# Richiami di Controlli Automatici

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1 Richiami di Controlli Automatici Gianmaria De Tommasi 1 1 Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II Ottobre 2012 Corsi AnsaldoBreda G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

2 Outline 1 Preliminaries Linear Systems Transfer function Block diagrams Frequency response Graphical representations of G(jω) 2 Feedback Control Systems The control problem Stability margins Nyquist Criterion Root locus G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

3 Dynamical Systems Preliminaries Linear Systems State-space model A finite dimensional continuous-time dynamical system can be described by the following differential equations: ẋ(t) = f ( ) x(t), u(t), t, t 0, x(t0 ) = x 0 y(t) = η ( ) x(t), u(t), t, t 0 (1a) (1b) where: x(t) R n is the system state x(t 0 ) R n is the initial condition u(t) R m is the input vector y(t) R p is the output vector G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

4 Preliminaries Linear time-invariant systems Linear Systems A linear time-invariant (LTI) continuous-time system is described by ẋ(t) = Ax(t) + Bu(t), x(0) = x 0 (2a) y(t) = Cx(t) + Du(t) where A R n n, B R n m, C R p n and D R p m. A dynamical system with single-input (m = 1) and single-output (p = 1) is called SISO, otherwise it is called MIMO. Matlab commands sys = ss(a,b,c,d) creates a state-space model object. y = lsim(sys,u,t) simulates the the time response of the LTI system sys. (2b) G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

5 Preliminaries Linear Systems Equilibria of nonlinear dynamical systems Consider a nonlinear and time-invariant system ẋ(t) = f ( x(t), u(t) ), x(0) = x 0 (3a) y(t) = η ( x(t), u(t) ) (3b) If the input is constant, i.e. u(t) = ū, then the equilibria x e1, x e2,..., x eq of such a system can be computed as solutions of the homogeneous equation f ( x e, ū) = 0, Given an equilibrium x ei the correspondent output is given by y ei = η ( x ei, ū ). G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

6 Preliminaries Linear Systems Linearization around a given equilibrium If x 0 = x e + δx 0 and u(t) = ū + δu(t), with δx 0, δu(t) sufficiently small, then the behaviour of (3) around a given equilibrium ( ū, x e ) is well described by the linear system δẋ(t) = f x δy(t) = η x x = x e u = ū x = x e u = ū δx(t) + f u δx(t) + η u x = x e u = ū x = x e u = ū δu(t), δx(0) = δx 0 (4a) δu(t) (4b) The total output can be computed as y(t) = η ( x e, ū ) + δy(t). G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

7 Example - Pendulum Preliminaries Linear Systems Mass m Length L Friction coefficient b G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

8 Example - Pendulum Preliminaries Linear Systems Nonlinear model Let then x(t) = ( θ(t) θ(t) ) u(t) = F(t) y(t) = θ(t) ẋ 1 (t) = x 2 (t) ẋ 2 (t) = g L sin x 1(t) y(t) = x 1 (t) b ml 2 x 2(t) + 1 ml cos x 1(t)u(t) G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

9 Example - Pendulum Preliminaries Linear Systems Equilibria If ū = mg, solving f ( x e, ū ) = 0 we get x ek = ( π 4 + kπ 0 ) G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

10 Example - Pendulum Preliminaries Linear Systems Around the equilibria x e = ( π 4 0) T the behaviour of the pendulum is well described by the linear system δẋ 1 (t) = δx 2 (t) 2g δẋ 2 (t) = L δx 1(t) b ml 2 δx 2(t) + 1 δu(t) 2mL δy(t) = δx 1 (t) G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

11 Preliminaries Asymptotic stability of LTI systems Linear Systems Asymptotic stability This property roughly asserts that every solution of ẋ(t) = Ax(t) tends to zero as t. Note that for LTI systems the stability property is related to the system and not to a specific equilibrium. Theorem - System (2) is asymptotically stable iff A is Hurwitz, that is if every eigenvalue λ i of A has strictly negative real part R ( λ i ) < 0, λi. Theorem - System (2) is unstable if A has at least one eigenvalue λ with strictly positive real part, that is λ s.t. R ( λ ) > 0. Theorem - Suppose that A has all eigenvalues λ i such that R ( λ i ) 0, then system (2) is unstable if there is at least one eigenvalue λ such that R ( λ ) = 0 which corresponds to a Jordan block with size > 1. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

