Fluids. Fluid = Gas or Liquid. Density Pressure in a Fluid Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle Fluids in Motion


 Chloe Jenkins
 4 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Chapter 14 Fluids
2 Fluids Density Pressure in a Fluid Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle Fluids in Motion Fluid = Gas or Liquid MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01
3 Densities MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 3
4 Densities MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 4
5 Densities 1 Mass = Density * Volume m kg = ρv kg = m 3 m g g kg 10 cm 3 cm 3 cm 1000g m g g kg 10 cm 1 = cm cm 1000g m g 1 cm = 3 10 kg = m MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 5
6 Pressure Pressure arises from the collisions between the particles of a fluid with another object (container walls for example). There is a momentum change (impulse) that is away from the container walls. There must be a force exerted on the particle by the wall. MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 6
7 By Newton s 3 rd Law, there is a force on the wall due to the particle. F Pressure is defined as P =. A The units of pressure are N/m and are called Pascals (Pa). Note: 1 atmosphere (atm) = kpa MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 7
8 Example (text problem 9.1): Someone steps on your toe, exerting a force of 500 N on an area of 1.0 cm. What is the average pressure on that area in atmospheres? 1.0 cm 1m 100 cm = m A 500N person weighs about 113 lbs. P av F 500 N = = 4 A m 6 1Pa = N/m 1 N/m = 49 atm 1atm Pa MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 8
9 Gravity s Effect on Fluid Pressure FBD for the fluid cylinder An imaginary cylinder of fluid y P 1 A Imaginary cylinder can be any size w P A x MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 9
10 Apply Newton s nd Law to the fluid cylinder. Since the fluids isn t moving the net force is zero. P A F P = P or P A P A 1 P P 1 P ( ρad ) ρgd = 1 P P A = w g = ρgd ρgd = = 0 0 If P 1 (the pressure at the top of the cylinder) is known, then the above expression can be used to find the variation of pressure with depth in a fluid. MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 10
11 If the top of the fluid column is placed at the surface of the fluid, then P 1 = P atm if the container is open. P = P atm + ρgd You noticed on the previous slide that the areas canceled out. Only the height matters since that is the direction of gravity. Think of the pressure as a force density in N/m MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 11
12 Measuring Pressure A manometer is a Ushaped tube that is partially filled with liquid, usually Mercury (Hg). Both ends of the tube are open to the atmosphere. MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 1
13 A container of gas is connected to one end of the Utube Equal pressure Equal pressure If there is a pressure difference between the gas and the atmosphere, a force will be exerted on the fluid in the Utube. This changes the equilibrium position of the fluid in the tube. MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 13
14 From the figure: At point C Also P c = P atm P B = P B' The pressure at point B is the pressure of the gas. P P P B B = P P gauge B' C = = P P B = ρgd C + ρgd P atm = ρgd P gauge = Pmeas  Patm MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 14
15 Siphoning MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 15
16 Atmospheric Pressure Will Support a Column of Fluid The column is sealed at one end, filled with the fluid and then inverted into a container of the same fluid. The difference in pressure between the two ends of the column makes the process work MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 16
17 A Barometer The atmosphere pushes on the container of mercury which forces mercury up the closed, inverted tube. The distance d is called the barometric pressure. MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 17
18 From the figure and P = P = A B P A = ρgd P atm Atmospheric pressure is equivalent to a column of mercury 76.0 cm tall. MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 18
19 The Many Units of Pressure 1 ATM equals 1.013x10 5 N/m 14.7 lbs/in bar 76 cm Hg 760 mm Hg 760 Torr 34 ft H O 9.9 in Hg MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 19
20 Pascal s Principle A change in pressure at any point in a confined fluid is transmitted everywhere throughout the fluid. (This is useful in making a hydraulic lift.) MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 0
21 The applied force is transmitted to the piston of crosssectional area A here. Apply a force F 1 here to a piston of crosssectional area A 1. In these problems neglect pressure due to columns of fluid. MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 1
22 Mathematically, P at point 1= P at point F A 1 F 1 = F A A = A 1 F 1 MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01
23 Example: Assume that a force of 500 N (about 110 lbs) is applied to the smaller piston in the previous figure. For each case, compute the force on the larger piston if the ratio of the piston areas (A /A 1 ) are 1, 10, and 100. Using Pascal s Principle: A A F 500 N 5000 N 50,000 N MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 3
24 Pressure Depends Only on the Vertical Height Pressure depends only on the depth of the fluid, not on the shape of the container. So the pressure is the same for all parts of the container that are at the same depth. MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 4
