# Aerodynamics. Basic Aerodynamics. Continuity equation (mass conserved) Some thermodynamics. Energy equation (energy conserved)

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1 Flow with no friction (inviscid) Aerodynamics Basic Aerodynamics Continuity equation (mass conserved) Flow with friction (viscous) Momentum equation (F = ma) 1. Euler s equation 2. Bernoulli s equation Some Applications Some thermodynamics Energy equation (energy conserved) Equation for isentropic flow Boundary layer concept Laminar boundary layer Turbulent boundary layer Transition from laminar to turbulent flow Flow separation Reading: Chapter 4

2 Recall: Aerodynamic Forces Theoretical and experimental aerodynamicists labor to calculate and measure flow fields of many types. because the aerodynamic force exerted by the airflow on the surface of an airplane, missile, etc., stems from only two simple natural sources: Pressure distribution on the surface (normal to surface) Shear stress (friction) on the surface (tangential to surface) p τ w

3 Fundamental Principles Conservation of mass Continuity equation ( ) Newton s second law (F = ma) Euler s equation & Bernoulli s equation ( ) Conservation of energy Energy equation ( )

4 First: Buoyancy One way to get lift is through Archimedes principle of buoyancy The buoyancy force acting on an object in a fluid is equal to the weight of the volume of fluid displaced by the object p Requires integral 0-2rρ 0 g 0 (assume ρ 0 is constant) p = p 0 -ρ 0 g 0 (r-r cos θ) r Force is θ p da = [p 0 -ρ 0 g 0 (r-r cos θ)] da da = 2 π r 2 sin θ dθ mg p 0 -ρ 0 g 0 (r-r cos θ) Increasing altitude Integrate using shell element approach p 0

5 Buoyancy: Integration Over Surface of Sphere Each shell element is a ring with radius r sin θ, and width r dθ Thus the differential area of an element is da = 2 π r 2 sin θ dθ Pressure at each point on an element is p = p 0 -ρ 0 g 0 (r-r cos θ) Force is pressure times area df = p da = [p 0 -ρ 0 g 0 (r-r cos θ)] da Vertical pressure force is df cos θ = p da cos θ = [p 0 -ρ 0 g 0 (r-r cos θ)] cos θ da p 0 mg p 0-2rρ 0 g 0 θ p 0 -ρ 0 g 0 (r-r cos θ) r Increasing altitude

6 Buoyancy: Integration Over Surface of Sphere (continued) Total vertical pressure force is found by integrating from θ = 0 to θ = π : p 0-2rρ 0 g 0 F vp = 2πr 2 [p 0 -ρ 0 g 0 (r-r cos θ)] cos θ sin θ dθ Some useful identities: cos θ sin θ dθ= ½sin2 cos2 θ sin θ dθ= θ - 1 / 3 cos 3 θ Put them together to get F vp = 4 / 3 πr 3 ρ 0 g 0 The first bit is the volume of the sphere; multiplying by density gives mass of fluid displaced; multiplying by gravity gives weight of fluid displaced p 0 mg θ p 0 -ρ 0 g 0 (r-r cos θ) r Increasing altitude

7 Buoyancy: Forces on a Sphere (continued) Total vertical pressure force is F vp = 4 / 3 πr 3 ρ 0 g 0 or F vp = W v (weight of volume of fluid) 4 / 3 πr 3 ρ 0 g 0 Thus the total vertical force on the sphere is F v = W v -W s where W s = mg is the weight of the sphere If W v > W s, then the net force is a positive Lift If W v < W s, then the net force is a negative Lift If W v = W s, then the sphere is said to be neutrally buoyant mg Increasing altitude

8 Neutral Buoyancy Tanks Neutral buoyancy is useful for simulating the freefall environment experienced by astronauts NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center has a Neutral Buoyancy Simulator University of Maryland has a Neutral Buoyancy Tank

