incompressible fluid, choose >, < or = Consider an ideal incompressible fluid, choose >, < or = v 1 v 2 a) = b) < c) > P 1 P 2 a) = b) < c) >
8 Example 9.14 Water drains out of the bottom of a cooler at 3 m/s, what is the depth of the water above the valve? a b Viscosity Diffusion Osmosis Three Vocabulary Words 45.9 cm Viscosity F =!A v d Friction between the layers Pressure drop required to force water through pipes (Poiselle s Law) At high enough v/d, turbulence sets in Diffusion Molecules move from region of high concentration to region of low concentration Fick s Law: Diffusion rate = Mass time = DA " C 2! C 1 % # $ L & ' D = diffusion coefficient Osmosis Movement of water through a boundary while denying passage to specific molecules, e.g. salts
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