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1 46 1 Vol.46, No OCEANOLOGIA ET LIMNOLOGIA SINICA Jan., 2015 * ( ) (G) (S) (J)3, (Gg Ss Gs Gj Sg Sj),,, ; (P<0.05), (P<0.01),, Gs ; (P<0.01),, Gs, 13, Gs , 0, H Gs H Sg (h p ), , ; 13 1, (h g ) 13, 72.80% 76.49%,, Gs, 3 ; ; ; S917.4 doi: /hyhz ,, (, 2004),, (, 2009),,, ( 70%)(, 2011),,,,, F 1 (, 2009), (, 2007) ;, 20 70,, (Newkirk et al, 1977; Manzi et al, 1991; Cruz et al, 1997;, 2002;, 2002;, 2010) (Meretrix meretrix),,,, *, D ;, BZ-2012, BZ-2013 ;, BK ;, HL ,, :,, : , :

2 44 46,,,,, (S) (G) (J) , ( 1), 6 (Gg Gs Gj Sg Ss Sj), 3, 1 1 表 1 文蛤 3 3 双列杂交试验设计 Tab.1 Design of diallel cross for Meretrix meretrix (g/ ) (s / ) (j / ) (G/ ) Gg Gs Gj (S / ) Sg Ss Sj (J / ) Jg Js Jj 1.2, 12h 1h,, 1L L 30ind/ 10ml 24h, D, 300L, 20ind/10ml, 1, C; (Dicrateria zhanjiangensis) (Platymonas subcordiformis) (Pavlova viridis), 1000L,,, 1, 2/3 3 5d 1,,, μm ( ±5μm), 2000μm ( ±0.02mm), 30 : r(%)= [(L t /L 0 ) 1/t 1] 100, L t (µm), L 0 (µm), t (d) D ; Zheng (2011), h p (heterosis potence index, h p ) h g (hybrid gain, h g ): h p =Q/L, Q=2F 1 (P 1 +P 2 ), L= P 1 P 2 ; h g = [(F 1 MP)/MP] 100,, F 1, MP : MP=(P 1 +P 2 )/2 h p >1.0, ; h p < 1.0, ; 1.0<h p <1.0,, Cruz (1997) Lamkey(1998), (mid-parent heterosis, H MP ) (single-parent heterosis, H x ): H MP =[(FC P)/P] 100, H X =[(FC P X )/P X ] 100, FC ( ), P, P X (2000) H ph = [(F 1 P m )/P m ] 100, F 1, P m Zhang (2007), ( G S) ( ) : : Y ijk =µ+p i +M j + (P M) ij + e ijk,, Y ijk i j k, μ, P i ( ) (i=1, 2), M j (j=1, 2, 3), (P M) ij, e ijk 1.5 ± (Mean±SD), SPSS17.0 EXCEL 2003, (One-Way ANOVA) LSD, P<0.05, P<0.01

3 1 : , (P<0.05), 90±3.62μm, 77.05±7.05μm, Gg Gs Gj 1 D μm, Sg Ss Sj 1 D μm 1 5, 3 3 (P<0.05) 2, , 6, Gj>Gs>Sg>Sj>Gg>Ss( 3), 3), Gs, Sj Gj Sg, Ss Gg 1 Fig.1 Comparison in shell length during the early juvenile period (P<0.05), 表 2 浮游期的壳长比较 Tab.2 Comparison of shell length during the pelagic period 1d 2d 4d 5d Gg ±2.38 a ±2.18 a ±3.44 a ±4.97 a Gs ±3.12 ab ±2.50 b ±4.23 b ±3.00 a Gj ±2.45 ac ±3.12 c ±6.15 b ±2.98 a Sg ±2.68 bcd ±4.71 d ±2.72 c ±3.95 b Ss ±3.70 bc ±3.39 d ±3.60 d ±2.95 b Sj ±2.17 bce ±6.20 e ±4.58 d ±5.58 b : (P>0.05), (P<0.05) Fig.2 2 Comparison in shell length during the juvenile period 13 43, ( 1) 13,, : Gj>Sg>Sj>Gs>Gg> Ss,, 43, : Gs>Gj>Sg>Sj>Gg>Ss, Gg Ss (P>0.05), Gs Gj Sg Sj (P<0.05) ( Gs>Sj>Gj> Sg> Gg>Ss, Gs>Gj>Sj>Sg>Gg>Ss, Gs>Gj>Sj>Sg>Gg>Ss,, 3 Gs, Gg Ss , 6 : Gs> Gj> Sg >Sj> Ss> Gg : Gs>Gj>Sj>Sg> Gg>Ss, Tab.3 表 3 各阶段的日生长率比较 Comparison of daily growth rates in different stages Gg Gs Gj Sg Ss Sj (mm/d) (July 29 Aug 2) (Aug 10 Sept 10) (Oct 10 Dec 25) July 29 Dec