12 Preliminaries Linear Systems Equilibrium stability for nonlinear systems For nonlinear systems the stability property is related to the specific equilibrium. Theorem - The equilibrium state x e corresponding to the constant input ū a nonlinear system (3) is asymptotically stable if all the eigenvalues of the correspondent linearized system (4) have strictly negative real part. Theorem - The equilibrium state x e corresponding to the constant input ū a nonlinear system (3) is unstable if there exists at least one eigenvalue of the correspondent linearized system (4) which has strictly positive real part. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

13 Preliminaries Transfer function of LTI systems Transfer function Given a LTI system (2) the corresponding transfer matrix from u to y is defined as Y (s) = G(s)U(s), with s C. U(s) and Y (s) are the Laplace transforms of u(t) and y(t) with zero initial condition (x(0) = 0), and G(s) = C ( si A ) 1 B + D. (5) For SISO system (5) is called transfer function and it is equal to the Laplace transform of the impulsive response of system (2) with zero initial condition. Matlab commands sys = tf(num,den) creates a transfer function object. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

14 Transfer function Preliminaries Transfer function Given the transfer function G(s) and the Laplace transform of the input U(s) the time response of the system can be computed as the inverse transform of G(s)U(s), without solving differential equations. As an example, the step response of a system can be computed as: [ y(t) = L 1 G(s) 1 ]. s Matlab commands [y,t] = step(sys) computes the step response of the LTI system sys. [y,t] = impulse(sys) computes the impulse response of the LTI system sys. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

15 Preliminaries Poles and zeros of SISO systems Transfer function Given a SISO LTI system, its transfer function is a rational function of s G(s) = N(s) D(s) = ρ Π i(s z i ) Π j (s p j ), where N(s) and D(s) are polynomial in s, with deg ( N(s) ) deg ( D(s) ). We call p j poles of G(s) z i zeros of G(s) Matlab commands sys = zpk(z,p,k) creates a zeros-poles-gain object. p = eig(sys) or p = pole(sys) return the poles of the LTI system sys. z = zero(sys) returns the zeros of the LTI system sys. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

16 Preliminaries Poles and eigenvalues of a LTI system Transfer function Every pole of G(s) is an eigenvalue of the system matrix A. However, not every eigenvalue of A is a pole of G(s). If all the poles of G(s) have strictly negative real part i.e. they are located in the left half of the s-plane (LHP) the SISO system is said to be Bounded Input Bounded Output stable (BIBO). A system is BIBO stable if every bounded input to the system results in a bounded output over the time interval [0, ). G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

17 Preliminaries Transfer function Time constants, natural frequencies and damping factors A transfer function can be also specified in terms of time constants (τ,t ) natural frequencies (ω n,α n ) damping factors (ξ,ζ) gain (µ) system type (i.e. number of poles/zeros in 0, g) G(s) = µ ( ) Π i (1 + T i s)π j ζ j α nj s + s2 α nj s g Π k (1 + τ k s)π l (1 + 2 ξ l ω nl s + s2 ω nl ). G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

18 Block diagrams Preliminaries Block diagrams When dealing with transfer functions, it is usual to resort to Block diagrams which permit to graphically represent the interconnections between system in a convenient way. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

19 Series connection Preliminaries Block diagrams Matlab commands sys = series(sys1,sys2) makes the series interconnection between sys1 and sys2. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

20 Parallel connection Preliminaries Block diagrams Matlab commands sys = parallel(sys1,sys2) makes the parallel interconnection between sys1 and sys2. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

21 Feedback connection Preliminaries Block diagrams Matlab commands sys = feedback(sys1,sys2,[+1]) makes the feedback interconnection between sys1 and sys2. Negative feedback is the default. If the third parameter is equal to +1 positive feedback is applied. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

22 Preliminaries Stability of interconnected systems Block diagrams Given two asymptotically stable LTI systems G 1 (s) and G 2 (s) the series connection G 2 (s)g 1 (s) is asymptotically stable the parallel connection G 1 (s) + G 2 (s) is asymptotically stable the feedback connection G 1 (s) 1±G 1 (s)g 2 (s) is not necessarely stable G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

23 Frequency response Preliminaries Frequency response Given a LTI system the complex function G(jω) = C ( jωi A ) 1 B + D, with ω R is called frequency response of the system. G(jω) permits to evaluate the system steady-state response to a sinusoidal input. In particular if u(t) = A sin( ωt + ϕ), then the steady-state response of a LTI system is given by y(t) = G(j ω) ( ) A sin ωt + ϕ + G(j ω). G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

