# Process Solutions. Process Dynamics. The Fundamental Principle of Process Control. APC Techniques Dynamics 2-1. Page 2-1

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Process Solutions. Process Dynamics. The Fundamental Principle of Process Control. APC Techniques Dynamics 2-1. Page 2-1"

## Transcription

1 Process Dynamics The Fundamental Principle of Process Control APC Techniques Dynamics 2-1 Page 2-1

2 Process Dynamics (1) All Processes are dynamic i.e. they change with time. If a plant were totally static with respect to all it s variables, then control would be easy But in reality the dynamics are constantly changing We will define the basic terms and show how they relate to process response APC Techniques Dynamics 2-2 This is the most fundamental subject in the course. It is vital to understand process dynamics to understand process control This is the REAL difference between process engineers and control engineers. Process engineers think in terms of steady-state conditions (e.g. mass balances across units). Control engineers think in terms of dynamics as well as steady-state Page 2-2

3 Process Dynamics, subjects covered Process Response Process Gain Process Deadtime Process Lag Order Linearity Non-self regulating systems Plant tests APC Techniques Dynamics 2-3 We will discuss the above Response is the response of a system to a change Gain, deadtime and lag are used to define the dynamics Order is a measure of the complexity of the process, we will discuss this later. We will cover each subject in turn Page 2-3

4 Process Dynamics (2) The change with respect to time of the process variables such as temperature, pressure, flow, composition etc, due to controlled changes e.g. feed rate, temperature, pressure etc uncontrolled changes e.g. ambient temperature, feed composition etc Understanding process dynamics is fundamental for achieving good control APC Techniques Dynamics 2-4 All processes are constantly changing with time. We will define the basic terms We will show how these terms relate to the process We will see how to obtain the dynamics from plant data Page 2-4

5 PID open loop tutorial Coil Outlet temperature Feed flow rate Time Fuel gas valve position Time Fuel gas APC Techniques Dynamics 2-5 Gain is due to the cause and effect. A certain amount of fuel gas affects the temperature of the furnace by a certain amount. This resulting effect is the process gain of the system When you change the fuel gas, does the COT go up immediately? Why not? Because there is some distance to travel before the change BEGINS to affect the COT. This distance velocity lag is the deadtime. When the change begins to affect the COT does it shoot up immediately to its final resting value? Why not? Because there is some thermal inertia that the tubes in the furnace have to overcome before they heat up. This causes a LAG in the system. The lag is actually defined as the time to reach 63.2% of the final steadystate value. We will see why this is in a minute. Page 2-5

6 Dynamic response of a process can usually be characterized by 3 parameters : Process Gain APC Techniques Dynamics 2-6 Dynamics arise due to the length of the process path flow Process Solutions Characterizing Process Dynamics Response Kp or G and is the Change in the process variable divided by the change in the manipulated variable. Expressed in Engineering units Deadtime DT or θ, the time between MV changing and a noticeable change in PV. Expressed in minutes Lag T1 or τ Effects the rate at which the PV responds to an MV change. Expressed in minutes So the 3 parameters are expressed as above Note that all must be expressed in engineering units Note that as Deadtime increases, the control problem becomes harder to solve Lag is time to reach 63.2% of the final value we will see why in the next slide. Note that also as Lag increases, the control problem becomes harder Page 2-6

7 Laplace Transforms Laplace Transforms are simply a mathematical technique which can express equations in the time domain This allows straight-forward calculations to be carried out instead of solving complex differential equations Format is easily understood Best illustrated by some examples APC Techniques Dynamics 2-7 Page 2-7

8 Laplace Format Explained (1) e 20s + 1 5s Process Gain of 3.5 Process lag is 1st order and 20 min Process Deadtime of 5 min APC Techniques Dynamics 2-8 Page 2-8

9 Laplace Format Explained (2) Process Lead of 5 min s + 2s ( 10s + 1)( 10s + 1) e Process Gain of 0.5 Process lag is 2nd order and consists of 2 lags each 10 min long Process Deadtime of 2 min APC Techniques Dynamics 2-9 Page 2-9

10 Laplace Format Explained (3) Process Lead of 0.5 min e 2 100s + 20s + 1 s + 0s Process Gain of 20 Process lag is 2nd order and consists of 2 lags each 10 min long (alternative representation) No Process Deadtime APC Techniques Dynamics 2-10 We will explain Lead during the feedforward section of the course, but basically it gives a different characteristic response. Page 2-10