4 46 46,, (Gj Gs Sg Sj) (Gg Ss),, 13,, 4,,, (P>0.05);, (P<0.01), (P>0.05), (P<0.01),, 1 149,, (P<0.05), (P<0.05),, 表 4 卵源与交配方式对生长的影响 Tab.4 Impacts of egg origination and mating strategy on shell growth df F 1d ** d ** d ** ** d ** d ** d ** d ** d ** ** d * ** : * (P<0.05), ** (P<0.01) D 100%, % 5 Gs> Sg>Gj>Sj>Gg>Ss, (P>0.05),, 100%; 13, 100% 43 73, Ss 79.83%, 80%, , Gs>Sg>Gj>Sj>Gg>Ss 1 149, 4 Gs

5 1 : 47 表 5 各阶段成活率比较 Tab.5 Comparison in survival rates in different stages Gg Gs Gj Sg Ss Sj 1d d 97.55±0.48 a 97.99±0.34 a 97.97±0.75 a 97.19±0.93 ab 96.21±0.37 b 97.58±0.39 a 4d 92.70±1.81 a 92.10±2.00 a 92.92±2.93 a 92.71±2.98 a 91.59±2.86 a 92.18±3.07 a 5d 84.54±3.90 a 85.05±3.59 a 84.80±3.41 a 85.00±4.64 a 83.32±0.87 a 84.51±3.83 a 13d d 90.00±6.20 a 93.93±5.78 a 93.76±5.78 a 92.76±6.16 a 89.21±5.33 a 91.36±2.11 a 73d 81.20±7.80 a 88.78±7.92 a 81.72±5.42 a 84.21±8.87 a 79.83±1.06 a 81.37±2.56 a 104d 76.13±5.45 a 84.34±4.97 a 80.80±5.25 a 82.27±5.44 a 73.03±9.01 b 80.46±6.05 a 149d 67.23±6.72 a 83.81±7.60 b 77.98±7.05 ab 80.37±6.56 b 64.45±5.40 ac 77.30±5.69 ab, (P>0.05), Gs ; 43, 2.3 3, Sg Sj Gj , ; Gs 1 149, Gs Sg Gg Ss, G S H MP, 0, H Gs H Sg 6,, H MP H Gs H Sj (P<0.05); H Sg H Gj 3 (P<0.05), > >,, 1 149, 1 5, , 1 1, 3 Fig.3 Heterosis shown on different days 表 6 不同发育阶段的杂种优势 Tab.6 Heterosis shown in different stages /% H MP 2.46±1.21 a 42.88±9.72 b 34.62±9.46 b /% H Gs 3.25±1.86 a 41.73±17.36 b 38.87±15.37 b H Sg 1.86±2.56 a 44.09±1.96 b 29.97±4.47 c H Sj 0.77±2.14 a 35.80±4.96 b 34.32±4.95 b H Gj 3.89±3.34 a 47.15±5.39 b 23.45±9.14 c 4 Fig.4 Potence index and hybrid gain on different days,, ;, 1,, 4, 22.80%, 7 Gs Sg, 13 Gs Sg 2.4, 3 1% 3% 3,, 72.80% 76.49%( 8)

