# Quanser NI-ELVIS Trainer (QNET) Series: QNET Experiment #02: DC Motor Position Control. DC Motor Control Trainer (DCMCT) Student Manual

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1 Quanser NI-ELVIS Trainer (QNET) Series: QNET Experiment #02: DC Motor Position Control DC Motor Control Trainer (DCMCT) Student Manual

2 Table of Contents 1 Laboratory Objectives1 2 References1 3 DCMCT Plant Presentation1 31 Component Nomenclature1 32 DCMCT Plant Description2 4 Pre-Lab Assignments2 41 Pre-Lab Exercise #1: Open-loop Modeling3 42 Pre-Lab Exercise #2: System Type4 43 Pre-Lab Exercise #3: Closed-loop Transfer Function7 44 Pre-Lab Exercise #4: Peak Time and Overshoot8 5 In-Lab Session13 51 System Hardware Configuration13 52 Experimental Procedure13 Revision: 01 Page: i

3 1 Laboratory Objectives The objective of this experiment is to design a closed-loop control system that regulates the position of the DC motor The mathematical model of a DC motor is reviewed and its physical parameters are identified Once the model is verified, it is used to design a proportional-integral-derivative, or PID, controller Regarding the Gray Boxes: The gray boxes present in the instructor manual are not intended for the students as they provide solutions to the pre-lab assignments and contain typical experimental results from the laboratory procedure 2 References [1] NI-ELVIS User Manual [2] DCMCT User Manual [3] QNET Experiment #01: DC Motor Speed Control 3 DCMCT Plant Presentation 31 Component Nomenclature As a quick nomenclature, Table 1, below, provides a list of the principal elements composing the DC Motor Control Trainer (DCMCT) system Every element is located and identified, through a unique identification (ID) number, on the DCMCT plant represented in Figure 1 ID # Description ID # Description 1 DC Motor 3 DC Motor Case 2 Motor Encoder 4 Disc Load Table 1 DCMCT Component Nomenclature Revision: 01 Page: 1

4 Figure 1 DCMCT Components 32 DCMCT Plant Description The DCMCT system consists of a DC motor equipped with a servo motor driving a disc load The motor input is a voltage with a range of ±24V The motor has an encoder that measures its position, a digital tachometer that measures its speed, and a current sensor to measure the actual current being fed into the motor It is assumed that the QNET system is properly configured as dictated in Reference [1] 4 Pre-Lab Assignments This section must be read, understood, and performed before you go to the laboratory session There are three pre-lab assignments that need to be completed before the in-lab session The first exercise is deriving the open-loop model of the DC motor position In Pre-Lab Exercise 42, a simple feedback system is used to analyze some properties of the DC motor system The closed-loop system using a given controller is to be derived in Pre-Lab Exercise 43 and its control gains are designed to meet certain specifications in the last assignment (ie Pre-Lab Exercise 44) Before beginning the exercises, the elecrical and mechanical equations describing a DC motor are summarized and the model paramater used are given For the various parameters Revision: 01 Page: 2

5 defined in Table 2, the electrical equations describing the open-loop response of the DC motor are V m ( t ) R m I ( t ) E ( ) = m emf t 0 [1] and E emf ( t) = K d m θ dt m ( t ) [2] The mechanical equations describing the torque of the motor are d T m ( t) = J 2 eq θ dt 2 m ( t ) [3] and T m ( t ) = K t I ( t ) m, [4] where T m, J eq, ω m, K t, K m, and I m are described in Table 2 This model does not take into account friction or damping Symbol Description Unit V m Motor terminal voltage V R m Motor terminal resistance Ω I m Motor armature current A K t Motor torque constant Nm/A K m Motor back-electromotive force constant V/(rad/s) ω m Motor shaft angular velocity rad/s T m Torque produced by the motor Nm J eq Motor armature moment of inertia and load moment of inertia kgm 2 Table 2 DC Motor Model Parameters 41 Pre-Lab Exercise #1: Open-loop Modeling Derive the open-loop transfer function, G(s), that represents the DC motor angular position with respect to the input voltage using equations [1], [2], [3], and [4] The block diagram is shown in Figure 2 Revision: 01 Page: 3

6 Figure 2 Open-loop Transfer Function Diagram of Motor Position Solution: Combine the mechanical equations by substituting the Laplace transform of equation [4] into the Laplace of [3] and solving for current I m (s) [s1] Substituting the above equation and the Laplace of [2] into the Laplace transform of [1] gives [s2] The open-loop transfer function, denoted G(s), of the DC motor is found by solving for θ m (s)/v m (s): [s3] 42 Pre-Lab Exercise #2: System Type The transfer function developed in Exercise 41 is a mathematical representation of the DC motor shaft position and will be used to design a controller Before designing the control system that will be implemented on the QNET-DCMCT module, the capability of the Revision: 01 Page: 4

