Dr Ian R. Manchester Dr Ian R. Manchester AMME 3500 : Review

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2 Week Date Content Notes 1 6 Mar Introduction 2 13 Mar Frequency Domain Modelling 3 20 Mar Transient Performance and the s-plane 4 27 Mar Block Diagrams Assign 1 Due 5 3 Apr Feedback System Characteristics No Friday Tutorial 10 Apr BREAK 6 17 Apr Root Locus 7 24 Apr Root Locus 2 No Wed/Thu Tut 8 1 May Bode Plots Assign 2 due 9 8 May Bode Plots May State Space Design Assign 3 Due May State Space Design May Advanced Control/Review June Review 2 Assign 4 Due Amme 3500 : Review Slide 2

3 4 Assignments (40%) Assignment 1 : Due Week 4 (5%) Assignment 2 : Due Week 6 (10%) Assignment 3 : Due Week 10 (10%) Assignment 4 : Due Week 13 (15%) Final Exam (60%)* * Note you are expected to pass the exam to pass this course Slide 3

4 To introduce the methods used for the analysis and design of feedback controllers for linear time invariant (LTI) systems Slide 4

5 System 1 (e.g. Controller) System 2 (e.g. Process) System 1 affects system 2, which affects system 1, which affects system 2. Slide 5

6 Vehicle Control and Design (land, sea, air, space) understanding and controlling how the system responds to external disturbances Biomedical (cardiac system, dialysis machine) design and control of systems that interact with the human body. Manufacturing Processes controlled conditions for highperformance materials, pharmaceuticals, microsystems. Biological feedback systems that regulate pressures, concentrations, balance, etc Slide 6

7 Design the dynamics Sluggish systems become quick to respond Unstable systems become stable and predictable Robustness Reject disturbances acting on the system Same response with large variations in the system Slide 7

8 Instability: any feedback loop allows for the possibility of instability. The question of stability has long been central in control theory Measurement noise gets feed back into the actual system response. Slide 8

9 Many control systems can be characterised by these components Plant Disturbance Reference r(t) + - Error e(t) Control Control Signal u(t) Actuator Process Output y(t) Feedback Sensor Sensor Noise Slide 9

10 A block diagram is made up of signals, systems, summing junctions and pickoff points Slide 10

11 A system model is one or more equations that describe the relationship between the system variables often the input(s) and output(s) of the system For physical systems, these equations are derived from study of the physical properties of the system such as mechanics, fluids, electrical, thermodynamics, etc. Slide 11

12 Force-velocity, force-displacement, and impedance translational relationships for springs, viscous dampers, and mass Slide 12

13 Torque-angular velocity, torqueangular displacement, and impedance rotational relationships for springs, viscous dampers, and inertia Slide 13

14 Voltage-current, voltage-charge, and impedance relationships for capacitors, resistors, and inductors Slide 14

15 Starting with an impulse response, h(t), and an input, u(t), find y(t) u(t), h(t) convolution y(t) L L -1 U(s), H(s) Multiplication, algebraic manipulation Y(s) Slide 15

16 We normally use tables of Laplace transforms rather than solving the Laplace equations directly This greatly simplifies the transformation process Slide 16

17 The Laplace Transform is a linear transformation between functions in the t domain and s domain Slide 17

18 Second order systems are quite common and are generally written in the following standard form Many systems of interest are of higher order Slide 18

19 We can relate the natural frequency and damping ratio to the s- plane θ Slide 19

20 Damping ratio determines the characteristics of the system response Slide 20

21 Rise time, settling time and peak time yield information about the speed of response of the transient response This can help a designer determine if the speed and nature of the response is appropriate Slide 21

22 For a second order system with no finite zeros, the transient response parameters are approximated by Rise time : Overshoot : Settling Time (2%) : Slide 22

23 Im(s) Find allowable region in the s-plane for the poles of a transfer function to meet the requirements sin -1 ζ ω n t r 0.6 sec Re(s) M p 10% σ t s 3 sec Slide 23

24 This table shows the relationship between input, system type, error constants and steady-state error Slide 24

25 We can easily find the root locations for a second order system What about for a general, possibly higher order, control system? Poles exist when the characteristic equation (denominator) is zero Slide 25

26 The location of the roots, and hence the nature of the system performance, are a function of the system gain K In order to solve for this system performance, we must factor the denominator for specific values of K We define the root locus as the path of the closed-loop poles as the system parameter varies from 0 to Slide 26

27 The CL roots move from the OL towards the zeros Additional poles move towards infinity along well defined asymptotes Slide 27

28 We saw that the steady state response for an LTI system excited by a sinusoid with unit amplitude and frequency ω 0 will also exhibit a sinusoidal output of frequency ω 0 with magnitude M(ω 0 ) and a phase φ (ω 0 ) where Notice that both the magnitude and the phase of the response on dependent on the frequency of the input ω 0 Slide 28