25 Pressure Gauge P gauge = P  P atm When the tire is flat the pressure inside the tire is atmospheric pressure. MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 5
26 Law of Atmosphere dp = λp dy dp =  λdy P MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 6
27 Pressure Decrease with Height P(y) = P e 0 λy ln() λ = 5.5(km) P(y) = P 0exp  y(km) ln() 5.5 MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 7
28 Archimedes s Principle A body wholly or partially submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 8
29 Archimedes s Principle MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 9
30 Archimedes s Principle m g = m g 1 m = m 1 ρ V =ρ V 1 1 The density and volume are tied together MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 30
31 Archimedes s Principle BF > BF 1 ρ V g >ρv g L 1 L V > V 1 Since ρ V =ρ V ρ <ρ The crown isn t 100% gold. MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 31
32 Archimedes s Principle MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 3
33 Archimedes Principle y F 1 An FBD for an object floating submerged in a fluid. x w F The total force on the block due to the fluid is called the buoyant force. F B = where F F F > 1 F 1 MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 33
34 Buoyant force = the weight of the fluid displaced The magnitude of the buoyant force is: From before: F B P = = = F F P A P A ( P P )A P 1 = ρgd The result is F B = ρ gda = ρgv MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 34
35 Example: A flatbottomed barge loaded with coal has a mass of kg. The barge is 0.0 m long and 10.0 m wide. It floats in fresh water. What is the depth of the barge below the waterline? FBD for the barge y F B w x Apply Newton s nd Law to the barge: ρ m w F w ρ V F = B g w = = = F w B w( Ad ) = mb ( ρ V ) m b w w = 0 w g = m b g d = mb ρ A w = kg ( kg/m )( 0.0 m*10.0 m) 5 = 1.5 m MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 35
36 Example: A piece of metal is released under water. The volume of the metal is 50.0 cm 3 and its specific gravity is 5.0. What is its initial acceleration? (Note: when v = 0, there is no drag force.) FBD for the metal y Solve for a: F B w x Apply Newton s nd Law to the piece of metal: F = FB w = ma The magnitude of the buoyant force equals the weight of the fluid displaced by the metal. F B = ρ water Vg F B ρwatervg = = = ρwaterv a g g g 1 m ρ objectvobject ρobjectvobject MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 36
37 Example continued: Since the object is completely submerged V=V object. specific gravity = ρ ρ water where ρ water = 1000 kg/m 3 is the density of water at 4 C. ρobject Given specific gravity = = 5. 0 ρ water a ρ ρ water = g 1 = g 1 = g object V V object 1 S. G = 7.8 m/s The sign is minus because gravity acts down. BF causes a < g. MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 37
38 Fluid Flow A moving fluid will exert forces parallel to the surface over which it moves, unlike a static fluid. This gives rise to a viscous force that impedes the forward motion of the fluid. A steady flow is one where the velocity at a given point in a fluid is constant. V 1 = constant v 1 v V = constant MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 38
39 Steady flow is laminar; the fluid flows in layers. The path that the fluid in these layers takes is called a streamline. Streamlines do not cross. Crossing streamlines would indicate a volume of fluid with two different velocities at the same time. An ideal fluid is incompressible, undergoes laminar flow, and has no viscosity. MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 39
40 The Continuity Equation Conservation of Mass Faster Slower The amount of mass that flows though the crosssectional area A 1 is the same as the mass that flows through crosssectional area A. MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 40
41 m t = ρ Av is the mass flow rate (units kg/s) V = Av = I V t = Q is the volumetric flow rate (m 3 /s) In general the continuity equation is dm 1 I M1  I M = dt dm 1 = 0 If then dt 1A1 v1 ρ Av ρ = If the fluid is incompressible, then ρ 1 = ρ. MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 41
42 Example: A garden hose of inner radius 1.0 cm carries water at.0 m/s. The nozzle at the end has radius 0.0 cm. How fast does the water move through the constriction? A v = A v 1 1 A π r v = v = v A πr Simple ratios 1.0 cm = (.0 m / s ) = 50 m / s 0.0 cm MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 4
43 Bernoulli s Equation Bernoulli s equation is a statement of energy conservation. MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 43
44 This is the most general equation P ρ gy1 + ρv1 = P + ρgy + 1 ρv Work per unit volume done by the fluid Potential energy per unit volume Kinetic energy per unit volume Points 1 and must be on the same streamline MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 44
45 Torricelli s Law Application of Bernoulli s Law Torricelli s Law states that the water exiting the hole in the side of the beaker has a speed equal to that it would have had after falling a verticle distance h. ρgh =ρgh + v = b ρv 1 a b b g h MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 45
46 Venturi Meter Poor transition zones Closed design; Two fluids MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 46
47 Venturi Meters  Good Transitions Closed design; One fluid Open design; One fluid MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 47
48 Venturi Meter What about the rest of the fluid in the column? P + ρ v = P + ρ v F 1 F v = A v = rv A P  P = ρ g h  ρ g h 1 L F v = (ρ ρ )g h L F 1 F ρ (r  1) MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 48