7 position of the motor, θ m (t), to track a reference position, θ r (t), will be investigated Show that the unity feedback system shown in Figure 3 is a Type 1 system That is, for a unit step input 1 θ r ( s ) = s [4], show that that the closed-loop system in Figure 3 has zero steady-state error Note that G(s) is the open-loop transfer function of the DC motor, ie G(s) = θ m (s)/v m (s) HINT: Calculate the error transfer function E(s) and find the steady-state error using the final-value theorem Figure 3 DC Motor Position Unity Feedback System Revision: 01 Page: 5

8 Solution: The closed-loop unity feedback transfer function using Figure 3 is where [s4] [s5] is the open-loop model found in Exercise 41 in [s3] Solving for θ m (s) in [s4] gives The Laplace transform of the error is and becomes [s6] [s7] after subsituting [s6] into [s7] and simplifying After inserting the open-loop model [s5] into [s8] the error expression becomes [s8] [s9] The final-value theorem [s10] can be used because the system s E(s) is stable, that is, all its poles are in the left-hand plane except for a single pole sitting at the origin Applying the unit step and evaluating the final-value of the error [s11] gives [s12] This is a type 1 system because it has zero steady-state error for a reference step input Revision: 01 Page: 6

9 43 Pre-Lab Exercise #3: Closed-loop Transfer Function The position of the DC motor is to regulated to a desired setpoint position using a proportional-velocity (PV) controller, as shown in Figure 4 The control enters in the input voltage of the DC motor and has the structure V m ( s ) = K p ( θ m ( s ) θ r ( s )) K v s θ m ( s ), [5] where K p >0 is the proportional control gain and K v >0 is the velocity control gain This is very similar to the more common proportional-derivative (PD) controller which, instead, feeds-back the derivative of the error and not only the derivative of the position (ie the velocity) The PV controller is preferable in this case because it simplifies the peak time and overshoot calculations, which are done in the next exercise, and still results in good performance Figure 4 PV Control Loop Find the closed-loop transfer function using G(s) found in Exercise 41 and the PV control law in [5] Figure 4 may be used as a guide HINT: Refrain from subsituting the open-loop transfer function G(s) until then final form of the closed-loop expression has been reached Revision: 01 Page: 7

10 Solution: Substitute the control law V m (s) given in [5] into the open-loop model [s3], [s13] and solve for θ m (s) to get the general closed-loop transfer function [s14] The closed-loop transfer function is finalized by inserting open-loop model [s3] into expression [s14], resulting in [s15] 44 Pre-Lab Exercise #4: Peak Time and Overshoot The goal is for the angle of the disk load that is connected to the motor shaft to track a usercommanded angular position The PV controller will be designed to result in a closed-loop response that yields to the specifications given in Table 3 This desired response is to be achieved by tuning the control gains K p and K v Response Property Symbol Requirement Unit Peak time t p < 0150 s Overshoot M p < 500 % Settling time t s < 025 s Steady-state error e ss 0 deg Table 3 Control Specifications As shown in Exercise 42, the steady-state error of the closed-loop system is already zero Thus the fourth specification, at least theoretically, is already satisfied The settling time will be adjusted in the laboratory session Revision: 01 Page: 8

11 The peak time and overshoot of the closed-loop response need to satisfy the specifcations given in Table 3 The closed-loop transfer function using the PV controller, attained in Exercise 43, is a 2 nd order system of the form H( s ) = ω n 2 s 2 2 [6] + 2 ζω n + ω n where ω n is the natural frequency and ζ is the damping ratio The peak time and overshoot of H(s) is π t p = 1 ζ 2 [7] and M p ω n = e where 0 ζ <1 π ζ 1 ζ 2, The PV control gains are now to be designed First, the natural frequency and damping ratio must be expressed in terms of the control gains and the DC motor parameters The minimum damping ratio and natural frequency needed to meet the time peak and overshoot specifications in Table 3 can be calculated using equations [7] and [8] Finally given that the minimum damping ratio and natural frequency is known and by solving for the K p and K v gains in the ω n and ζ expressions derived, the PV gains needed to attain this desired closed-loop response can be found Find the natural frequency expression ω n (K p ) and the damping ratio equation ζ(k p,k v ) that results in the the closed-loop transfer function you found in Exercise 13 being equal to H(s) given in [6] [8] Revision: 01 Page: 9