29 We often plot the magnitude and phase of the system response as a function of the input frequency The magnitude is normally plotted in db=20logm(ω) vs. log(ω) The phase is plotted in degrees vs. log(ω) The resulting graph is called the Bode plot Slide 29

30 Normalized and scaled Bode plots for a. G(s) = s; b. G(s) = 1/s; c. G(s) = (s + a); d. G(s) = 1/(s + a) Slide 30

31 The complete three-term controller is described by R(s) E(s) C(s) + - K p +K i /s+k d s G(s) Slide 31

32 The ideal derivative compensator effectively adds a pure differentiator to the forward path of the control system This is effectively equivalent to an additional zero As you should by now be aware, the location of the open loop poles and zeros affects the root locus and hence the transient response of the closed loop system Slide 32

33 Consider a simple second order system whose root locus looks like this (roots -1, -2) Adding a zero to this system drastically changes the shape of the root locus The position of the zero will also change the shape and hence the nature of the transient response Zero at -3 Zero at -5 Slide 33

34 The Bode plot for a PD controller looks like this The stabilizing effect is seen by the increase in phase at frequencies above the break frequency However, the magnitude grows with increasing frequency and will tend to amplify high frequency noise Slide 34

35 For compensation using passive components, a pole and zero will result If the pole position is selected such that it is to the left of the zero, the resulting compensator will behave like an ideal derivative compensator The name Lead Compensation reflects the fact that this compensator imparts a phase lead Slide 35

36 First find a point in the s-plane that we d like to have on the root locus Place the lead pole at 20 and solve for the position of the zero x θ 1 =120 θ 2 =112.4 θ 3 =20.2 τηερεφορε θ c =72.6 Slide 36

37 The Bode plot for a Lead compensator looks like this The frequency of the phase increase can be designed to meet a particular phase margin requirement The high frequency magnitude is now limited Slide 37

38 If we rewrite the transfer function for the integral compensator we find This is simply a pole at the origin and a zero at some other position to be selected based on our design requirements normally close to the origin to minimize the angular contribution of the compensator Slide 38

39 Slide 39

40 The Bode plot for a PI controller looks like this The break frequency is usually located at a frequency substantially lower than the crossover frequency to minimize the effect on the phase margin Slide 40

41 As with the lead compensation, using passive components results in a pole and zero If the pole position is selected such that it is to the right of the zero near the origin, the resulting compensator will behave like an ideal integral compensator although it will not increase the system type The name Lag Compensation reflects the fact that this compensator imparts a phase lag Slide 41

42 Slide 42

43 The Bode plot for a Lag compensator looks like this This compensator effectively raises the magnitude for low frequencies The effect of the phase lag can be minimized by careful selection of the centre frequency Slide 43

44 System equations are described in matrix form. Most fundamental are the state variables: A set of parameters that completely describes the current state of the system. For example position and velocity of a moving body Using measurements of the outputs, the system state can be computed - observers Using the system state, control strategies can be devised to achieve desired performance. Pole placement Optimal controllers Attractive for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems Slide 44

45 Using the state space approach, we represent a system by a set of n first-order differential equations: The output of the system is expressed as: x - state vector y - output vector u - input vector A - state matrix B - input matrix C - output matrix D - feedthrough or feedforward matrix (often zero) Slide 45

46 We can draw a block diagram describing the general State Space Model Slide 46

47 We can represent a general state space system as a Block Diagram. If we feedback the state variables, we end up with n controllable parameters. State feedback with the control input u=-kx +r. * N.S. Nise (2004) Control Systems Engineering Wiley & Sons Slide 47

48 We can then control the pole locations by finding appropriate values for K This allows us to select the position of all the closed loop system roots during our design. There are a number of methods for selecting and designing controllers in state space, including pole placement and optimal control methods via the Linear Quadratic Regulator algorithm. Slide 48

49 Setting u=-kx+r yields Rearranging the state equation and taking LT yields Select values of K so that the eigenvalues (root locations) of (A-BK) are at a particular location Slide 49

50 Controllability and Observability are fundamental concepts. For output feedback controllers, the separation principle tells us that we can design an observer and a controller separately and the combined controller is stabilizing. Slide 50

51 You should be familiar with the concepts reviewed in this lecture Modelling of dynamic systems Specification of second order systems Root Locus Bode Plots Design and properties of PID (and variants), Lead and Lag controllers State Space Modelling and Design Slide 51

52 You will not be required to find roots of polynomials higher than second order. You will be provided with a selected set of equations you may require for solving the problems In order to prepare I would suggest that you Review the assignment questions, making sure you understand the material covered this semester Look over previous years exams Slide 52

53 In order to understand system performance, we must be able to model these systems The study of control provides us with a process for analysing, understanding and deisgning for the behaviour of a system Slide 53

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