11 First order system At time, t, h = height of liquid in vessel h = H exp (-t/τ) When t = τ h = H.exp(-1) = H i.e. level has fallen by ( ) = H H H 1 Time APC Techniques Dynamics 2-11 bucket chemistry Now we will see why a lag is defined as 63.2% of the final value Here we have a cylinder emptying and following an exponential decay curve We can show that the level falls by or 63% of it s initial value at time t=t1 because exp(-1) is so the level has fallen by for a unit step change In practice the equation is more complex and non-linear, but this approximation is good enough in practice Page 2-11

12 Second order system of equal time constants, H τ 1 = τ 2 1 Top tank is 1st order as before H Notice Apparent deadtime Time 2 Time APC Techniques Dynamics 2-12 This system of buckets can be useful to explain other phenomena in process control Now consider 2 cylinders, one emptying into the other. The top tank behaves as before. The lower tank however is slightly buffered by the action of the upper tank and empties more slowly Do you see the apparent deadtime at the start (which is actually due to the combination of the 2 lags) Page 2-12

13 Second order system τ 1 > τ 2 SLOW 1 H Top tank is much slower Time H Looks like 1st order FAST 2 t 2 is the dominant time constant Time APC Techniques Dynamics 2-13 Now consider again the situation of two tanks. Now the top tank has a big hole and the bottom tank a small hole. The effect approximates to 1st order dynamics i.e. one lag Notice that we are now saying that for 2 lags, T1>T2, T1 has little effect Page 2-13

14 H Second order system τ 1 < τ 2 FAST 1 Imagine Top tank now empties very fast Time SLOW 2 H Notice inverse response, level actually rises initially. This confuses a simple feedback controller system Time APC Techniques Dynamics 2-14 The other scenario is the reverse, the bottom tank is now slow. It gets an initial boost from the top tank that temporarily actually increases the level beyond its initial starting point. This inverse response actually occurs in real systems in plants e.g. in pressure control systems and gives us problems in tuning. We will look at this later in more detail in a minute Page 2-14

15 H Imagine many tanks in series, one filling the next No. 6 Looks like DT+1st order Lag! due to series of lags Process Solutions 5 6 Time APC Techniques Dynamics 2-15 Page 2-15

16 First order model approximation of a 20th order system Process Solutions Deadtime + 1st order lag model of system 20th order system Time APC Techniques Dynamics 2-16 What does a real plant response look like? Real plants exhibit very high order dynamics (i.e. many lags in series) We can approximate a high order system such as the 20 order one above as a 1st order system with deadtime with a pretty good fit Page 2-16

17 Deriving Process Dynamics Process Solutions 100% % of final value High-order system Approximated to first order deadtime plus lag 63.2% 0% Time APC Techniques Dynamics 2-17 The dynamics may be derived in two ways The first is to approximate the curve to one of deadtime and 1st order lag and to draw a tangent at the point of steepest slope. The point of intersection on the X- axis marks the end of the deadtime and start of the lag period Page 2-17

18 100% Deriving Process Dynamics with the 20%/80% method Steady-state value Process Solutions 80% Deadtime = t (t 80 -t 20 ) Lag = (t 80 -t 20 ) 20% 0% T20 Time APC Techniques Dynamics 2-18 Another and more easy method is the 80/20 method developed by Honeywell Hi- Spec. It uses a simple empirical formula to calculate the dynamics directly. Simply measure 20% and 80% of the final value on the Y-axis and then determine the corresponding times. Then use the formula above T80 Page 2-18

19 Effect of varying dynamic parameters Increasing Gain Process Solutions Increasing Time Constant θ = 0 Order = 0 Increasing deadtime Increasing Order APC Techniques Dynamics 2-19 The above curves show the variation of shape of response with varying dynamics. Be sure you understand why each occurs? Page 2-19