12 Solution: The closed-loop system in [s15] maps to H(s) in [6] by setting the natural frequency to and the damping ratio to [s16] [s17] Find the minimum damping ratio required to satisfy the overshoot requirement in Table 3 using expression [8] Then using ζ min and peak time expression [7], find the minimum natural frequency needed to satisfy the peak time specification given in Table 3 Express both in terms of the model parameters and evaluate them numerically using the DC motor model parameters in Table 4 Symbol Description Value Unit R m Motor terminal resistance 250 s K t Motor torque constant 0020 N m/a K m Motor back-electromotive force constant 0020 V/(rad/s) J eq Motor armature moment of inertia and load moment of inertia 200E-005 kg m 2 Table 4 Model Parameter Values for Exercise 44 Revision: 01 Page: 10

13 Solution: Using equation [8], an overshoot of M p can be achieved by having a damping ratio satisfying the inequality [s18] The minimum damping ratio needed for an overshoot of M p =005 is [s19] The damping ratio must be this or larger for the first peak to overshoot less than or equal to 5% Using relationship [7], the time of the first peak of the response is less than t p when the the natural frequency ω n satisfies [s20] The minimum natural frequency to achieve a peak time of t p =015 seconds is, using damping ratio [s19] and expression [s20] [s21] Find the control gains needed to meet the specifications using the expressions found in the first part of this exercise and using the minimum damping ratio and natural frequency calculated above Express K p and K v in terms of the model parameters, ω n, and ζ, and give the numerical result of the control gains Revision: 01 Page: 11

14 Solution: Solving for K p in equation [s16], the proportional gain must satisfy resulting in, [s22] [s23], after subsituting the minimum natural frequency found in [s21] and the DC motor parameters in Table 4 Solving for K v in expression [s17] gives [s24] and using damping ratio [s19] results in the velocity gain having to be at least [s25] For a DC motor plant with the parameters in Table 4, the peak time and overshoot of the closed-loop response will meet the specifications in Table 3 given that the proportional gain and the velocity gain satisfy the [s23] and [s25], respectively Revision: 01 Page: 12

15 5 In-Lab Session 51 System Hardware Configuration This in-lab session is performed using the NI-ELVIS system equipped with a QNET- DCMCT board and the Quanser Virtual Instrument (VI) controller file QNET_DCMCT_Lab_02_Position_Controlvi Please refer to Reference [2] for the setup and wiring information required to carry out the present control laboratory Reference [2] also provides the specifications and a description of the main components composing your system Before beginning the lab session, ensure the system is configured as follows: QNET DC Motor Control Trainer module is connected to the ELVIS ELVIS Communication Switch is set to BYPASS DC power supply is connected to the QNET DC Motor Control Trainer module The 4 LEDs +B, +15V, -15V, +5V on the QNET module should be ON 52 Experimental Procedure The sections below correspond to the tabs in the VI, shown in Figure 5 Please follow the steps described below: Step 1 Read through Section 51 and go through the setup guide in Reference [2] Step 2 Run the VI controller QNET_DCMCT_Lab_02_Position_Controlvi shown in Figure 5 Revision: 01 Page: 13

16 Figure 5 Overview of QNET-DCMCT Position Control Laboratory VI Step 3 Step 4 In the previous laboratory, Reference [3], the three DC motor parameters given below were identified for a particular DCMCT unit: (1) Motor Electrical Resistance (R m ) An electrical property of a motor It describes the motor's response to a given voltage and determines the amount of current able to flow through the motor (2) Motor Torque Constant (K t ) Describes the torque a motor generates and is directly proportional to the current going through the motor Note that the electromotive force constant, K m, is equal to the motor torque constant K t (3) Moment of Inertia (J eq ) The moment of inertia of the disc load and the motor shaft The three model parameters found in the last laboratory, Reference [3], may not represent the current DCMCT module being used accurately because a different QNET unit may be being used For this reason, the model fitting procedure is redone to verify that the parameters in the transfer function developed in Exercise 41 represents the actual system Select the Model Fitting tab that loads the VI shown in Figure 6 and continue with the laboratory Revision: 01 Page: 14

17 Figure 6 Model Fitting Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 As depicted in Figure 6, the scope displays the simulation of the motor speed response, generated using the mathematical model developed in the last laboratory, and the actual motor speed response, measured using the tachometer sensor The QNET motor is being driven by the signal generator The Acquire Data button stops the VI and continues to the next step of the laboratory Also in the top panel shown in Figure 6 is the simulation time readout, the sampling rate, and the RT LED that indicates if real-time is being held Slow down the sampling rate if the RT LED is either RED or flickering between GREEN and RED For the new sampling rate to take effect, stop this controller by clicking on the Acquire Data button and return to the Model Fitting tab to reload this sub-vi Enter the parameters R m and K t into the model variables that were derived in the DC motor speed control laboratory, Reference [3] Select the Update Model button and notice that the simulation on the plot changes because it is simulating the system using the model with new parameters If there is a large discrepancy between the plots then a different QNET- DCMCT module is being used than the system used to perform the parameter estimation in the previous speed control laboratory Adjust the motor torque Revision: 01 Page: 15