24 Bode plot Preliminaries Graphical representations of G(jω) Given a LTI system G(s) the Bode diagrams plot the magnitude of G(jω) (in db, G(jω) db = 20 log 10 G(jω) ) and the phase of G(jω) (in degree) as a function of ω (in rad/s) in a semi-log scale (base 10). Bode plots are used for both analysis and synthesis of control systems. Matlab commands bode(sys) plots the the Bode diagrams of the LTI system sys. bodemag(sys) plots the Bode magnitude diagram of the LTI system sys. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

25 Bode plot - Example Preliminaries Graphical representations of G(jω) Let consider 1 + s 1 + s G(s) = 10 ( ) = 10 s s s + 1 s(0.0025s s + 1) Matlab commands s = tf( s ); sys = 10*(1+s)/(s*(sˆ2/ *s/20+1)); bode(sys); grid G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

26 Bode plot - Example Preliminaries Graphical representations of G(jω) G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

27 Minimum phase systems Preliminaries Graphical representations of G(jω) A stable system is said to be a minimum phase system if it has not time delays or right-half plane (RHP) zeros. For minimum phase systems there is a unique relationship between the gain and phase of the frequency response G(jω). This may be quantified by the Bode s gain-phase relationship G(j ω) = 1 π + d ln G(jω) d ln ω ln ω + ω ω ω dω ω. The name minimum phase refers to the fact that such a system has the minimum possible phase lag for the given magnitude response G(jω). G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

28 Nyquist plot Preliminaries Graphical representations of G(jω) The Nyquist is a polar plot of the frequency response G(jω) on the complex plane. This plot combines the two Bode plots - magnitude and phase - on a single graph, with frequency ω, which ranges in (, + ), as a parameter along the curve. Nyquist plots are useful to check stability of closed-loop systems (see Nyquist stability criterion ). Matlab commands nyquist(sys) plots the Nyquist plot of the LTI system sys. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

29 Nyquist plot - Example Preliminaries Graphical representations of G(jω) G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

30 Nichols plot Preliminaries Graphical representations of G(jω) It is similar to the Nyquist plot, since it plots both the magnitude and the phase of G(jω) on a single chart, with frequency ω as a parameter along the curve. As for the Bode plot the magnitude G(jω) is expressed in db and the phase G(jω) in degree. Nichols charts are useful for the design of control systems, in particular for the design of lead, lag, lead-lag compensators. Matlab commands nichols(sys) plots the Nichols chart of the LTI system sys. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

31 Nichols plot - Example Preliminaries Graphical representations of G(jω) G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

32 The control problem Feedback Control Systems The control problem The objective of a control system is to make the output of a plant y(t) behave in a desired way by manipulating the plant input u(t). A good controller should manipulate u(t) so as to counteract the effect of a disturbance d(t) (regulator problem) keep the output close to a given reference input r(t) (servo problem) In both cases we want the control error e(t) = y(t) r(t) to be small. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

33 Why feedback? Feedback Control Systems The control problem A major sources of difficulty are that 1 the plant model G(s) and the disturbance model G d (s) may be affected by uncertainty and/or may change with time 2 the disturbance is not always measurable 3 the plant can be unstable It turns out that e feed-forward approach is not robust enough and/or is not always a viable solution. A feedback approach can guarantee the desired degree of robustness. However design a feedback control system is not straightforward: instability is around the corner! G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

34 Feedback Control Systems Performance and stability The control problem A good controller must guarantee: Nominal stability - The system is stable with no model uncertainty Nominal Performance - The system satisfies the performance specifications with no model uncertainty Robust stability The system is stable for all perturbed plants about the nominal model up to the worst case model uncertainty Robust performance The system satisfies the performance specifications for all perturbed plants about the nominal model up to the worst case model uncertainty G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

35 Feedback Control Systems One degree-of-freedom controller The control problem The input to the plant is given by U(s) = K (s) ( R(s) Y (s) N(s) ). The objective of control is to manipulate design a controller K (s) such that the control error e(t) = r(t) y(t) remains small in spite of disturbances d(t). G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

36 Feedback Control Systems Terminology and Notation The control problem L(s) = G(s)K (s) is called loop transfer function S(s) = ( I + L(s) ) 1 is called sensitivity function T (s) = ( I + L(s) ) 1 L(s) is called complementary sensitivity function It is straightforward to note that T (s) + S(s) = I. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

