Given the water behaves as shown above, which direction will the cylinder rotate?

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1 water stream fixed but free to rotate Given the water behaves as shown above, which direction will the cylinder rotate? ) Clockwise 2) Counter-clockwise 3) Not enough information

2 F y U 0 U F x V=0 V=0 An airfoil which has F y >0 when flying at speed U 0 in the atmosphere is placed in a wind tunnel with a straight wall test section. The velocity a few chords upstream & downstream have V=0. ) F y >0 2) F y <0 3) F y =0

3 2 F y >W tunnel (airfoil fixed to a force balance, not the tunnel) F y >0 g W tunnel U 0 U V=0 V=0 Not fixed Not fixed An airfoil is placed in a wind tunnel and experiences a lifting force F y >0. Given a very light tunnel such that W tunnel < F y : True or False: will the tunnel lift off ) True 2) False

4 5 Given the following streamlines for a steady, two dimensional flow: (a) (b) Which of these flows is irrotational: () Only (a) (2) Only (b) (3) Both (a) & (b) (4) Neither (5) Not enough information

5 Consider the motion of two fluid elements: (a) (b) t=dt t=0 t=dt t=0 Which of these fluid element motions could be from an incompressible flow: () Only (a) (2) Only (b) (3) Both (a) & (b) (4) Neither (5) Not enough information

6 2 µ T Which trend do you think is most realistic for air: ) The blue line (dynamic viscosity decreases with temperature) 2) The red line (dynamic viscosity increases with temperature)

7 2 u v = = u( y) 0 y x Consider channel flow as shown above. What is the net viscous force acting on the fluid in the x-direction (per unit depth)? ) 2) 3) 4) ( h) + τ yx( + h) ( h) τ yx( h) ( h) + τ yx( h) ( h) τ ( h) [ τ yx ] L [ τ yx ] L [ τ yx ] L [ τ ] L yx yx 5) None of the above

8 6 u v = u = 0 0 y h 2 Poiseuille flow Acceleration of fluid element (+0) = zero (+) = In ± x direction Net Pressure Force on a fluid element (+0) = zero (+2) = In ± x direction Net Viscous Force on a fluid element (+0) = zero (+4) = In ± x direction Choose one from each column and enter your total (0-7) OR Enter (8) for none of these combinations are correct

9 0 u = u wall y h Couette Flow v = 0 Acceleration of fluid element (+0) = zero (+) = In ± x direction Net Pressure Force on a fluid element (+0) = zero (+2) = In ± x direction Net Viscous Force on a fluid element (+0) = zero (+4) = In ± x direction Choose one from each column and enter your total (0-7) OR Enter (8) for none of these combinations are correct

10 2 ( ) Given a potential φ x, y, z, the associated velocity field v = φ () Satisfies conservation of mass for an incompressible flow (2) Is irrotational (3) Both of the above (4) None of the above

11 Given two potentials, and the associated velocity fields, φ & φ 2 v v = φ and v 2 = φ 2, we add the potentials to find a new potential, φ 3 =φ + φ 2. Assuming an inviscid, incompressible flow: () (2) v 3 = v + v 2 p 3 = p + p 2 (3) Both of the above. (4) None of the above.

12 3 In a 2-D incompressible, inviscid flow with a uniform freestream, which of the following is true? Ω U l cylinder U l () Drag cyl > Drag airfoil (2) Drag cyl < Drag airfoil (3) Drag cyl = Drag airfoil (4) Not enough info

13 5 Which is true: () The Kutta condition must be satisfied if L ' = ρv Γ is true. (2) The Kutta condition is always satisfied in a viscous flow. (3) Without the Kutta condition, L ' = 0. (4) All of the above. (5) None of the above.

14 3 c l 0 α Two of the three lines are from thin airfoil theory, one line is not: ) The black line is not thin airfoil theory 2) The blue line is not thin airfoil theory 3) The red line is not thin airfoil theory 4) Not enough information

15 According to thin airfoil theory, which is true: () The moment at c/4 is constant with respect to angle of attack (2) The moment at c/4 is zero when the lift is zero. (3) Both of the above (4) None of the above

16 2 For an airplane (or airfoil) which is statically stability, which of the following is true: ( + 0) : x cp < x ac ( + 0) : M ac < 0 ( + ) : x cp > x ac ( + 2) : M ac > 0 Choose one from each column and enter your total (0-3) OR Enter (4) if there is not enough information

17 3 Consider a symmetric airfoil in a flow which is at an angle of attack. To eliminate the leading edge suction peak, the leading is deflected downwards using a flap. Which is true? () α flap < α (2) α flap α α α flap (3) α flap > α (4) Not enough information

18 Assuming Prandtl s lifting line is being applied: C L is at most a linear function of α () True (2) False (3) Not enough info

19 6 For a 3-D incompressible potential flow, which is true: () If L=0 then D=0 (2) If D=0 then L=0 (3) If L 0 then D 0 (4) +2 (5) +3 (6) 2+3 (7) All (+2+3) (8) None

20 Assuming Prandtl s lifting line is being applied: The span efficiency factor, e, is a function of angle of attack () True (2) False (3) Not enough info

21 3 The following results are from a lifting line analysis of three wings all with the same cambered airfoil. Which wing is the solid line: ) 2-D airfoil 2) Elliptic planform, no geometric twist, AR=5 3) Elliptic planform, no geometric twist, AR=0 4) None of the above