49 End of Chapter Problems MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 49
50 Cartesian Diver In reality it is essential that the large bottle be filled with water. MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 50
51 Extra Slides MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 51
52 Low pressures such as natural gas lines are sometimes specified in inches of water, typically written as w.c. (water column) or W.G. (inches water gauge). A typical gas using residential appliance is rated for a maximum of 14 w.c. which is approximately atmosphere. In the United States the accepted unit of pressure measurement for the HVAC industry is inches of water column. MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 5
53 Application of Pascal s Principle Point 1 Point MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 53
Chapter 15: Fluid Mechanics Dynamics Using Pascal s Law = F 1 = F 2 2 = F 2 A 2
Lecture 24: Archimedes Principle and Bernoulli s Law 1 Chapter 15: Fluid Mechanics Dynamics Using Pascal s Law Example 15.1 The hydraulic lift A hydraulic lift consists of a small diameter piston of radius
More informationChapter 15: Fluids. Mass Density = Volume. note : Fluids: substances which flow
Fluids: substances which flow Chapter 5: Fluids Liquids: take the shape of their container but have a definite volume Gases: take the shape and volume of their container Density m ρ = V Mass Density =
More informationChapter 14. Lecture 1 Fluid Mechanics. Dr. Armen Kocharian
Chapter 14 Lecture 1 Fluid Mechanics Dr. Armen Kocharian States of Matter Solid Has a definite volume and shape Liquid Has a definite volume but not a definite shape Gas unconfined Has neither a definite
More informationm V DEFINITION OF MASS DENSITY The mass density of a substance is the mass of a substance divided by its volume: SI Unit of Mass Density: kg/m 3
Chapter 11 Fluids 11.1 Mass Density DEFINITION OF MASS DENSITY The mass density of a substance is the mass of a substance divided by its volume: ρ m V SI Unit of Mass Density: kg/m 3 11.1 Mass Density
More informationLiquids CHAPTER 13 FLUIDS FLUIDS. Gases. Density! Bulk modulus! Compressibility. To begin with... some important definitions...
CHAPTER 13 FLUIDS FLUIDS Liquids Gases Density! Bulk modulus! Compressibility Pressure in a fluid! Hydraulic lift! Hydrostatic paradox Measurement of pressure! Manometers and barometers Buoyancy and Archimedes
More informationTOPICS. Density. Pressure. Variation of Pressure with Depth. Pressure Measurements. Buoyant ForcesArchimedes Principle
Lecture 6 Fluids TOPICS Density Pressure Variation of Pressure with Depth Pressure Measurements Buoyant ForcesArchimedes Principle Surface Tension ( External source ) Viscosity ( External source ) Equation
More informationCHAPTER 13. Liquids FLUIDS FLUIDS. Gases. Density! Bulk modulus! Compressibility. To begin with... some important definitions...
CHAPTER 13 FLUIDS Density! Bulk modulus! Compressibility Pressure in a fluid! Hydraulic lift! Hydrostatic paradox Measurement of pressure! Manometers and barometers Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle! Upthrust!
More informationChapter 12. Fluid Mechanics. A. The density ρ of a substance of uniform composition is defined as its mass M divided by its volume V.
Chapter 12 Fluid Mechanics 12.1 Density A. The density ρ of a substance of uniform composition is defined as its mass M divided by its volume V. That is,! = M V The density of water at 4 o C is 1000 kg/m
More informationChapter 9. Solids and Fluids. 1. Introduction. 2. Fluids at Rest. 3. Fluid Motion
Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids 1. Introduction 2. Fluids at Rest 3. Fluid Motion 1 States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma 2 Density and Specific Gravity What is Density? How do I calculate it? What are
More informationChapter 14. Fluid Mechanics
Chapter 14 Fluid Mechanics States of Matter Solid Has a definite volume and shape Liquid Has a definite volume but not a definite shape Gas unconfined Has neither a definite volume nor shape All of these
More informationChapter 15  Fluid Mechanics Thursday, March 24 th
Chapter 15  Fluid Mechanics Thursday, March 24 th Fluids Static properties Density and pressure Hydrostatic equilibrium Archimedes principle and buoyancy Fluid Motion The continuity equation Bernoulli
More informationPressure in a fluid P P P P
Fluids Gases (compressible) and liquids (incompressible) density of gases can change dramatically, while that of liquids much less so Gels, colloids, liquid crystals are all oddball states of matter We
More informationPhysics 153 Introductory Physics II. Week One: FLUIDS. Dr. Joseph J. Trout
Physics 153 Introductory Physics II Week One: FLUIDS Dr. Joseph J. Trout joseph.trout@drexel.edu 6103486495 States (Phases) of Matter: Solid: Fixed shape. Fixed size. Even a large force will not readily
More informationPhysics 201 Chapter 13 Lecture 1
Physics 201 Chapter 13 Lecture 1 Fluid Statics Pascal s Principle Archimedes Principle (Buoyancy) Fluid Dynamics Continuity Equation Bernoulli Equation 11/30/2009 Physics 201, UWMadison 1 Fluids Density
More informationChapter 11. Fluids. continued
Chapter 11 Fluids continued 11.2 Pressure Pressure is the amount of force acting on an area: Example 2 The Force on a Swimmer P = F A SI unit: N/m 2 (1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 ) Suppose the pressure acting on the
More informationPhysics 207 Lecture 18
Physics 07, Lecture 8, Nov. 6 MidTerm Mean 58.4 (64.6) Median 58 St. Dev. 6 (9) High 94 Low 9 Nominal curve: (conservative) 8000 A 679 B or A/B 346 C or B/C 933 marginal 98 D Physics 07: Lecture 8,