37 One DOF controller Feedback Control Systems The control problem Exploiting the composition rules for block diagrams, it turns out that Y (s) = T R(s) + SG d D(s) T N(s) E(s) = S R(s) + SG d D(s) T N(s) U(s) = KS R(s) K (s)s(s)g d D(s) KS N(s) (6a) (6b) (6c) G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

38 One DOF controller Feedback Control Systems The control problem Remark - S(s) is called sensitivity because it gives the relative sensitivity of the closed-loop transfer function T (s) to the relative plant model error. In particular, at a given frequency ω we have for a SISO plant that dt = S. T dg G Remark - Equations (6) are written in matrix form because they apply to MIMO systems. For SISO systems we may write S(s) = T (s) = L(s), L(s) 1 + L(s). G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

39 The control dilemma Feedback Control Systems The control problem Let consider Y (s) = T R(s) + SG d D(s) T N(s). In order to reduce the effect of the disturbance d(t) on the output y(t), the sensitivity function S(s) should be made small (particularly in the low frequency range) In order to reduce the effect of the measurement noise n(t) on the output y(t), the complementary sensitivity function T (s) should be made small (particularly in the high frequency range) However, for all frequencies it is T + S = I. Thus a trade-off solution must be achieved. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

40 Feedback Control Systems Feedback may cause instability The control problem One of the main issues in designing feedback controllers is stability. If the feedback gain is too large then the controller may overreact and the closed-loop system becomes unstable. Download Simulink example G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

41 Feedback Control Systems The control problem Bandwidth and crossover frequency Usually the frequency response of loop transfer function L(jω) has a low-pass behaviour. The crossover frequency ω c is the frequency such that L(jω c) = 1. In most of the cases the crossover frequency is a good estimation of the closed-loop bandwidth G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

42 Gain and phase margin Feedback Control Systems Stability margins The frequency response of the loop transfer function L(jω) can be used to estimate the stability margins. Gain margin (GM) 1/ L(jω 180, where ω 180 is the phase corssover frequency. Phase margin (PM) L(jω c) + 180, where ω c is the crossover frequency. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

43 Gain Margin Feedback Control Systems Stability margins The GM is the factor by which the loop gain L(jω) may be increased before the closed-loop system becomes unstable. The GM is thus a direct safeguard against steady-state gain uncertainty. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

44 Phase Margin Feedback Control Systems Stability margins The phase margin tells how much phase lag can added to L(s) at frequency ω c before the phase at this frequency becomes 180 which corresponds to closed-loop instability (see Nyquist stability criterion ). The PM is a direct safeguard against time delay uncertainty. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

45 Feedback Control Systems Nyquist Criterion - Preliminaries Nyquist Criterion The Nyquist Criterion permits to check the stability of a closed loop system by using the Nyquist plot of the loop frequency response L(jω). The criterion is based on the fact the the close-loop poles are equal to the zeros of the transfer function D(s) = 1 + L(s). Hence, if D(s) has at least one zero z such that R( z) > 0 the closed-loop system is unstable. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

46 Nyquist Criterion Feedback Control Systems Nyquist Criterion Consider a loop frequency response L(jω) and let P be the number of poles of L(s) with strictly positive real part Z be the number of zeros of L(s) with strictly positive real part The Nyquist plot of L(jω) makes a number of encirclements N (clockwise) about the point ( 1, j0) equal to N = Z P. It turns out that the closed-loop system is asymptotically if and only if the Nyquist plot of L(jω) encircle (counter clockwise) the point ( 1, j0) a number of times equal to P. The criterion is valid if the Nyquist plot of L(jω) do not intersect the point ( 1, j0). G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

47 Feedback Control Systems Nyquist Criterion - Remarks Nyquist Criterion 1 If the loop transfer function L(s) has a zero pole of multiplicity l, then the Nyquist plot has a discontinuity at ω = 0. Further analysis indicates that the zero poles should be neglected, hence if there are no other unstable poles, then the loop transfer function L(s) should be considered stable, i.e. P = 0. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

48 Feedback Control Systems Nyquist Criterion - Remarks Nyquist Criterion 1 If the loop transfer function L(s) has a zero pole of multiplicity l, then the Nyquist plot has a discontinuity at ω = 0. Further analysis indicates that the zero poles should be neglected, hence if there are no other unstable poles, then the loop transfer function L(s) should be considered stable, i.e. P = 0. 2 If the loop transfer function L(s) is stable, then the closed-loop system is unstable for any encirclement (clockwise) of the point -1. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