18 constant, K t, the motor resistance, R m, and the inertia parameter, J eq, until the simulated response begins to match the actual response Remember to click on the Update Model button after changing a model parameter for the changes to take effect in the simulation Step 8 Once the simulation matches the actual response well, record the final J eq, K t, and R m used in Table 5 and click on the Acquire Data button to proceed to the control design Model Fitted Parameter Measured Unit Value R m 312 Ω K t N m/a J eq 193E-005 kgm 2 Step 9 Table 5 Model Fitted Parameters The Controller Design tab should now be selected As shown in Figure 7, the Motor Model block is the transfer function representing the open-loop system, the proportional and velocity compensators together compose the PV control system, as in Pre-Lab Exercise 43 By default, the reference input signal is a step of 90 degrees and the resulting closed-loop step response is shown in the top-right corner The natural frequency and damping ratio are indicated above the plot Further, the closed-loop poles are plotted on the s-plane in the middle graph of the VI and the locations of the poles are also given directly above the graph Note that the locations of the poles is directly related to the damping ratio and natural frequency, which effects the resulting closed-loop response Revision: 01 Page: 16

19 Figure 7 Controller Design Step 10 The two control knobs in Figure 7 change the proportional gain, K p, and the velocity gain, K v, of the controller Vary the gains K p and K v as listed in Table 6 and record the Controller Performance changes Revision: 01 Page: 17

20 K p (V/rad) K i (Vs/rad) Peak Time (s) Max Overshoot (%) Setting Time (s) Steady-State Error (%) Table 6 Controller Performance Step 11 Re-calculate the minimum control gains in Pre-Lab Exercise 44 needed to meet the specifications in Table 3 based on the model parameters of the current DCMCT module, recorded previously in Table 5 Record the PV control gains in Table 7 K p K v Control Gain Minimum Value to meet Unit Specifications 171 V/rad 0052 V/(rads) Table 7 Required PV control gains for current DCMCT unit to meet specifications Step 12 Enter the minimum PV control gains calculated above in the K p and K v knobs in the Control Design VI shown in Figure 7 The resulting response should meet the specifications in Table 3 but some fine-tuning may be needed The settling time was not accounted for in the design, thus the gains may have to fine-tuned to meet the settling time requirement Once the controller gains yield a closedloop response that meets the required specifications, enter the K p and K v gains used in the last row of Table 6 along with the resulting response time-domain properties Step 13 Select the Controller Implementation tab to load the VI shown in Figure 8 The controller designed is now to be implemented on the actual QNET DC motor system The scope in Controller Implementation VI, as shown in Figure 8, plots the simulated motor position from the mathematical model using the parameters enterred and the actual closed-loop position of the motor measured by the encoder Revision: 01 Page: 18

21 Figure 8 PV Controller Implementation Step 14 Ensure the proportional and velocity gains designed to meet the specifications, recorded in Table 7, are set in the CONTROLLER GAINS panel shown in Figure 8 The function generator in the DESIRED POSITION panel is used to generate the reference position Set the commanded position signal to a square signal with an amplitude of 90 degrees at 01 Hertz Implement the controller for the same system on which the model was obtained This ensures the controller is not based on a model that may not represent your motor Step 15 Record the resulting control performance properties of the actual measured motor position peak time, overshoot, settling time, and steady-state error in Table 8 If needed, use the zoom tools in the top-left corner of the scope to view a closeup of the plots Revision: 01 Page: 19

22 Specification Measured Unit Value Peak time 015 s Overshoot 00 % Settling time 02 s Steady-state error 30 deg Table 8 Actual Closed-Loop Performance Step 16 Did the actual DC motor measurement meet all the specifications in Table 3? If not, give the specifications that were not met and provide an explanation why the PV control designed does not result in the desired properties when implemented on the actual system Solution: The model and control system does not take into account any type of friction of damping The steady-state error on the actual system may not be zero due to the Coulomb friction, or stiction, present in the actual system Similarly, the overshoot on the actual system may be zero or less than the simulation because the model does not consider viscous damping Energy is lost in the actual mechanical system through vibrations giving a response that is more dampened then the model would predict Step 17 Change the amplitude, frequency, and/or type of reference signal (sine, sawtooth, and square) and observe the behaviour of the responses Step 18 Stop the controller implementation by clicking on the Acquire Data button and this will send you to the Mathematical Model tab Shut off the PROTOTYPING POWER BOARD switch and the SYSTEM POWER switch at the back of the ELVIS unit Unplug the module AC cord Finally, end the laboratory session by selecting the Stop button on the VI Revision: 01 Page: 20

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