More information11.1 Mass Density. Fluids are materials that can flow, and they include both gases and liquids. The mass density of a liquid or gas is an
Chapter 11 Fluids 11.1 Mass Density Fluids are materials that can flow, and they include both gases and liquids. The mass density of a liquid or gas is an important factor that determines its behavior
More informationChapter 9: Solids and Fluids
Chapter 9: Solids and Fluids State of matters: Solid, Liquid, Gas and Plasma. Solids Has definite volume and shape Can be crystalline or amorphous Molecules are held in specific locations by electrical
More informationFluids. Fluids in Motion or Fluid Dynamics
Fluids Fluids in Motion or Fluid Dynamics Resources: Serway  Chapter 9: 9.79.8 Physics B Lesson 3: Fluid Flow Continuity Physics B Lesson 4: Bernoulli's Equation MIT  8: Hydrostatics, Archimedes' Principle,
More informationPhysics 201 Chapter 13 Lecture 1
Physics 201 Chapter 13 Lecture 1 Fluid Statics Pascal s Principle Archimedes Principle (Buoyancy) Fluid Dynamics Continuity Equation Bernoulli Equation 11/30/2009 Physics 201, UWMadison 1 Fluids Density
More informationChapter 15. m. The symbolic equation for mass density is: ρ= m V. Table of Densities
Chapter 15 Density Often you will hear that fiberglass is used for racecars because it is lighter than steel. This is only true if we build two identical bodies, one made with steel and one with fiberglass.
More informationPhysics 123 Unit #1 Review
Physics 123 Unit #1 Review I. Definitions & Facts Density Specific gravity (= material / water) Pressure Atmosphere, bar, Pascal Barometer Streamline, laminar flow Turbulence Gauge pressure II. Mathematics
More informationLecture 8 Equilibrium and Elasticity
Lecture 8 Equilibrium and Elasticity July 19 EQUILIBRIUM AND ELASTICITY CHAPTER 12 Give a sharp blow one end of a stick on the table. Find center of percussion. Baseball bat center of percussion Equilibrium
More informationGeneral Physics I. Lecture 16: Fluid Mechanics. Prof. WAN, Xin ( 万歆 )
General Physics I Lecture 16: Fluid Mechanics Prof. WAN, Xin ( 万歆 ) xinwan@zju.edu.cn http://zimp.zju.edu.cn/~xinwan/ Motivations Newton s laws for fluid statics? Force pressure Mass density How to treat
More informationNicholas J. Giordano. Chapter 10 Fluids
Nicholas J. Giordano www.cengage.com/physics/giordano Chapter 10 Fluids Fluids A fluid may be either a liquid or a gas Some characteristics of a fluid Flows from one place to another Shape varies according
More informationChapter 14  Fluids. Archimedes, On Floating Bodies. David J. Starling Penn State Hazleton PHYS 213. Chapter 14  Fluids. Objectives (Ch 14)
Any solid lighter than a fluid will, if placed in the fluid, be so far immersed that the weight of the solid will be equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. Archimedes, On Floating Bodies David J.
More informationChapter 9. Solids and Fluids 9.3 DENSITY AND PRESSURE
9.3 DENSITY AND PRESSURE Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids The density of an object having uniform composition is defined as its mass M divided by its volume V: M V [9.6] SI unit: kilogram per meter cubed (kg/m
More informationFluid Mechanics. If deformation is small, the stress in a body is proportional to the corresponding
Fluid Mechanics HOOKE'S LAW If deformation is small, the stress in a body is proportional to the corresponding strain. In the elasticity limit stress and strain Stress/strain = Const. = Modulus of elasticity.
More informationChapter 9 Fluids. Pressure
Chapter 9 Fluids States of Matter  Solid, liquid, gas. Fluids (liquids and gases) do not hold their shapes. In many cases we can think of liquids as being incompressible. Liquids do not change their volume
More informationm V DEFINITION OF MASS DENSITY The mass density of a substance is the mass of a substance divided by its volume: SI Unit of Mass Density: kg/m 3
Chapter Fluids . Mass Density DEFINITION OF MASS DENSITY The mass density of a substance is the mass of a substance divided by its volume: m V SI Unit of Mass Density: kg/m 3 . Mass Density . Mass Density
More informationMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS
CHAPTER10 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS QUESTIONS 1 marks questions 1. What are fluids? 2. How are fluids different from solids? 3. Define thrust of a liquid. 4. Define liquid pressure. 5. Is pressure
More informationPhy 212: General Physics II. Daniel Bernoulli ( )
Phy 1: General Physics II Chapter 14: Fluids Lecture Notes Daniel Bernoulli (1700178) Swiss merchant, doctor & mathematician Worked on: Vibrating strings Ocean tides Kinetic theory Demonstrated that as
More informationPhysics 207 Lecture 20. Chapter 15, Fluids
Chapter 15, Fluids This is an actual photo of an iceberg, taken by a rig manager for Global Marine Drilling in St. Johns, Newfoundland. The water was calm and the sun was almost directly overhead so that
More informationFluid Mechanics. Chapter 14. Modified by P. Lam 6_7_2012
Chapter 14 Fluid Mechanics PowerPoint Lectures for University Physics, Twelfth Edition Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman Lectures by James Pazun Modified by P. Lam 6_7_2012 Goals for Chapter 14 To study
More informationFluids, Continuity, and Bernouli
Fluids, Continuity, and Bernouli Announcements: Exam Tomorrow at 7:30pm in same rooms as before. Web page: http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phys1110/phys1110_sp12/ Clicker question 1 A satellite, mass m,
More informationFluid Mechanics. The atmosphere is a fluid!