9 What s In Our Toolbox So Far? Four aerodynamic quantities, flow field Steady vsunsteady flow Streamlines Two sources of all aerodynamic forces Equation of state for perfect gas Standard atmosphere: six different altitudes Hydrostatic equation Linear interpolation, local approximation Lift due to buoyancy Viscous vs inviscous flow

10 Lift from Fluid Motion First: Airplane wing geometry Span, Chord, Area, Planform, Aspect Ratio, Camber, Leading and Trailing Edges

11 Some Wing Shapes

12 Assumption: Steady flow Continuity Physical principle: Mass can be neither created nor destroyed. At entry point (1): dm/dt = ρ 1 A 1 V 1 At exit point (2): dm/dt = ρ 2 A 2 V Since mass is conserved, these two expressions must be equal; hence A 1, V 1, ρ 1 dm = ρ 1 A 1 V 1 dt Volume bounded by streamlines is called a stream tube A 2, V 2, ρ 2 dm = ρ 2 A 2 V 2 dt ρ 1 A 1 V 1 = ρ 2 A 2 V 2 This is the continuity equation for steady flow

13 Remarks on Continuity In the stream tube figure, the velocities and densities at points 1 and 2 are assumed to be uniform across the cross-sectional areas In reality, V and ρ do vary across the area and the values represent mean values The continuity equation is used for flow calculations in many applications such as wind tunnels and rocket nozzles Stream tubes do not have to represent physical flow 1 2 boundaries

14 Compressible vs Incompressible Volume decreases, mass remains constant v 1, m compression v 2, m Density increases ρ 1 = m/v 1 ρ 2 > ρ 1 ρ 2 = m/v 2 Compressible flow: flow in which the density of the fluid changes from point to point In reality, all flows are compressible, but Δρ may be negligible Incompressible flow: flow in which the density of the fluid is constant Continuity equation becomes A 1 V 1 = A 2 V 2

15 Compressible vs Incompressible Incompressible flow does not exist in reality However, many flows are incompressible enough so that the assumption is useful Incompressibility is an excellent model for Flow of liquids such as water and oil Low-speed aerodynamics (<100 m/s or <225 mph) For incompressible flow, the continuity equation can be written as V 2 = A 1 V 1 /A 2 Thus if A 1 >A 2 then V 1 <V 2

16 Example 4.1 Consider a convergent duct with an inlet area A 1 = 5 m 2. Air enters this duct with velocity V 1 = 10 m/s and leaves the duct exit with a velocity V 2 = 30 m/s. What is the area of the duct exit? First, check that the velocities involved are < 100 m/s, which implies incompressible flow. Then use A 2 = A 1 V 1 /V = (5 2 m2 )(10)/(30) = 1.67 m 2

17 Example 4.2 Consider a convergent duct with an inlet area A 1 = 3 ft 2 and an exit area A 2 = 2.57 ft 2. Air enters this duct with velocity V 1 = 700 ft/s and a density ρ 1 = slug/ft 3, and leaves the duct exit with a velocity V 2 = 1070 ft/s. What is the density of the air at the duct exit? First, check that the velocities involved are > 300 ft/s, which implies compressible flow. Then use ρ 2 = ρ 1 A 1 V 1 /(A 2 V 2 ) = slug/ft 3

18 Flow with no friction (inviscid) Aerodynamics Basic Aerodynamics Continuity equation (mass conserved) Flow with friction (viscous) Momentum equation (F = ma) 1. Euler s equation 2. Bernoulli s equation Some Applications Some thermodynamics Energy equation (energy conserved) Equation for isentropic flow Boundary layer concept Laminar boundary layer Turbulent boundary layer Transition from laminar to turbulent flow Flow separation Reading: Chapter 4

19 Momentum Equation Continuity equation does not involve pressure Pressure Force Change in momentum Change in velocity Force = d(momentum)/dt What Newton said Force = d(mv)/dt but only applies if m=const F = m dv/dt F = ma We apply F = ma to the fluid by summing the forces acting on a single infinitesimally small particle of fluid