22 The following results are from a lifting line analysis of three wings all with the same airfoil and no geometric twist. Which wing is the dash-dot line:. Elliptic planform, AR=0 2. Rectangular planform, AR=0 3. Rectangular planform, AR=20 4. None of the above

23 The following results are from a lifting line analysis of three wings all with the same airfoil and AR=0. Which wing is the dash-dot line:. Elliptic planform, no geometric twist. 2. Rectangular planform, no geometric twist 3. Rectangular planform, with geometric twist 4. None of the above

24 Assuming Prandtl s lifting line is being applied: Given a rectangular wing. The wing camber or twist distribution can be designed to provide elliptic lift. () True (2) False (3) Not enough info

25 2 At its cruise flight speed, V c, a general aviation aircraft has a drag polar which is well approximated by: During approach for landing (though still far from the ground), the velocity is about most likely to be true: C D C D 0 + KC L 2 2 V c. Which do you think is () Approach Drag < Cruise Drag (2) Approach Drag > Cruise Drag (3) Approach Drag Cruise Drag

26 2 As an aircraft nears the ground, the induced drag tends to: () Increase (2) Decrease

27 2 p edge p wall Which is most likely true: () p edge < p wall (2) (3) pedge p wall p edge > p wall

28 darmofal: Airfoil A Airfoil B Consider the pressure distribution on the airfoils for the boundary layers sketched above. Which airfoil s pressure distribution will be most similar to the inviscid flow pressure distribution over the airfoil: () Airfoil A (2) Airfoil B (3) Not enough information

29 Assume that the boundary layer on an airfoil is attached and laminar. Which is most likely to be true: () The skin friction is largest at the leading-edge and decreases toward the trailing edge (2) The skin friction is smallest at the leading-edge and increases toward the trailing edge (3) The skin friction is largest near the location of maximum camber

30 3 An 3 airfoil has the following C d vs. Re log c d 2 Re = V c v c d = D' q c log Re At V =V, the drag on the airfoil is. For V =2V, the drag on the airfoil is. () (2) (3) ' D ' D ' D ' > D 2 ' = D 2 ' < D 2 (4) Not enough info D ' D 2 '

31 4 Given two identical flat plates at zero angle of attack and oriented as shown, which of the following is true () Drag A > Drag B (2) Drag A < Drag B A (3) Drag A = Drag B (4) Not enough information U B

32 The skin friction coefficient on a symmetric airfoil at V & 2V are shown below: c f Which is true: () The red curve is for V= V (2) The red curve is for V= 2V (3)Not enough info x/c

33 The skin friction coefficient on two symmetric airfoils with chords c 0 & 2 c 0 from a wind tunnel test at the same velocity is: c f Which is true: () The red curve is for the airfoil with c = c 0 x/c (2) The red curve is for the airfoil with c = 2 c 0 (3) Not enough info

34 6 Which are true: () A separated flow must be turbulent. (2) A turbulent flow must be separated. (3) If the boundary layer thickness of an attached flow increases along the airfoil surface, the skin friction decreases. (4) All of the above. (5) and 2. (6) None of the above.

35 4 Given a cylinder at two different flow conditions (a) Re 0 (b) Re 0 7 Which of the following is true: () Drag A > Drag B (2) Drag A < Drag B (3) Drag A = Drag B (4) Not enough info

36 2 If the airfoil and cylinder are moving with speed V in air at sea level conditions V l 7 such that M 0. and 0. If the V drag per unit length of the cylinder is 0 lb/ft and the airfoil is at approximately zero degrees angle of attack. l 0l () ' D airfoil 0. lb / ft (2) (3) ' D airfoil lb / ' ft D airfoil 0 lb / ft l (4) ' D airfoil 20 lb / ft (5) ' D airfoil 00 lb / ft

37 A major concern in the design of vehicles for re-entry in Earth s atmosphere is heating. Often, blunt body shapes are used such as: U Which of the following is true: () Everything else being the same, a laminar boundary layer will tend to decrease the heat transfer to the vehicle at its base (2) Everything else being the same, a turbulent boundary layer will tend to increase the heat transfer to the vehicle at its base (3) Not enough information

38 For the flow of an ideal gas, the total pressure, P 0, and the static pressure, p, are related by: ) 2) 3) Both ) and 2) 4) Neither V p P r ρ + = ( ) / = γ γ γ M p P

39 c l 0 α The above results are from a small disturbance, potential flow analysis of an airfoil under three conditions. Which is the red line: ) Mach = ) Mach = ) Mach = 0.05, with a trailing edge flap deflected 4) None of the above

40 c l 0 0 M The above is a plot of the lift coefficient of an airfoil versus Mach number at a fixed angle of attack. Which line is the result of small disturbance potential flow theory: ) Blue line 2) Red line 3) Green line 4) None of the above

41 c d 0 0 M The above is a plot of the drag coefficient of an airfoil versus Mach number at a fixed angle of attack. Which line is the result of small disturbance potential flow theory: ) Blue line 2) Red line 3) Green line 4) None of the above

42 M Λ LE Given a swept, high AR wing, at fixed α: () M crit increases with Λ LE (2) M crit decreases with Λ LE (3) M crit is independent of Λ LE (4) Not enough info

43 γ p M = 3 o 5 p probe A pitot tube is used to measure to pressure downstream of the ramp shown above. Approximately, what will the probe pressure be: () (2) p probe p probe = p + γ 2 p M = p (3) Both of the above (4) Neither of the above 2 γ + M 2 2 γ / ( γ )

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