20 Inverse Response (1) PC APC Techniques Dynamics 2-20 Inverse response is the situation where a variable first moves in the opposite direction to that desired for control and then moves back in the correct direction to a final steady-state value A Distillation Column with hot-bypass provides a good example We will see how inverse response can occur in practice 1) Pressure controller opens the valve 2) There is less pressure drop across the valve so more flow through the valve and the pressure in the column drops 3) Also less flow through the condenser so the duty drops 4) The temperature in the drum slowly starts to rise (more hot gas is bypassed) hence the pressure in the drum rises 5) There is less pressure drop across the valve and the condenser so the column pressure starts to rise 6) The pressure and therefore the temperature continues to rise but this increases the duty in the fin-fans which finally settles out at a new steady-state position Page 2-20

21 Valve Position Inverse Response (2) Pressure Time Inverse Response APC Techniques Dynamics 2-21 The trend above shows the inverse response Time Page 2-21

22 Self-regulating Process Process Solutions Non-Self Regulating Process FC LI Ti Fuel gas If increase opening of fuel gas control valve, then coil outlet temperature will rise and move to a new steady-state value If increase opening of outlet valve, then level will fall and continue to fall without reaching a new steady-state value APC Techniques Dynamics 2-22 A self-regulating system is one that will come to a new steady-state following a disturbance. Most control systems are self-regulating with one notable exception, level control A non-self regulating system (such as level control) is one that will not reach a new steady-state following a disturbance but will continue in one direction or the other either filling or emptying the vessel. This may make it harder to control Most control systems ARE self-regulating Page 2-22

23 Linearity A linear system has a constant process gain Most processes in refining, chemicals etc are at least slightly non-linear This has implications for controller tuning (need to tune for different conditions) Implications for plant tests or step tests Some processes are known to be highly non-linear e.g. ph control APC Techniques Dynamics 2-23 What are the implications for tuning? Use compromise tuning. Need to tune for different conditions since process results in different ways for different changes in MV What are the implications for plant tests? Do tests in both directions How can we solve highly non-linear control problems? Need to use some form of adaptive control Page 2-23

24 Process Variable, PV Linear Highly non-linear e.g. ph ph = -log10 [H + ] (Note a system is linear if dpv/dmv is constant) Manipulated Variable, MV APC Techniques Dynamics 2-24 This is a typical ph control scenario Process responds very non-linearly Control is very difficult using normal methods (PID) How to solve? Use adaptive control, or linearize the process by controlling log ph instead of straight ph? Page 2-24

25 Plant Tests, Guidelines (1) Choose the right time Not at a shift changeover Not during a feed switch Not at dawn or dusk Not on Monday morning! Not on Friday afternoon! Set up sampling/lab analysis if required Talk about test with operations and get approval for test Ensure instrumentation is OK Ensure process is steady APC Techniques Dynamics 2-25 Why right time? to not cause hassle for operators Why not at dawn or dusk? temperature changes due to ambient change Why set up sampling? to get all the data we need Why approval? not to get operators annoyed/follow correct procedures, be safe, make large moves rather than small moves, too small moves might not be visible! Why instrumentation OK? to ensure tests are not a waste of time! Page 2-25

26 Plant Tests, Guidelines (2) Open required loop, make step change of say 2-5% valve movement Record trend of OP and PV Reach new steady state some people use θ+5τ Carry out test again in opposite direction, double amount if possible Ensure Manipulated variable really changes Document results Do tests under all modes of operations Step away from any constraints on the unit for safety APC Techniques Dynamics 2-26 Why other direction? to check linearity Why twice amount? bigger step gives better estimate of steady-state gain Why all modes? different dynamics! Why away from constraints? Not to give operators/the plant a hard time! Page 2-26

27 Plant Tests Process Solutions MV CV Time Time APC Techniques Dynamics 2-27 Page 2-27

28 Conclusion Understanding dynamics is the key to controlling any process Simple dynamics can be represented by gain, deadtime and lag These may be determined by carrying out plant step tests APC Techniques Dynamics 2-28 Page 2-28

29 Process Dynamics Exercises APC Techniques Dynamics 2-29 Page 2-29

30 Exercise in Process Dynamics Process Solutions Using both of the methods in the lecture (63.2% and 80/20 method) calculate the process dynamics for the responses in fig 1. The response is that of a heater coil outlet temperature to a step change in fuel gas flow of 50 m3/h Fig 2a and 2b show the results of tests carried out on the same heater. The fuel gas flow change was 40m3/h. Calculate dynamics using the 80/20 method, comment on results Comment on fig 3a,b,c,d process responses Carry out PID tutorial exercise on dynamics APC Techniques Dynamics 2-30 Page 2-30