20 Free-Body Diagram dy p p + (dp/dx)dx dx dz y Assume element is moving in x direction Force on element has three sources: Normal pressure distribution: p z x Shear stress distribution: τ w Gravity: ρ dx dy dz g Ignore gravity, smaller than other forces Consider force balance in x direction Force = Pressure Area

21 Force Balance Force on left face: F L = p dy dz Force on right face: F R = (p+[dp/dx]dx) dy dz F = F L - F R = p dy dz -(p+[dp/dx]dx) dy dz F = -(dp/dx) dx dy dz Mass of the fluid element is m = ρ dx dy dz Acceleration of the fluid element a = dv/dt = (dv/dx)(dx/dt) = (dv/dx)v Newton s second law F = ma dp = -ρ V dv Euler s Equation Also referred to as the Momentum Equation Keep in mind that we assumed steady flow and ignored gravity and friction, thus this is the momentum equation for steady, inviscid flow However, Euler s equation applies to compressible and incompressible flows

22 Incompressible Flow If the flow is incompressible, then ρ is constant The momentum equation can be written as dp + ρ V dv = 0 Integrating along a streamline between two points 1 and 2 gives p 2 p 1 + ρ (V 22 V 12 )/2 = 0 Which can be rewritten as p 2 + ρ V 22 /2 = p 1 + ρv 12 /2 Or p + ρ V 2 /2 = constant along a streamline This equation is known as Bernoulli s equation

23 Euler s and Bernoulli s Equations Bernoulli s equation p 2 + ρ V 22 /2 = p 1 + ρv 12 /2 Holds for inviscid, incompressible flow Relates properties of different points along a streamline Euler s equation dp = -ρ V dv Holds for inviscid flow, compressible or incompressible These equations represent Newton s Second Law applied to fluid flow, and relate pressure, density, and velocity

24 Euler s and Bernoulli s Equations Bernoulli s equation p 2 + ρ V 22 /2 = p 1 + ρv 12 /2 Holds for inviscid, incompressible flow Relates properties of different points along a streamline Euler s equation dp = -ρ V dv Holds for inviscid flow, compressible or incompressible These equations represent Newton s Second Law applied to fluid flow, and relate pressure, density, and velocity

25 Example 4.3 Consider an airfoil in a flow of air, where far ahead (upstream) of the airfoil, the pressure, velocity, and density are 2116 lb/ft 2, 100 mi/h, and slug/ft 3, respectively. At a given point A on the airfoil, the pressure is 2070 lb/ft 2. What is the velocity at point A? First, we must use consistent units. Using the fact that 60 mi/h 88 ft/s, we find that V = 100 mi/h = ft/s. This flow is slow enough that we can assume it is incompressible, so we can use Bernoulli s equation: p 1 + ρ V 12 /2 = p A + ρv A2 /2 Where 1 is the far upstream condition, and A is the point on the airfoil. Solving for velocity at A gives V A = ft/s

26 Example 4.4 Consider a convergent duct with an inlet area A 1 = 5 m 2. Air enters this duct with velocity V 1 = 10 m/s and leaves the duct exit with a velocity V 2 = 30 m/s. If the air pressure and temperature at the inlet are p 1 = 1.2 x 10 5 N/m 2 and T 1 = 330K, respectively, calculate the pressure at the exit. First, compute density at inlet using equation of state: ρ 1 = p 1 /(R T 1 ) = 1.27 kg/m 3 Assuming compressible flow, use Bernoulli s equation to solve for p 2 : p 2 = p 1 + ρ(v 12 -V 22 )/2 = x 10 5 N/m 2

27 Example 4.5 Consider a long dowel with semicircular cross section See pages in text

28 Flow with no friction (inviscid) Aerodynamics Basic Aerodynamics Continuity equation (mass conserved) Flow with friction (viscous) Momentum equation (F = ma) 1. Euler s equation 2. Bernoulli s equation Some Applications Some thermodynamics Energy equation (energy conserved) Equation for isentropic flow Boundary layer concept Laminar boundary layer Turbulent boundary layer Transition from laminar to turbulent flow Flow separation Reading: Chapter 4