Fluid Mechanics The atmosphere is a fluid! Some definitions A fluid is any substance which can flow Liquids, gases, and plasmas Fluid statics studies fluids in equilibrium Density, pressure, buoyancy Fluid
More informationPhysics  Fluids. Read Page 174 (Density) TQ1. A fluid is what type of matter? TQ2. What is fluid mechanics? TQ3. What is the equation for density?
Homework Procedure: Read pages specified in Honors Physics Essentials by Dan Fullerton. Questions labeled TQ will be questions about the text you read. These TQ s can be answered in one word, one phrase,
More informationPage 1. Physics 131: Lecture 23. Today s Agenda. Announcements. States of Matter
Physics 131: Lecture 3 Today s Agenda Description of Fluids at Rest Pressure vs Depth Pascal s Principle: hydraulic forces Archimedes Principle: objects in a fluid Bernoulli s equation Physics 01: Lecture
More informationGeneral Physics I (aka PHYS 2013)
General Physics I (aka PHYS 2013) PROF. VANCHURIN (AKA VITALY) University of Minnesota, Duluth (aka UMD) OUTLINE CHAPTER 12 CHAPTER 19 REVIEW CHAPTER 12: FLUID MECHANICS Section 12.1: Density Section 12.2:
More informationCHAPTER 28 PRESSURE IN FLUIDS
CHAPTER 8 PRESSURE IN FLUIDS EXERCISE 18, Page 81 1. A force of 80 N is applied to a piston of a hydraulic system of crosssectional area 0.010 m. Determine the pressure produced by the piston in the hydraulic
More informationI N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í
MECHNICS O LUIDS luids are both liquids and gases. The common property of fluids is that the particles can be separated easily (liquids do not have their own shape etc.). Real fluids have something like
More informationStates of matter. Density high > high >> low (pressure dependent)
Fluids States of matter Solids Fluids crystalline amorphous liquids gasses Interatomic forces strong > strong >> very weak Density high > high >> low (pressure dependent) Density is an important material
More information11/4/2003 PHY Lecture 16 1
Announcements 1. Exams will be returned at the end of class. You may rework the exam for up to 1 extra credit points. Turn in your old exam and your new work (clearly indicated). Due 11/11/3. You may sign
More informationChapter 1 INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 11 The Fluid. 12 Dimensions. 13 Units. 14 Fluid Properties. 1 11 The Fluid: It is the substance that deforms continuously when subjected to a shear stress. Matter Solid Fluid
More informationPhysics 106 Lecture 13. Fluid Mechanics
Physics 106 Lecture 13 Fluid Mechanics SJ 7 th Ed.: Chap 14.1 to 14.5 What is a fluid? Pressure Pressure varies with depth Pascal s principle Methods for measuring pressure Buoyant forces Archimedes principle
More informationCh Buoyancy & Fluid Flow
Ch 12.35 Buoyancy & Fluid Flow PHYS 1210  Prof. JangCondell 1 Which grading system do you prefer for your final grade? A. Letter grades only (A, B, C, D, F) B. Plus/minus grading (A, A, B+, B, B,
More informationPhysics 101: Lecture 17 Fluids
Exam III Physics 101: Lecture 17 Fluids Exam 2 is Mon Nov. 4, 7pm Extra office hours on Fri. (see webpage!) Physics 101: Lecture 17, Pg 1 Homework 9 Help A block of mass M 1 = 3 kg rests on a table with
More informationFluidi. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Fluidi 11.1 Mass Density DEFINITION OF MASS DENSITY The mass density of a substance is the mass of a substance divided by its volume: m V SI Unit of Mass Density: kg/m3 11.1 Mass Density 11.1 Mass Density
More informationρ mixture = m mixture /V = (SG antifreeze ρ water V antifreeze + SG water ρ water V water )/V, so we get
CHAPTER 10 1. When we use the density of granite, we have m = ρv = (.7 10 3 kg/m 3 )(1 10 8 m 3 ) =.7 10 11 kg.. When we use the density of air, we have m = ρv = ρlwh = (1.9 kg/m 3 )(5.8 m)(3.8 m)(.8 m)
More informationPHYSICS 220 Lecture 16 Fluids Textbook Sections
PHYSICS 220 Lecture 16 Fluids Textbook Sections 10.110.4 Lecture 16 Purdue University, Physics 220 1 States of Matter Fluids Solid Hold Volume Hold Shape Liquid Hold Volume Adapt Shape Gas Adapt Volume
More informationPhysics Courseware Physics I
Definition of pressure: Force P = Area Physics Courseware Physics I Bernoulli Hydrostatics equation: PB PA = ρgh 1 1 Bernoulli s equation: P 1 + ρv1 + ρgh1 = P + ρv + ρgh Problem 1. In a carburetor (schematically
More informationToday s Discussion: Fluids Pressure and Pascal s principle Bouyancy, Archimedes principle Bernoulli s equation
1 Physics 213 Waves, Fluids and Thermal Physics Summer 2007 Lecturer: Mike Kagan (mak411@psu.edu, 322 Whitmore) Today s Discussion: Fluids Pressure and Pascal s principle Bouyancy, Archimedes principle
More informationPhysics 220: Classical Mechanics
Lecture 10 1/34 Phys 220 Physics 220: Classical Mechanics Lecture: MWF 8:40 am 9:40 am (Phys 114) Michael Meier mdmeier@purdue.edu Office: Phys Room 381 Help Room: Phys Room 11 schedule on course webpage
More informationMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS:
