There are three phases of matter: Solid, liquid and gas

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1 FLUIDS: Gases and Liquids Chapter 4 of text There are three phases of matter: Solid, liquid and gas Solids: Have form, constituents ( atoms and molecules) are in fixed positions (though they can vibrate and perform other motions) have well defined density etc. Liquids: They can flow and assume the shape of their container. Their constituents, although they stay close together, can move in bulk or flow Liquids have well defined density and other properties. Gases: They expand to fill the space they are in air in the room. Their constituents move about freely unless they collide with each other.

2 With water we can illustrate all three phases: At low temperature (below its freezing point) water is a solid = ice At room temperature (or above 0 degrees Centigrade or above its melting point and below its boiling point) it is a liquid = water Above its boiling point (around 100 degrees centigrade) it is a gas = water vapor. Melting point (MP) and Boiling point (BP) are characteristics which vary from substance to substance and are properties that find their explanation in atomic structure.

3 We want to discuss balloons so we must start with understanding the properties of a Gas: Air is a gas ( of mainly diatomic molecules of Nitrogen and Oxygen in proportion 80 % and 20 % respectively. Air is a gas Consists of individual atoms and molecules Particles kept separate by their thermal energy Particles bounce around in free fall

4 Its molecules are moving about madly, randomly. There is kinetic energy in this random motion ( and molecules individually have momentum too) which is related to its temperature. Air exerts pressure because of this motion on any imaginary surface in it. Air has pressure Air particles exerts forces on container walls Average force is proportional to surface area Average force per unit area is called pressure Force is F Pressure x Area PA Hence P F Newtons which is A m 2 Newton x meters which is also P m 3 which is Joules m 3 or Energy density

5 In a static fluid ( fluid at rest) there are no preferred directions. Hence pressure in any direction is the same. Pressure is not a vector.

6 Air and Density Air has density Air particles have mass Each volume of air has a certain amount of mass Average mass per unit volume is called density Its units are kg per cubic meter. Its dimensions are air M L 3

7 Gas and its density: (continued) Suppose there are N molecules of air in a volume V. It consists of 80% N 2 and 20 % O 2 If the mass of nitrogen atom is M N and the mass of oxygen atom is M O Then the mass of N molecules of air is : M air 0.8 x 2 M N 0.2 x 2 M O x N M air Its density or Mass per unit volume is air V With a good balance, one can measure the density of cubic meter of air: Density at sea level under normal conditions of temperature and pressure it is 1.29 kg / cubic meter. How many molecules of air in 1 cubic meter does this correspond to? We must use the value of atomic masses : mass of oxygen atom : M O 16 x mass of nitrogen atom : M N 14 x We can calculate N by: N 1.29 kg m 3 air kg 27 kg molecules m 3

8

9 Air Pressure and Density Air pressure is proportional to: Density Denser particles hit surface more often Denser air more pressure Pressure is proportional to density We write: P

10 What is Temperature? It measures how hot an object is. In physics it has a mechanical explanation. It is a measure of the random motion of molecules of a gas ( or for that matter random motion of atomic units of any other material, liquid or a solid). In a gas, when molecules move about randomly, each molecule has its own speed, some moving slowly others moving fast. Each molecule will have a different kinetic energy which is KE 1 2 M v2 Now calculate the average kinetic energy of a molecule by adding the KE of the molecules and dividing by N which is symbolically: KE 1 2 Mv2 N

11 Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of molecules. which is T KE Now let us ask how is the Pressure related to KE? We saw earlier that Pressure is a measure of energy density. The energy in a gas is due to the kinetic energy of its random motion. If there are N molecules in a volume V, each with an average KE given by <KE> then the total energy in V is Total Energy = N KE N T Pressure is proportional to energy density Hence P NT particle V T The ideal gas law is : P k T See page 128. particle

12 k is called the Boltzmann constant. Units of Pressure: As pressure is force per unit area, we define its units as: If F = 1 Newton and A = 1 square meter, then P = 1 Newton per 1 square meter This unit is called Pascal: 1 Pa = 1 N/m^2 Pressure of the atmosphere on you ear drum at sea level is 10 5 Pa In these units the value of k is P remember that k particle T Pressure is given in Pascals or Pa the density is in particles per cubic meter Hence k has units of k 23 Pa m particle or in terms of energy k 23 Joules particle degree K degree K

13 Why do balloons float? Lifting force on a balloon or any object submerged in a fluid is given by the Archimedes Principle: An object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid is acted upon by an upward buoyant force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.

14 Float to top sink to bottom

15 When the ice melts, will the water surface rise?

16

17 Which balloon will float? Which balloon will rise? Which balloon will sink? Net force on the balloon is (downward is positive) F net If the volume of the balloon is V then W gas V g ;W gas air So if the magnitude of gas air V g is greater than W B the balloon will rise until when? air gas Vg W B or air Vg W B V gas Vg W gas g air W air W B

18 How hot air balloons work. Hot air has a lower density, so for a given volume of the balloon its weight is less than when it is filled with cold air. If the balloon has fixed size the upward buoyant force remains the same. Balloon rises.

19 Density of helium is less than that of air as helium atoms are lighter than air molecules. Hot air balloon compared to Helium filled balloon.

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