29 4.10: Low-Speed Subsonic Wind Tunnels Assumption: Steady incompressible flow A 1, p 1, V 1 A 2, p 2, V 2 A 3, p 3, V 3 Settling Chamber (reservoir) Nozzle Test section Model Mounted on Sting Diffuser Continuity and Bernoulli s Equation apply

30 Wind Tunnel Calculations Continuity V 1 = (A 2 /A 1 )V 2 Bernoulli V 22 = 2(p 1 -p 2 )/ρ + V 1 2 Combine to get V 2 = { 2(p 1 -p 2 ) / [ρ(1- (A 2 /A 1 ) 2 )] } ½ The ratio A 2 /A 1 is fixed for a given wind tunnel, and the density ρ is constant for low-speed tunnels, so the control is p 1 -p 2 How to determine p 1 -p 2?

31 Manometer p 1 Reservoir pressure Δh p 2 Test section pressure Reference fluid, typically mercury Density ρ f p 1 A = p 2 A + w A Δh, w = ρ f g p 1 -p 2 = A + w Δh, So Δh V 2

32 Example 4.13 In a low-speed subsonic wind tunnel, one side of a mercury manometer is connected to the reservoir and the other side is connected to the test section. The contraction ratio of the nozzle A 2 /A 1 = 1/15. The reservoir pressure and temperature are p 1 =1.1 atm and T 1 =300 K. When the tunnel is running the height difference between the two columns of mercury is 10 cm. The density of liquid mercury is kg/m 3. Calculate the airflow velocity V 2 in the test section.

33 4.11: Measurement of Airspeed Total pressure v static pressure Static pressure is the pressure we ve been using all along, and is the pressure you d feel if you were moving along with the fluid Total pressure includes the static pressure, but also includes the pressure due to the fluid s velocity, the so-called dynamic pressure Imagine a hollow tube with an opening at one end and a pressure sensor at the other, and imagine inserting it into a flow in two different ways

34 Pitot Tube This device is called a Pitot Tube (after Henri Pitot, who invented it in 1732; see 4. 23) The orientation on the left measures the static pressure (the pressure in all our calculations so far) The orientation on the right measures the total pressure, or the pressure if the flow is reduced to zero velocity Stagnation point Measures p Measures p 0

35 Pitot Tube for Incompressible Flow The two tube orientations are used together One measures static pressure p, and the other measures total pressure p 0 Since the total pressure is measured by removing all the velocity, and we re assuming incompressible flow, we can apply Bernoulli s equation to see that p + ρ V 2 /2 = p 0 Static pressure + Dynamic Pressure = Total Pressure Dynamic pressure, the ρ V 2 /2 term, is frequently denoted by q = ρ V 2 /2

36 Total pressure Using the Pitot-static Probe Static pressure The two pressures are measured by a pressure transducer Bernoulli s equation (incompressible flow only!) can be written as p 0 = p + q (q = ρv 2 /2) Solve for velocity V = [2(p 0 p)/ρ] ½ A Pitot-static tube provides an airspeed measurement

37 Example 4.16 The altimeter on a low-speed Cessna 150 reads 5000 ft. The outside temperature is T = 505 R. If a Pitot tube on the wingtip measures p = 1818 lb/ft 2, what is the true velocity of the airplane? What is the equivalent airspeed?

38 Overview of the Rest of Aerodynamics We will not cover the remainder of Ch. 4, but here are some highlights First Law of Thermodynamics leads to relationships between energy, temperature, heat, enthalpy, and specific heat Energy has units of Joules Enthalpy has units of Joules but also accounts for temperature Adiabatic no heat is added or removed Reversible no frictional losses Isentropic adiabatic and reversible

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