Important Definitions: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS: Fluid: A substance that can flow is called Fluid Both liquids and gases are fluids Pressure: The normal force acting per unit area of a surface is
More informationPressure in stationary and moving fluid Lab Lab On On Chip: Lecture 2
Pressure in stationary and moving fluid LabOnChip: Lecture Lecture plan what is pressure e and how it s distributed in static fluid water pressure in engineering problems buoyancy y and archimedes law;
More informationFluid Mechanics. du dy
FLUID MECHANICS Technical English  I 1 th week Fluid Mechanics FLUID STATICS FLUID DYNAMICS Fluid Statics or Hydrostatics is the study of fluids at rest. The main equation required for this is Newton's
More informationPART II. Fluid Mechanics Pressure. Fluid Mechanics Pressure. Fluid Mechanics Specific Gravity. Some applications of fluid mechanics
ART II Some applications of fluid mechanics Fluid Mechanics ressure ressure = F/A Units: Newton's per square meter, Nm , kgm  s  The same unit is also known as a ascal, a, i.e. a = Nm  ) English units:
More informationPhysics 111. Thursday, November 11, 2004
ics Thursday, ember 11, 2004 Ch 15: Fluids Pascal s Principle Archimede s Principle Fluid Flows Continuity Equation Bernoulli s Equation Toricelli s Theorem Announcements Wednesday, 89 pm in NSC 118/119
More informationChapter 9. Solids and Fluids
Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Solids Have definite volume Have definite shape Atoms or molecules are held in specific locations By electrical forces Vibrate about
More informationMass of fluid leaving per unit time
5 ENERGY EQUATION OF FLUID MOTION 5.1 Eulerian Approach & Control Volume In order to develop the equations that describe a flow, it is assumed that fluids are subject to certain fundamental laws of physics.
More informationPhysics 202 Homework 2
Physics 202 Homework 2 Apr 10, 2013 1. An airplane wing is designed so that the speed of the air across the top of the 192 kn wing is 251 m/s when the speed of the air below the wing is 225 m/s. The density
More informationMomentum Circular Motion and Gravitation Rotational Motion Fluid Mechanics
Momentum Circular Motion and Gravitation Rotational Motion Fluid Mechanics Momentum Momentum Collisions between objects can be evaluated using the laws of conservation of energy and of momentum. Momentum
More informationQ1 Give answers to all of the following questions (5 marks each):
FLUID MECHANICS First Year Exam Solutions 03 Q Give answers to all of the following questions (5 marks each): (a) A cylinder of m in diameter is made with material of relative density 0.5. It is moored
More informationFluid Mechanics. Chapter 12. PowerPoint Lectures for University Physics, Thirteenth Edition Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman
Chapter 12 Fluid Mechanics PowerPoint Lectures for University Physics, Thirteenth Edition Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman Lectures by Wayne Anderson Goals for Chapter 12 To study the concept of density
More informationLecture 30 (Walker: ) Fluid Dynamics April 15, 2009
Physics 111 Lecture 30 (Walker: 15.67) Fluid Dynamics April 15, 2009 Midterm #2  Monday April 20 Chap. 7,Chap. 8 (not 8.5) Chap. 9 (not 9.6, 9.8) Chap. 10, Chap. 11 (not 11.89) Chap. 13 (not 13.68)
More informationf= flow rate (m 3 /s) A = crosssectional area of the pipe (m 2 ) v= flow speed (m/s)
Fluid Mechanics Flow Rate and Continuity Equation If you have a pipe that is flowing a liquid you will have a flow rate. The flow rate is the volume of fluid that passes any particular point per unit of
More informationPressure in stationary and moving fluid. LabOnChip: Lecture 2
Pressure in stationary and moving fluid LabOnChip: Lecture Fluid Statics No shearing stress.no relative movement between adjacent fluid particles, i.e. static or moving as a single block Pressure at
More informationChapter 9. Solids and Fluids
Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Solids Have definite volume Have definite shape Molecules are held in specific locations By electrical forces Vibrate about equilibrium
More informationExam 4PHYS 101Fall 2016
Name: Exam 4PHYS 101Fall 2016 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A bus contains a 2000 kg flywheel (a disk that has a 0.500 m radius)
More informationFigure 3: Problem 7. (a) 0.9 m (b) 1.8 m (c) 2.7 m (d) 3.6 m
1. For the manometer shown in figure 1, if the absolute pressure at point A is 1.013 10 5 Pa, the absolute pressure at point B is (ρ water =10 3 kg/m 3, ρ Hg =13.56 10 3 kg/m 3, ρ oil = 800kg/m 3 ): (a)
More informationTypes of Forces. Pressure Buoyant Force Friction Normal Force
Types of Forces Pressure Buoyant Force Friction Normal Force Pressure Ratio of Force Per Unit Area p = F A P = N/m 2 = 1 pascal (very small) P= lbs/in 2 = psi = pounds per square inch Example: Snow Shoes
More informationMULTIPLECHOICE PROBLEMS:(Two marks per answer) (Circle the Letter Beside the Most Correct Answer in the Questions Below.)