6 48 46 Tab.7 表 7 不同发育阶段的超亲优势率 Super-parent heterosis shown in different stages 1d 2d 4d 5d 13d 43d 73d 104d 149d Gs Ph/% Sg Tab.8 表 8 杂交 自繁子代的壳色表现 Shell color between hybrid and self-fertilized generations (g/ ) (s / ) (j / ) (G/ ) 74.83% 76.40% 75.60% (S/ ) 76.49% 72.80% 74.16% (J/ ) 3 3.1,,, (Argopecten irradians) (Ruditapes philippinarum) (Newkirk et al, 1977;, 2008;, 2009),,,,, 1 5,, (Cruz et al, 1997), 3.2,, (2008) ; Cruz (1997) , %, Gs Sg, (Crassostrea gigas) (Crassostrea virginica) (Mallet et al, 1984; Hedgcock et al, 1995; Cruz et al, 1997), 2 2 (Zheng et al, 2010), (, 2009),, 1.0(, 2009),,, 22.80% 73,,, ; 73,, 73,,, (2008) AFLP,,,,, 2008, 32(6): , :,, 2007., (10): 44 45,,, 2004., 28(7): 54 60,,, 2002 F 1 RAPD., 33(5): ,, :

7 1 : 49, ,,, 2008 AFLP (Meretrix meretrix)., 39(3): ,,, 2002., 26(5): ,, 2000., 14(3): 23 26,,, , 34(12): Cruz P, Ibarra A M, Larval growth and survival of two catarina scallop(argopecten circularis) populations and their reciprocal crosses. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 212(1): Hedgcock D, McGoldrick D J, Bayne B L, Hybrid vigor in pacific oysters: an experimental approach using crosses among inbred lines. Aquaculture, 137(1 4): Lamkey K R. Edwards J W, Heterosis: theory and estimation. Proceediongs 34th Illinois Corn Breeders School,Urbana, IL, 2-3 Mar 1998, Mallet A L, Haley L E,1984. General and specific combining abilities of larval and juvenile growth and viability setimated from narural oyster populations. Marine Biology, 81(1):53 59 Manzi J J, Hadley N H, Dillon R T, Hard clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, broodstocks: growth of selected hatchery stocks and their reciprocal crosses. Aquaculture, 94(1):17 26 Newkirk G F, Waugh D L, Haley L E, Genetic of larval tolerance to reduced salinities in two populations of oysters, Crassostrea virginica. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 34: Zhang H, Liu X, Zhang G et al, Growth and survival of reciprocal crosses between two bay scallops, Argopecten irradians concentricus Say and A. irradians irradians Lamarck. Aquaculture, 272(S1): Zheng H P, Xu F, Zhang G F, Crosses between two subspecies of bay scallop Argopecten irradians and heterosis for yield traits at harvest. Aquaculture Research, 42(4): HETEROSIS ANALYSIS AND DIALLEL CROSS OF RED MERETRIX MERETRIX WU Yang-Ping, CHEN Ai-Hua, ZHANG Yu, YAO Guo-Xing, ZHANG Zhi-Wei, CAI Yong-Xiang (Jiangsu Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Nantong , China) Abstract Experiments of 3 3 diallel crosses among different Meretrix meritrix populations of Guangxi and Jiangsu of China, and Japan were conducted. The growth and heterosis of offspring were investigated. The results show that hybrid groups presented obvious heterosis, showing significant improvements in shell length. The hybrid groups showed higher daily growth rates than the self-fertilized. The groups with Jiangsu as the female parent were significantly greater than those with Guangxi in the planktonic stage during which maternale effects of larval size were observed and shell length was significantly affected by egg origination (P<0.01). In juvenile stage, the hybrid groups showed higher daily growth rates than the self-fertilized. The daily growth rates of hybrid group(gs) were the highest in days-old individuals and the shell length of hybrid group(gs) was always the highest in the day-old. In this stage, the shell length was significantly affected by mating mode (P<0.01). The survival rate of hybrid groups featured obvious heterosis, and that of the hybrid group(gs) was almost the highest. The heterosis of hybrid groups occurred obviously after 13 days. In addition, diallel cross of Guangxi and Jiangsu was conducted. The mid-parent heterosis was greater than 0, which was always among the single-parent heterosis of hybrid groups (Gs and Sg). The heterosis potence index showed that the value of 1 5-day-old was between -1 and 1, indicating that hybridization did not decline. Real heterosis appeared as the index became greater than 1, and the value of hybrid gain and transgressive heterosis became positive in the 13-day-old, indicating significant improvement in shell length. The shell color was improved considerably when the proportion of red-shelled individuals in the progeny was 72.80% 76.49%. Therefore, the hybrid group(gs) gained obvious heterosis, which provided a reference for the hybridization breeding. Key words Meretrix meretrix; red shell; diallel cross; heterosis

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