2 The Kingdoms of Life Biologists have organized living things into large groups called Kingdoms. Biologists group organisms into six Kingdoms based on RNA and DNA sequencing and similarities: Cell Type Organisms are either prokaryotes or eukaryotes. Cell Walls Body Type Organisms are either unicellular or multicellular. Nutrition Organisms are either autotrophs or heterotrophs.
3 The 6 Kingdoms of Life
4 The 3 Domains of Life This phylogenetic tree is based on rrna sequences that demonstrate the division of all living things into three broad domains.
5 The 3 Domains of Life The domain thought to be the oldest is Bacteria, which is composed of the organisms in the Kingdom Eubacteria. Archaea is the second prokaryotic domain and is also composed of single kingdom Archaebacteria. The third domain, Eukarya, contains all four of the eukaryotic kingdoms: Animalia (animals), Fungi (fungi), Plantae (plants), and Protista (protists).
6 The Domain Bacteria Contains a single kingdom, Eubacteria. Some scientists call this kingdom Bacteria. Bacteria are prokaryotes and have no internal compartments. Bacteria are found in practically every environment on Earth.
7 Characteristics of Bacteria Bacteria have strong exterior cell walls made of peptidoglycan, a weblike molecule complex made of carbohydrate strands cross-linked by short peptide bridges.
8 Kinds of Bacteria Bacteria can cause disease, while others are used by humans to process food. Bacteria are used to control agricultural pests, to produce various chemicals, and perform genetic engineering. Some Bacteria obtain energy from inorganic compounds such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and methane. Some Bacteria are photosynthetic and are found in ocean and freshwater ecosystems. Some heterotrophic Bacteria are able to live in the absence of oxygen. Heterotrophic Bacteria are also important decomposers.
9 The Domain Archaea Contains a single kingdom Archaebacteria. Archaebacteria are prokaryotes that have diverged very early from bacteria. They are more closely related to eukaryotes than to bacteria.
10 Characteristics of Archaebacteria Cell Wall and Membrane The cell walls of archaebacteria do not contain peptidoglycan, as the cell walls of bacteria do. Archaebacteria contain lipids very different from those of bacteria or eukaryotes. Gene Structure and Translation The ribosomal proteins of archaebacteria are very similar to those of eukaryotes and different from those of bacteria.
11 Kinds of Archaebacteria Methanogens These archaebacteria obtain energy by combining hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide to form methane gas. Methanogens live deep in the mud of swamps and are poisoned by even traces of oxygen. Extremophiles A group of extremophiles called Thermophiles lives in very hot places. Halophiles inhabit very salty lakes that can be three times as salty as seawater. Other extremophiles live in very acidic places or under enormous pressure. Nonextreme Archaebacteria These grow in all the same environments that bacteria do.
12 The Domain Eukarya Eukarya is made up of four kingdoms: Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Members of this domain are Eukaryotes.
13 Characteristics of Eukarya Highly Organized Cell Interior All eukaryotes have cells with a nucleus and other internal compartments. Multicellularity The activities of individual cells are coordinated and the cells themselves are in contact, occurs only in eukaryotes. Sexual Reproduction Meiotic cell division forms haploid games and two gametes unite to form a diploid cell in fertilization. Genetic recombination during meiosis and fertilization causes the offspring of eukaryotes to vary widely, providing for evolution.
14 Kinds of Eukarya A wide variety of Eukaryotes are unicellular. Most unicellular Eukaryotes are in the kingdom Protista. Protists contain both unicellular and multicellular organisms, many are aquatic. Fungi are heterotrophs that are mostly multicellular. Many fungi live on and decompose dead organisms, many others are parasitic. Plants and Animals are all multicellular. Almost all plants are autotrophs and have cells with cell walls composed of cellulose. All animals are heterotrophs composed of cells that do not have cell walls. Most plants and animals have tissues and organs.
15 Kingdom and Domain Characteristics Domain Kingdom Characteristics Cell type Bacteria Eubacteria Prokaryotic Archaea Archaebacteria Prokaryotic Cell Structure Eukarya Protista Eukaryotic Mixed Cell Wall, Peptidoglycan Cell Wall, No Peptidoglycan Body Type Nutrition Example Unicellular Unicellular Unicellular and Multicellular Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Enterobacteria Spirochetes Methanogens Amoebas Euglenas Kelps Eukarya Fungi Eukaryotic Cell Wall, Chitin Unicellular and Multicellular Heterotrophic Yeasts Mushrooms Eukarya Plantae Eukaryotic Cell Wall, Cellulose Multicellular Autotrophic Ferns Pine trees Eukarya Animalia Eukaryotic No Cell Wall Multicellular Heterotrophic Birds Earthworms
16 Colonies Multicellularity A colonial organism is a group of cells that are permanently associated but do not communicate with one another. Aggregations A temporary collection of cells that come together for a period of time and then separate. True Multicellularity An organism composed of many cells that are permanently associated with one another. Enables cells to specialize in different functions. Complex Multicellularity Plants and animals have complex multicellularity. The specialized cells of most plants and animals are organized into structures called tissues and organs.
17 Of the six kingdoms of organisms, Protista is the most diverse. They are eukaryotes that are not fungi, plants, or animals. Many are unicellular. All single celled eukaryotes (except yeasts) are protists. Some protists, such as some kinds of algae, have cell specialization. Most are microscopic, but some are as large as trees. Kingdom Protista
18 Kinds of Protists Protists that use Pseudopodia Amoebas are protists that have flexible surfaces with no cell walls or flagella. They move by using extensions of cytoplasm called pseudopodia. Forams have porous shells through which long, thin projections of cytoplasm can be extended. Protists that use Flagella Many protists move by using flagella.