MULTIPLECHOICE PROLEMS:(Two marks per answer) (Circle the Letter eside the Most Correct Answer in the Questions elow.) 1. The absolute viscosity µ of a fluid is primarily a function of: a. Density. b.
More informationPhysics 101: Lecture 18 Fluids II
Exam III Physics 101: Lecture 18 Fluids II Textbook Sections 9.6 9.8 Physics 101: Lecture 18, Pg 1 Review Static Fluids Pressure is force exerted by molecules bouncing off container P = F/A Gravity/weight
More informationIn steady flow the velocity of the fluid particles at any point is constant as time passes.
Chapter 10 Fluids Fluids in Motion In steady flow the velocity of the fluid particles at any point is constant as time passes. Unsteady flow exists whenever the velocity of the fluid particles at a point
More informationAerodynamics. Basic Aerodynamics. Continuity equation (mass conserved) Some thermodynamics. Energy equation (energy conserved)
Flow with no friction (inviscid) Aerodynamics Basic Aerodynamics Continuity equation (mass conserved) Flow with friction (viscous) Momentum equation (F = ma) 1. Euler s equation 2. Bernoulli s equation
More informationChapter 9. Solids and Fluids. States of Matter. Solid. Liquid. Gas
Chapter 9 States of Matter Solids and Fluids Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Solids Have definite volume Have definite shape Molecules are held in specific locations By electrical forces Vibrate about equilibrium
More informationChapter 9 Solids and Fluids. Elasticity Archimedes Principle Bernoulli s Equation
Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids Elasticity Archimedes Principle Bernoulli s Equation States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasmas Solids: Stress and Strain Stress = Measure of force felt by material Stress= Force
More informationChapter 11  Fluids in Motion. Sections 79
Chapter  Fluids in Motion Sections 79 Fluid Motion The lower falls at Yellowstone National Park: the water at the top of the falls passes through a narrow slot, causing the velocity to increase at that
More informationb) (5) Find the tension T B in the cord connected to the wall.
General Physics I Quiz 6  Ch. 9  Static Equilibrium July 15, 2009 Name: Make your work clear to the grader. Show formulas used. Give correct units and significant figures. Partial credit is available
More informationb) (6) With 10.0 N applied to the smaller piston, what pressure force F 2 (in newtons) is produced on the larger piston?