31 COT 500 Process Solutions Figure 1 Time (Mins) APC Techniques Dynamics 2-31 Page 2-31

32 COT 500 Process Solutions Figure 2a Time (Mins) APC Techniques Dynamics 2-32 Page 2-32

33 COT 500 Process Solutions Figure 2b Time (Mins) APC Techniques Dynamics 2-33 Page 2-33

34 COT 500 Process Solutions Figure 3a Time (Mins) APC Techniques Dynamics 2-34 Page 2-34

35 COT 500 Process Solutions Figure 3b Time (Mins) APC Techniques Dynamics 2-35 Page 2-35

36 COT 500 Process Solutions Figure 3c Time (Mins) APC Techniques Dynamics 2-36 Page 2-36

37 COT 500 Process Solutions Figure 3d Time (Mins) APC Techniques Dynamics 2-37 Page 2-37

38 Tutorial Software Interactive Exercises Tutorial Menu PID Algorithm Lesson Menu Introduction Open Loop Closed Loop On-Off Control Definitions APC Techniques Dynamics 2-38 Use the arrow keys to navigate to the next / previous screen. Use the <backspace> key to change tuning constants, etc. Do not use the numeric keypad. Page 2-38

### Fundamental Principles of Process Control

Fundamental Principles of Process Control Motivation for Process Control Safety First: people, environment, equipment The Profit Motive: meeting final product specs minimizing waste production minimizing

### CHAPTER 15: FEEDFORWARD CONTROL

CHAPER 5: EEDORWARD CONROL When I complete this chapter, I want to be able to do the following. Identify situations for which feedforward is a good control enhancement Design feedforward control using

### Process Unit Control System Design

Process Unit Control System Design 1. Introduction 2. Influence of process design 3. Control degrees of freedom 4. Selection of control system variables 5. Process safety Introduction Control system requirements»

### CHAPTER 13: FEEDBACK PERFORMANCE

When I complete this chapter, I want to be able to do the following. Apply two methods for evaluating control performance: simulation and frequency response Apply general guidelines for the effect of -

### CHAPTER 10: STABILITY &TUNING

When I complete this chapter, I want to be able to do the following. Determine the stability of a process without control Determine the stability of a closed-loop feedback control system Use these approaches

### DYNAMIC SIMULATOR-BASED APC DESIGN FOR A NAPHTHA REDISTILLATION COLUMN

HUNGARIAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRY AND CHEMISTRY Vol. 45(1) pp. 17 22 (2017) hjic.mk.uni-pannon.hu DOI: 10.1515/hjic-2017-0004 DYNAMIC SIMULATOR-BASED APC DESIGN FOR A NAPHTHA REDISTILLATION COLUMN LÁSZLÓ SZABÓ,

### DYNAMIC SIMULATOR-BASED APC DESIGN FOR A NAPHTHA REDISTILLATION COLUMN

HUNGARIAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRY AND CHEMISTRY Vol. 45(1) pp. 17 22 (2017) hjic.mk.uni-pannon.hu DOI: 10.1515/hjic-2017-0004 DYNAMIC SIMULATOR-BASED APC DESIGN FOR A NAPHTHA REDISTILLATION COLUMN LÁSZLÓ SZABÓ,

### Control of MIMO processes. 1. Introduction. Control of MIMO processes. Control of Multiple-Input, Multiple Output (MIMO) Processes

Control of MIMO processes Control of Multiple-Input, Multiple Output (MIMO) Processes Statistical Process Control Feedforward and ratio control Cascade control Split range and selective control Control

### Process Control, 3P4 Assignment 5

Process Control, 3P4 Assignment 5 Kevin Dunn, kevin.dunn@mcmaster.ca Due date: 12 March 2014 This assignment is due on Wednesday, 12 March 2014. Late hand-ins are not allowed. Since it is posted mainly

### INTRODUCTION TO THE SIMULATION OF ENERGY AND STORAGE SYSTEMS

INTRODUCTION TO THE SIMULATION OF ENERGY AND STORAGE SYSTEMS 20.4.2018 FUSES+ in Stralsund Merja Mäkelä merja.makela@xamk.fi South-Eastern Finland University of Applied Sciences Intended learning outcomes