49 Feedback Control Systems Nyquist Criterion - Remarks Nyquist Criterion 1 If the loop transfer function L(s) has a zero pole of multiplicity l, then the Nyquist plot has a discontinuity at ω = 0. Further analysis indicates that the zero poles should be neglected, hence if there are no other unstable poles, then the loop transfer function L(s) should be considered stable, i.e. P = 0. 2 If the loop transfer function L(s) is stable, then the closed-loop system is unstable for any encirclement (clockwise) of the point If the loop transfer function L(s) is unstable, then there must be one counter clockwise encirclement of -1 for each pole of L(s) in the right-half of the complex plane. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

50 Feedback Control Systems Nyquist Criterion - Remarks Nyquist Criterion 1 If the loop transfer function L(s) has a zero pole of multiplicity l, then the Nyquist plot has a discontinuity at ω = 0. Further analysis indicates that the zero poles should be neglected, hence if there are no other unstable poles, then the loop transfer function L(s) should be considered stable, i.e. P = 0. 2 If the loop transfer function L(s) is stable, then the closed-loop system is unstable for any encirclement (clockwise) of the point If the loop transfer function L(s) is unstable, then there must be one counter clockwise encirclement of -1 for each pole of L(s) in the right-half of the complex plane. 4 If the Nyquist plot of L(jω) intersect the point ( 1, j0), then deciding upon even the marginal stability of the system becomes difficult and the only conclusion that can be drawn from the graph is that there exist zeros on the imaginary axis. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

51 Feedback Control Systems Root locus Location of the poles of a closed-loop system The time behaviour of a closed-loop system is strictly related to the position of its poles on the complex plane. For example, for a second order closed-loop system it is possible to relate the features of the step response such as rise time overshoot settling time to the location of its poles. The Root Locus design method permits to evaluate how changes in the loop transfer function L(s) affect the position of the closed-loop poles. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

52 The Root Locus Feedback Control Systems Root locus The closed-loop poles are given by the roots of 1 + L(s). (7) Assuming that L(s) = ρl (s) the Root Locus plot the locus of all possible roots of (7) as ρ varies in the range [0, ). The Root Locus can be used to study the effect of additional poles and zeros in L (s), i.e. in the controller K (s). The Root Locus can be effectively used to design SISO controllers. Matlab commands rlocus(sys) - plots the root locus for the loop transfer function specified by sys. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

53 Root Locus - Example Feedback Control Systems Root locus L (s) = 1 + s s 1 s 3 + 3s 2 + 3s + 1 = 1 s(s + 1) 2. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

54 Root Locus - Example Feedback Control Systems Root locus Consider the unstable loop transfer function L (s) = 1 (s 2) 2 It is not possible to stabilize the system with a simple proportional controller. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

55 Root Locus - Example Feedback Control Systems Root locus Add a pole in 0 to have zero steady-state error L (s) = 1 s(s 2) 2 It is still not possible to stabilize the system with a simple proportional controller. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

56 Root Locus - Example Feedback Control Systems Root locus Add two zeros to draw the poles in the LHP The controller K (s) = ρ (s+10)2 s L (s) = (s + 10)2 s(s 2) 2 can stabilize the plant but is not causal. G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

57 Root Locus - Example Feedback Control Systems Root locus Add an high frequency pole to have a proper controller L (s) = The controller K (s) = ρ (s+10)2 can stabilize. s(s+100) (s + 10) 2 s(s + 100)(s 2) 2 G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

58 Suggested textbooks Appendix P. Bolzern, R. Scattolini and N. Schiavoni Fondamenti di Controlli Automatici McGraw-Hill, 2008 R. C. Dorf and R. H. Bishop Controlli Automatici Pearson Prentice Hall, 2010 G. F. Franklin, J. D. Powell and A. Emami-Naeini Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008 S. Skogestad and I. Postlethwaite Multivariable Feedback Control - Analysis and Design John Wiley and Sons, 2006 G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

59 Appendix Feedback and Control for Everyone P. Albertos, I. Mareels Feedback and Control for Everyone Springer, 2010 G. De Tommasi (UNINA) Richiami di Controlli Automatici Napoli - Ottobre / 56

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