Why do we need to study thermodynamics? Examples of practical thermodynamic devices:

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1 Why do we need to study thermodynamics? Knowledge of thermodynamics is required to design any device involving the interchange between heat and work, or the conversion of material to produce heat (combustion). Examples of practical thermodynamic devices: 1

2 What is thermodynamics? The study of the relationship between work, heat, and energy. Deals with the conversion of energy from one form to another. Deals with the interaction of a system and it surroundings. System - identifies the subject of the analysis by defining a boundary Surroundings - everything outside the system boundary. 2

3 As an example, consider an Internal Combustion (IC) Engine AIR HEAT (hot engine block) FUEL Surroundings SYSTEM WORK (drive shaft) System boundary EXHAUST GAS 3

4 Closed System - fixed non-changing mass of fluid within the system, i.e., no mass transfer across the system boundary but can have energy exchange with the surroundings. Example: piston-cylinder assembly PISTON ENERGY SYSTEM CYLINDER GAS Isolated System - a system that does not interact at all with the surroundings, e.g., no heat transfer across system boundary ENERGY INSULATED WALLS 4

5 Open System (Control Volume) - fixed volume in space, mass and energy exchange permitted across the system boundary. Example: jet engine Fuel Air C T Combustion Products System boundary As far as the surroundings are concerned the control volume is: Fuel Air Combustion Products System boundary 5

6 System Properties macroscopic characteristics of a system to which a numerical value can be assigned at a given time without knowledge of the history of the system, e.g., mass, volume, pressure There are two types of properties: Extensive the property value for the system is the sum of the values of the parts into which the system is divided (depends on the system size) e.g., mass, volume, energy Intensive the property is independent of system size (value may vary throughout the system), e.g., pressure, temperature System System A System B V s, T s, M s V A T A M A V B T B M B V S = V A + V B M S = M A + M B T S T A + T B extensive extensive intensive 6

7 Units SI used exclusively Fundamental units: Mass kilograms kg Length meter m Time seconds s Temperature Celcius/Kelvin o C/ o K Derived units: Force (F) Newton N Pressure (P) Pascal Pa Energy (E) Joule J Newton s Law states: Force = mass x acceleration F = m a [N] = [kg] [m/s 2 ] 1 N = 1 kg m/s 2 P = F / A [Pa] [kg m/s 2 ] [m 2 ] 1 Pa = 1 kg/m s 2 E = F x [J] = [kg m/s 2 ] [m] 1 J = 1 kg m 2 /s 2 7

8 Property Definitions In order to speak of an intrinsic property at a point we must treat matter as a continuum, i.e., matter is distributed continuously in space In classical thermodynamics a point represents the smallest volume V for which matter can be considered a continuum. The value of the property represents an average over this volume V. At any instant the density, ρ, at a point is defined as ρ = lim V V M V units: kg/m 3 Mass, M, of the system with volume, V, is dm ρ = M = dm = V ρdv dv Note: if ρ is uniform over the volume M= ρv Specific volume, υ, defined as υ = 1 ρ units: m 3 /kg 8

9 Consider a small area A passing through a point in a fluid at rest. Fluid on one side of the area exerts a compressive force F normal to the area A F The pressure, P, at a point is defined as P lim = A A F A units: 1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 1 standard atmosphere = 101,325 Pa 1 bar = 100,000 Pa = 100 kpa = 0.1 MPa Absolute pressure, P abs, measured relative to a perfect vacuum Gauge pressure, P g, measured relative to the local atmospheric pressure, P atm. 9

10 P= P* P* g P* abs Local atmospheric pressure, P atm 0 kpa perfect vacuum Note: P* g = P* abs - P atm Gauge pressure measurement via a manometer P atm Gas at P* abs L Mercury/water P* g = P* abs P atm = ρgl g= 9.81 m/s 2 The density of mercury is 13.5 times the density of water Note: 1 standard atmosphere = 760 mm (29.9 in.) mercury = 10,260 mm water 10

11 Temperature, T, in units of degrees celcius, o C, is a measure of hotness relative to the freezing and boiling point of water A thermometer is based on the thermal expansion of mercury 100 o C 0 o C ICE BATH BOILING WATER Microscopic point of view: Temperature is a measure of the internal molecular motion, e.g., average molecule kinetic energy At a temperature of o C molecular motion ceases Temperature in units of degrees kelvin, o K, is measured relative to this absolute zero temperature, so 0 o K = -273 o C in general, T in o K = T in o C

12 System state condition of the thermodynamic system as described by its properties (P 1,T 1,.) A system is at steady-state if none of the system properties change with time A system is in equilibrium if when the system is isolated from its surroundings there are no changes in its properties Example: thermal equilibrium T H T C T H >T C T H T C After time T E T E Non-Equilibrium Equilibrium T C <T E <T H 12

13 A process is the transformation of a system from one state to another state. A cycle is a sequence of processes that begins and ends at the same state. Example showing a cycle consisting of two processes P 1,T 1 P 2,T 2 P 1,T 1 Process 1 Process 2 1 STATE 1 P 1, T 1 2 STATE 2 P 2, T 2 CYCLE 13

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