### Solutions for Tutorial 10 Stability Analysis

Solutions for Tutorial 1 Stability Analysis 1.1 In this question, you will analyze the series of three isothermal CSTR s show in Figure 1.1. The model for each reactor is the same at presented in Textbook

### Process Control, 3P4 Assignment 6

Process Control, 3P4 Assignment 6 Kevin Dunn, kevin.dunn@mcmaster.ca Due date: 28 March 204 This assignment gives you practice with cascade control and feedforward control. Question [0 = 6 + 4] The outlet

### CONTROL OF MULTIVARIABLE PROCESSES

Process plants ( or complex experiments) have many variables that must be controlled. The engineer must. Provide the needed sensors 2. Provide adequate manipulated variables 3. Decide how the CVs and MVs

### Enhanced Single-Loop Control Strategies (Advanced Control) Cascade Control Time-Delay Compensation Inferential Control Selective and Override Control

Enhanced Single-Loop Control Strategies (Advanced Control) Cascade Control Time-Delay Compensation Inferential Control Selective and Override Control 1 Cascade Control A disadvantage of conventional feedback

### Course Summary. The course cannot be summarized in one lecture.

Course Summary Unit 1: Introduction Unit 2: Modeling in the Frequency Domain Unit 3: Time Response Unit 4: Block Diagram Reduction Unit 5: Stability Unit 6: Steady-State Error Unit 7: Root Locus Techniques

### CM 3310 Process Control, Spring Lecture 21

CM 331 Process Control, Spring 217 Instructor: Dr. om Co Lecture 21 (Back to Process Control opics ) General Control Configurations and Schemes. a) Basic Single-Input/Single-Output (SISO) Feedback Figure

### Feedforward Control Feedforward Compensation

Feedforward Control Feedforward Compensation Compensation Feedforward Control Feedforward Control of a Heat Exchanger Implementation Issues Comments Nomenclature The inherent limitation of feedback control

### Introduction to Process Control

Introduction to Process Control For more visit :- www.mpgirnari.in By: M. P. Girnari (SSEC, Bhavnagar) For more visit:- www.mpgirnari.in 1 Contents: Introduction Process control Dynamics Stability The

### Subject: Introduction to Process Control. Week 01, Lectures 01 02, Spring Content

v CHEG 461 : Process Dynamics and Control Subject: Introduction to Process Control Week 01, Lectures 01 02, Spring 2014 Dr. Costas Kiparissides Content 1. Introduction to Process Dynamics and Control 2.

### (Refer Slide Time: 1:42)

Control Engineering Prof. Madan Gopal Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi Lecture - 21 Basic Principles of Feedback Control (Contd..) Friends, let me get started

### Innovative Solutions from the Process Control Professionals

Control Station Innovative Solutions from the Process Control Professionals Software For Process Control Analysis, Tuning & Training Control Station Software For Process Control Analysis, Tuning & Training

### Enhanced Single-Loop Control Strategies Chapter 16

Enhanced Single-Loop Control Strategies Chapter 16 1. Cascade control 2. Time-delay compensation 3. Inferential control 4. Selective and override control 5. Nonlinear control 6. Adaptive control 1 Chapter

### Process Control & Design

458.308 Process Control & Design Lecture 5: Feedback Control System Jong Min Lee Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Seoul National University 1 / 29 Feedback Control Scheme: The Continuous Blending Process.1

### Experiment 81 - Design of a Feedback Control System

Experiment 81 - Design of a Feedback Control System 201139030 (Group 44) ELEC273 May 9, 2016 Abstract This report discussed the establishment of open-loop system using FOPDT medel which is usually used

### EE 422G - Signals and Systems Laboratory

EE 4G - Signals and Systems Laboratory Lab 9 PID Control Kevin D. Donohue Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Kentucky Lexington, KY 40506 April, 04 Objectives: Identify the

### PROCESS CONTROL TUTORIAL

PROCESS CONTROL TUTORIAL An overview of engineering mathematics, process dynamics and PID control Jon Monsen, Ph.D., P.E. Process Control Tutorial An overview of engineering mathematics, process dynamics

### Dr Ian R. Manchester Dr Ian R. Manchester AMME 3500 : Review

Week Date Content Notes 1 6 Mar Introduction 2 13 Mar Frequency Domain Modelling 3 20 Mar Transient Performance and the s-plane 4 27 Mar Block Diagrams Assign 1 Due 5 3 Apr Feedback System Characteristics