General Physics I Exam 4  Chs. 10,11,12  Fluids, Waves, Sound Nov. 17, 2010 Name Rec. Instr. Rec. Time For full credit, make your work clear to the grader. Show formulas used, essential steps, and results
More informationChapter 18 Fluids Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 181
Chapter 18 Fluids Slide 181 Section 18.1: Forces in a fluid We dealt with solid objects in the previous chapters. We now turn our attention to liquids and gasses. Liquids and gasses are collectively called
More informationPhysics 107 HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT #9
Physics 07 HOMEORK ASSIGNMENT #9 Cutnell & Johnson, 7 th edition Chapter : Problems 6, 8, 33, 40, 44 *6 A 58kg skier is going down a slope oriented 35 above the horizontal. The area of each ski in contact
More informationHalliday/Resnick/Walker 7e Chapter 14
HRW 7e Chapter 4 Page of 8 Halliday/Resnick/Walker 7e Chapter 4. The air inside pushes outard ith a force given by p i A, here p i is the pressure inside the room and A is the area of the indo. Similarly,
More informationChapter 10. Solids and Fluids
Chapter 10 Solids and Fluids Surface Tension Net force on molecule A is zero Pulled equally in all directions Net force on B is not zero No molecules above to act on it Pulled toward the center of the
More informationCPO Science Foundations of Physics. Unit 8, Chapter 27
CPO Science Foundations of Physics Unit 8, Chapter 27 Unit 8: Matter and Energy Chapter 27 The Physical Properties of Matter 27.1 Properties of Solids 27.2 Properties of Liquids and Fluids 27.3 Properties
More informationLesson 6 Review of fundamentals: Fluid flow
Lesson 6 Review of fundamentals: Fluid flow The specific objective of this lesson is to conduct a brief review of the fundamentals of fluid flow and present: A general equation for conservation of mass
More informationYou are responsible for recording your 9 digit PSU Student ID on your scantron form
Tuesday, July 28; 9:35AM 10:50AM in 273 Willard 20 Mul=ple Choice Ques=ons See Folder in Exam Resources Midterm 2 Informa=on You are responsible for recording your 9 digit PSU Student ID on your scantron
More informationDEVIL PHYSICS THE BADDEST CLASS ON CAMPUS IB PHYSICS
DEVIL PHYSICS THE BADDEST CLASS ON CAMPUS IB PHYSICS OPTION B3: LUIDS Essential Idea: luids cannot be modelled as point particles. Their distinguishable response to compression from solids creates a set
More information10  FLUID MECHANICS Page 1
0  FLUID MECHANICS Page Introduction Fluid is a matter in a state which can flow. Liquids, gases, molten metal and tar are examples of fluids. Fluid mechanics is studied in two parts: ( i ) Fluid statics
More informationWhy do we need to study thermodynamics? Examples of practical thermodynamic devices:
Why do we need to study thermodynamics? Knowledge of thermodynamics is required to design any device involving the interchange between heat and work, or the conversion of material to produce heat (combustion).
More informationChapter 9. Solids and Fluids (c)
Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids (c) EXAMPLE A small swimming pool has an area of 0 square meters. A wooden 4000kg statue of density 500 kg/m 3 is then floated on top of the pool. How far does the water rise?
More informationLecture 27 (Walker: ) Fluid Dynamics Nov. 9, 2009
Physics 111 Lecture 27 (Walker: 15.57) Fluid Dynamics Nov. 9, 2009 Midterm #2  Monday Nov. 16 Chap. 7,Chap. 8 (not 8.5) Chap. 9 (not 9.6, 9.8) Chap. 10, Chap. 11 (not 11.89) Chap. 13 (not 13.68) Chap.
More information! =!"#$% exerted by a fluid (liquid or gas) !"#$ =!"# FUNDAMENTAL AND MEASURABLE INTENSIVE PROPERTIES PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE AND SPECIFIC VOLUME
FUNDAMENTAL AND MEASURABLE INTENSIVE PROPERTIES PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE AND SPECIFIC VOLUME PRESSURE, P! =!"#$%!"#! exerted by a fluid (liquid or gas) Thermodynamic importance of pressure One of two independent
More informationEric G. Paterson. Spring 2005
Eric G. Paterson Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Pennsylvania State University Spring 2005 Reading and Homework Read Chapter 3. Homework Set #2 has been posted. Due date: Friday 21 January.
More informationBarometer Fluid rises until pressure at A, due its weight, equals atmospheric pressure at B. Unit: mm Hg (millimeters that mercury rises)
FLUID MECHANICS The study of the properties of fluids resulting from the action forces. Fluid a liquid, gas, or plasma We will only consider incompressible fluids i.e. liquids Pressure P F A (normal force)
More informationPressure drop due to viscosity in a round pipe of radius R is given by the Poiseuille equation: P L. = 8η v R 2
PHY 302 K. Solutions for Problem set # 12. Textbook problem 10.55: Pressure drop due to viscosity in a round pipe of radius R is given by the Poiseuille equation: P L 8η v R 2 8ηF πr 4 (1) where η is viscosity
More informations and FE X. A. Flow measurement B. properties C. statics D. impulse, and momentum equations E. Pipe and other internal flow 7% of FE Morning Session I
Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam General Section Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering October 26, 2010 s and FE X. A. Flow measurement B. properties C. statics D. impulse, and momentum
More informationPage 1. Chapters 2, 3 (linear) 9 (rotational) Final Exam: Wednesday, May 11, 10:05 am  12:05 pm, BASCOM 272
Final Exam: Wednesday, May 11, 10:05 am  12:05 pm, BASCOM 272 The exam will cover chapters 1 14 The exam will have about 30 multiple choice questions Consultations hours the same as before. Another review
More informationProperties of Gases. The perfect gas. States of gases Gas laws Kinetic model of gases (Ch th ed, th ed.) Real gases
Properties of Gases Chapter 1 of Physical Chemistry  6th Edition P.W. Atkins. Chapter 1 and a little bit of Chapter 24 of 7th Edition. Chapter 1 and a little bit of Chapter 21 of 8th edition. The perfect
More informationPhysics 201, Lecture 26
Physics 201, Lecture 26 Today s Topics n Fluid Mechanics (chapter 14) n Review: Pressure n Buoyancy, Archimedes s Principle (14.4) n Fluid Dynamics, Bernoulli s Equation (14.5,14.6) n Applications of Fluid
More information