19 Kinds of Protists Protists with Double Shells Diatoms are photosynthetic protists with unique double shells made of silica. Photosynthetic Algae Distinguished by the type of chlorophyll they contain. Many algae are multicellular and reproduce sexually. Fungus-like Protists Slime molds and water molds are often confused with fungi because they aggregate in times of stress to form spore-producing bodies.
20 Spore-Forming Protists Kinds of Protists Sporozoans are nonmotile unicellular parasites that form spores. Responsible for many significant diseases, including malaria, sporozoans have complex life cycles.
21 Kingdom Fungi Most fungi are multicellular, yeasts are unicellular. The cell walls of all fungal cells contain chitin. The bodies of fungi consist of long strands of cells that are connected end to end and that share cytoplasm. The slender strands of fungi are called hyphae. Often hyphae are packed together to form complex reproductive structures, such as mushrooms. Fungi reproduce by a variety of asexual and sexual methods.
22 Kingdom Fungi Fungi do not move from place to place. The general appearance of many fungi is similar to that of plants. Fungi lack the green pigment chlorophyll and the ability to conduct photosynthesis. Like animals, fungi are heterotrophs. Fungi do not ingest their food. Fungi obtain food by secreting digestive enzymes onto whatever they grow on. Many fungi are saprophytes that live on dead organisms Many other fungi are parasites that live on living organisms and cause disease that affect plants and animals.
23 Kinds of Fungi Zygomycetes Form structures for sexual reproduction called zygosporangia. Includes species such as Rhizopus stolonifer, bread mold. Basidiomycetes Includes fungi that make mushrooms. Mushrooms are the sexual reproductive structures produced by basidiomycetes. Ascomycetes Form sexual spores in special saclike structures called asci. The sexual reproductive structures formed often resemble a cuplike structure called an ascocarp.
24 Kingdom Plantae Plants are complex multicellular autotrophs. Plants have specialized cells and tissues. Most plants have several different types of cells that are organized into many specialized tissues. Plants cannot move from one place to another. Portable reproductive structures, such as spores and seeds, enable the dispersal of plants. As autotrophs, plants are the primary producers in most terrestrial food webs. Plants also release oxygen gas to the atmosphere. Plants are very important in the cycling of phosphorus, water, nitrogen, and carbon. Plants are a source of food, medicines, dyes, cloth, paper and many other products.
25 Kinds of Plants Nonvascular Plants Plants without a well-developed system of vascular tissue. These plants are relatively small. They lack tissue to transport water and dissolved nutrients. They also lack true roots, stems, and leaves. Mosses are the most familiar example. Seedless Vascular Plants They have roots, stems, and leaves and their surfaces are coated with a waxy covering that reduces water loss. They reproduce with spores that are resistant to drying. Both haploid and diploid phases occupy significant parts of the life cycle. Ferns are the most common and familiar example.
26 Kinds of Plants Nonflowering Seed Plants Gymnosperms are vascular plants that reproduce using seeds but do not produce flowers. Gymnosperms include plants that produce seeds in cones, such as pines and spruces. Flowering Seed Plants Most plants that produce seeds also produce flowers. Flowering plants are called angiosperms. Angiosperms, such as roses, grasses, and oaks, produce seeds in fruits. Fruits are structures that enable the dispersal of seeds. Seeds enable plants to scatter offspring and to survive long periods of harsh environmental conditions, such as drought and extreme temperatures.
27 Kingdom Animalia Animals are complex multicellular heterotrophs. Their cells are mostly diploid, lack a cell wall, and are organized as tissues. Animals are able to move rapidly in complex ways. Movement enables animals to avoid predators and to look for food and mates. Most animals reproduce sexually. Almost all animals (99%) are invertebrates; they lack a backbone. Of more than 1 million living species, only about 42,500 have a backbone; they are referred to as vertebrates. The animal kingdom includes about 35 phyla, most of which live in the sea.
28 Kinds of Animals Sponges The only animals that do not have tissues, but they do have specialized cells. Cnidarians Mostly marine animals; they include jellyfish, sea anemones, and corals. Flatworms Have flat, ribbon-like bodies. Some are parasitic and live inside the bodies of animals. Others are free-living and may live in soil or water. Roundworms Nematodes are small worms that have long, very slender bodies. Some are free-living in soil or water, while others are parasites of animals and plants.
29 Kinds of Animals Segmented Worms Annelids live in both water and soil and include the familiar earthworm. Bristled marine worms are segmented worms, as are leeches, which can be blood-sucking parasites. Mollusks Have a saclike cavity called a coelom that encloses internal organs. Are very diverse aquatic and terrestrial animals. They include snails, oysters, clams, octopuses, and squids. Most have a hard external skeleton (a shell). Arthropods The most diverse of all animals. They have an external skeleton, jointed appendages with antennae and jaws.
30 Kinds of Animals Echinoderms Includes sea stars, sea urchins, and sand dollars. Many are able to regenerate a lost limb. Invertebrate Chordates Aquatic animals that have much in common with vertebrates, though they do not have a backbone. Some are swimmers that resemble fish, while others live attached to a rock or other object. Vertebrates Have an internal skeleton made of bone, a vertebral column (backbone) that surrounds and protects the spinal cord, and a head with a brain contained in a body skull. Includes mammals, fish, birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
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