### Overview of Control System Design

Overview of Control System Design General Requirements 1. Safety. It is imperative that industrial plants operate safely so as to promote the well-being of people and equipment within the plant and in

### Control System Design

ELEC ENG 4CL4: Control System Design Notes for Lecture #13 Monday, February 3, 2003 Dr. Ian C. Bruce Room: CRL-229 Phone ext.: 26984 Email: ibruce@mail.ece.mcmaster.ca (3) Cohen-Coon Reaction Curve Method

### Process Control and Instrumentation Prof. A. K. Jana Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Process Control and Instrumentation Prof. A. K. Jana Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 17 Feedback Control Schemes (Contd.) In the last class we discussed

### Lesson 19: Process Characteristics- 1 st Order Lag & Dead-Time Processes

1 Lesson 19: Process Characteristics- 1 st Order Lag & Dead-Time Processes ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology 2 Learning Objectives After this series of presentations you will be able to: Describe

### Distributed Parameter Systems

Distributed Parameter Systems Introduction All the apparatus dynamic experiments in the laboratory exhibit the effect known as "minimum phase dynamics". Process control loops are often based on simulations

### Rocket propulsion Prof. K. Ramamurthi Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. Lecture 09 Theory of Nozzles

Rocket propulsion Prof. K. Ramamurthi Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture 09 Theory of Nozzles (Refer Slide Time: 00:14) Good morning. We will develop the

### DESIGN OF AN ON-LINE TITRATOR FOR NONLINEAR ph CONTROL

DESIGN OF AN ON-LINE TITRATOR FOR NONLINEAR CONTROL Alex D. Kalafatis Liuping Wang William R. Cluett AspenTech, Toronto, Canada School of Electrical & Computer Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne,

### Physics 2112 Unit 18

Physics 2112 Unit 18 Today s Concepts: A) Induction B) Circuits Electricity & Magnetism ecture 18, Slide 1 Where we are.. Just finished introducing magnetism Will now apply magnetism to AC circuits Unit

### Process Control Exercise 2

Process Control Exercise 2 1 Distillation Case Study Distillation is a method of separating liquid mixtures by means of partial evaporation. The volatility α of a compound determines how enriched the liquid

### Overview of Control System Design

Overview of Control System Design Introduction Degrees of Freedom for Process Control Selection of Controlled, Manipulated, and Measured Variables Process Safety and Process Control 1 General Requirements

### Analyzing Control Problems and Improving Control Loop Performance

OptiControls Inc. Houston, TX Ph: 713-459-6291 www.opticontrols.com info@opticontrols.com Analyzing Control s and Improving Control Loop Performance -by Jacques F. Smuts Page: 1 Presenter Principal Consultant

### CHAPTER 19: Single-Loop IMC Control

When I coplete this chapter, I want to be able to do the following. Recognize that other feedback algoriths are possible Understand the IMC structure and how it provides the essential control features

### YTÜ Mechanical Engineering Department

YTÜ Mechanical Engineering Department Lecture of Special Laboratory of Machine Theory, System Dynamics and Control Division Coupled Tank 1 Level Control with using Feedforward PI Controller Lab Report

### Control 2. Proportional and Integral control

Control 2 Proportional and Integral control 1 Disturbance rejection in Proportional Control Θ i =5 + _ Controller K P =20 Motor K=2.45 Θ o Consider first the case where the motor steadystate gain = 2.45

### YTÜ Mechanical Engineering Department

YTÜ Mechanical Engineering Department Lecture of Special Laboratory of Machine Theory, System Dynamics and Control Division Coupled Tank 1 Level Control with using Feedforward PI Controller Lab Date: Lab

### Chemical Reaction Engineering Prof. Jayant Modak Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore

Chemical Reaction Engineering Prof. Jayant Modak Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Lecture No. #40 Problem solving: Reactor Design Friends, this is our last session

### Plantwide Control of Chemical Processes Prof. Nitin Kaistha Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

Plantwide Control of Chemical Processes Prof. Nitin Kaistha Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur Lecture - 41 Cumene Process Plantwide Control (Refer Slide Time: 00:18)

### Control System Design

ELEC ENG 4CL4: Control System Design Notes for Lecture #15 Friday, February 6, 2004 Dr. Ian C. Bruce Room: CRL-229 Phone ext.: 26984 Email: ibruce@mail.ece.mcmaster.ca (3) Cohen-Coon Reaction Curve Method

