# ! =!"#\$% exerted by a fluid (liquid or gas) !"#\$ =!"# FUNDAMENTAL AND MEASURABLE INTENSIVE PROPERTIES PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE AND SPECIFIC VOLUME

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1 FUNDAMENTAL AND MEASURABLE INTENSIVE PROPERTIES PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE AND SPECIFIC VOLUME PRESSURE, P! =!"#\$%!"#! exerted by a fluid (liquid or gas) Thermodynamic importance of pressure One of two independent intensive properties which determines the state of a system Association with mechanical work of a moving boundary!!!"#\$ =!"#!! Pressure is associated with mechanical equilibrium, which can be defined as no unbalanced pressure distribution (potential). o Consider a piston- cylinder device where the force exerted by the pressure on the inside is greater than the force exerted on the outside by the pressure and the weight of the piston. To achieve equilibrium, the piston will move to equalize the forces, doing work. o However, consider water in a tank, where the equilibrium pressure distribution is not uniform, but a linear gradient P1 P2 h where P2 = P1 + ρgh for ρ= fluid density, g=gravity, and h=depth. Change in P with h is a linear relation where ρ and g are constant and (ρg) is the slope of the pressure gradient

2 o This pressure distribution is associated with equilibrium since the pressure distribution balances the weight of the water in the tank. Units of Pressure in SI system: Basic SI unit: One N/m 2 = 1 Pascal (Pa) One kilopascal (kpa) = 1,000 Pa One atmosphere (atm) = 101,325 Pa at sea level and 0 o C = kpa One bar = 10 5 Pa = 100 kpa And one atm = bar One atm = 760 mm Hg ABSOLUTE PRESSURE, P, is the basis of most thermodynamic formulas and calculations. That is P measured relative to an absolute vacuum (P = 0) Gage pressure, Pg Pressure is sometimes measured using a spring or dial gage, which automatically subtracts the atmospheric pressure (Patm) from the measured pressure, resulting in the relation P = Patm + Pg (Occasionally for P < Patm pressure is measured in a vacuum gage and the vacuum pressure is Pv where Pv = Patm - P

3 A simple device for measuring pressure is the manometer, a u- tube typically filled with a liquid (water, oil, mercury) in contact with the system whose pressure is to be measured. u- tube is open to pressurized system on one side and atmosphere on the other Patm (Pa) P (Pa) Patm*A h (m) mg h P*A Free body diagram of column of fluid above reference Patm*A + mg = P*A Where P is absolute pressure in system (Pa), A = cross sectional area of tube (m 2 ) and mg is weight of fluid in section of column above reference elevation (N). Patm*A + ρvg = P*A Where ρ = manometer fluid density (kg/m 3 ) and V = volume of manometer fluid (m 3 ) in section of height h. V/A = h Also since Pg = P - Patm, Pg = ρgh Patm + ρgh = P

4 Considerations. Manometers use a fluid with high enough density to measure pressure in the needed range without requiring a long tube (large h). Mercury (Hg) is ideal because it is liquid at room temperature and its specific gravity is 13.6 (ρ = 13,600 kg/m 3 ). BAROMETER is a device for measuring atmospheric pressure. Tube and reservoir containing fluid, typically mercury. Tube is sealed at the top and submerged in reservoir fluid. Reservoir is open to the atmosphere. P ~0 Patm h Force balance: Patm*A 0 = ρgha Where terms are as described in manometer analysis Patm*A 0 = ρgha Patm = ρgh Standard atmosphere pressure (P = 1 atm at 0 o C) for Hg barometer = 760 mm Hg. Patm = 0.76 m 13,600 kg/m 3 (9.8 m/s 2 ) = Pa. Note that air pressure changes with elevation, temperature, moisture content, and weather conditions.

5 TEMPERATURE Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: if two bodies are in thermal equilibrium, they are in thermal equilibrium with each other, even if they are not in contact. Let the third body be a thermometer which is a device that has a scale to record temperature as basis for establishing thermal equilibrium. All temperature scales have units of equal size. Classic thermometers contain a fluid (Hg, alcohol) with a know coefficient of thermal expansion. Fluid expands as temperature increases, so height of fluid in thermometer can be calibrated to read temperature. Types of temperature scales. 1. Absolute temperature scale (Kelvin in SI system) has minimum value of zero ( absolute zero ). All temperature values are > 0 K. 2. Relative temperature scale is based on easily reproducible points, e.g., ice point and boiling point of water at one atmosphere pressure. In SI system, the Celsius scale has ice point = 0 o C and boiling point = 100 o C One Kelvin degree is the same size as one Celsius degree Conversion: T (K) = T ( o C) And because degrees are the same size in Kelvin and Celsius scales, ΔT = T2 T1 (K) = T2 T1 ( o C)

6 SPECIFIC VOLUME Specific volume = v = Volume/mass = V/m (m 3 /kg) v = 1/ρ, where ρ = mass density = m/v (kg/m 3 ) v is independent of both T and P in simple compressible systems. Relations: V = m*v m = ρ*v ANOTHER INTENSIVE PROPERTY RELATED TO v IS ASSOCIATED WITH LIQUID- VAPOR SYSTEMS (where the liquid and vapor phases have the same chemical composition (e.g., liquid water- water vapor). In a two- phase system containing liquid and vapor phases in equilibrium, the liquid and vapor phases have defined properties characteristic of saturated liquid and saturated vapor, including specific volume. vsaturated liquid = vf vsaturated vapor = vg msaturated liquid = mf msaturated vapor = mg For a liquid vapor mixture at equilibrium, And V = Vf + Vg (m 3 ) m*v = mf*vf + mg* vf (m 3 ) (1) where m = total mass in both phases and V = total volume occupied by both phases

7 Also, m = mf + mg (2) WARNING: v vf + vg If the temperature OR pressure of a liquid- vapor system is known, specific volume is a second independent intensive property, since the specific volumes of the saturated liquid and vapor phases are also known, a shown below. Rearranging (2) to eliminate mf from (1): mf = m - mg Substituting for mf in (1): m*v = (m mg)*vf + mg* vf and solving for v:! =!! (!!!! )! +!!!!! (3) now define the new INTENSIVE PROPERTY, QUALITY, x! =!"##!"#\$%"#&'!"#\$%!"!#\$!"## =!!! where 0 x 1 x = 0 system is all saturated liquid (m = mf and mg = 0) x = 1, system is all saturated vapor (m = mg and mf = 0) substituting x for mg/m in (3) allows you to find the specific volume of a saturated liquid vapor mixture if x is known: v = vf *(1 x) + vg*x

8 v = x*(vg - vf ) + vf (4) OR, if v is known:! =!!!! (!!!!! ) (5)

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