### Solutions for Tutorial 5 Dynamic Behavior of Typical Dynamic Systems

olutions for Tutorial 5 Dynamic Behavior of Typical Dynamic ystems 5.1 First order ystem: A model for a first order system is given in the following equation. dy dt X in X out (5.1.1) What conditions have

### Hydraulics Prof. Dr. Arup Kumar Sarma Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati

Hydraulics Prof. Dr. Arup Kumar Sarma Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Module No. # 08 Pipe Flow Lecture No. # 05 Water Hammer and Surge Tank Energy cannot be consumed

### Process Control and Instrumentation Prof. A. K. Jana Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Process Control and Instrumentation Prof. A. K. Jana Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 10 Dynamic Behavior of Chemical Processes (Contd.) (Refer Slide

### Calculus concepts and applications

Calculus concepts and applications This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/,

### SIMULATION SUITE CHEMCAD SOFTWARE PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS COURSE WITH CHEMCAD MODELS. Application > Design > Adjustment

COURSE WITH CHEMCAD MODELS PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS Application > Design > Adjustment Based on F.G. Shinskey s 1967 Edition Presenter John Edwards P & I Design Ltd, UK Contact: jee@pidesign.co.uk COURSE

### Process Dynamics, Operations, and Control Lecture Notes 2

Chapter. Dynamic system.45 Process Dynamics, Operations, and Control. Context In this chapter, we define the term 'system' and how it relates to 'process' and 'control'. We will also show how a simple

### Multi-Input Multi-output (MIMO) Processes CBE495 LECTURE III CONTROL OF MULTI INPUT MULTI OUTPUT PROCESSES. Professor Dae Ryook Yang

Multi-Input Multi-output (MIMO) Processes CBE495 LECTURE III CONTROL OF MULTI INPUT MULTI OUTPUT PROCESSES Professor Dae Ryook Yang Fall 2013 Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering Korea University

### Introduction to Special Relativity

1 Introduction to Special Relativity PHYS 1301 F99 Prof. T.E. Coan version: 20 Oct 98 Introduction This lab introduces you to special relativity and, hopefully, gives you some intuitive understanding of

### Acknowledgements. Control System. Tracking. CS122A: Embedded System Design 4/24/2007. A Simple Introduction to Embedded Control Systems (PID Control)

Acknowledgements A Simple Introduction to Embedded Control Systems (PID Control) The material in this lecture is adapted from: F. Vahid and T. Givargis, Embedded System Design A Unified Hardware/Software

### Model based control design

Model based control design Alf Isaksson September, 999 Supplied as supplement to course book in Automatic Control Basic course (Reglerteknik AK) Objective: To introduce some general approaches to model

### Index. INDEX_p /15/02 3:08 PM Page 765

INDEX_p.765-770 11/15/02 3:08 PM Page 765 Index N A Adaptive control, 144 Adiabatic reactors, 465 Algorithm, control, 5 All-pass factorization, 257 All-pass, frequency response, 225 Amplitude, 216 Amplitude

### Theoretical Models of Chemical Processes

Theoretical Models of Chemical Processes Dr. M. A. A. Shoukat Choudhury 1 Rationale for Dynamic Models 1. Improve understanding of the process 2. Train Plant operating personnel 3. Develop control strategy

### CHAPTER 1 Basic Concepts of Control System. CHAPTER 6 Hydraulic Control System

CHAPTER 1 Basic Concepts of Control System 1. What is open loop control systems and closed loop control systems? Compare open loop control system with closed loop control system. Write down major advantages

### Principles and Practice of Automatic Process Control

Principles and Practice of Automatic Process Control Third Edition Carlos A. Smith, Ph.D., P.E. Department of Chemical Engineering University of South Florida Armando B. Corripio, Ph.D., P.E. Gordon A.

### Design and analysis of the prototype of boiler for steam pressure control

Design and analysis of the prototype of boiler for steam pressure control Akanksha Bhoursae, 2 Jalpa Shah, 3 Nishith Bhatt Institute of Technology, Nirma University, SG highway, Ahmedabad-38248,India 3

### Systems Engineering/Process Control L1

Systems Engineering/Process Control L1 What is Systems Engineering/Process Control? Graphical system representations Fundamental control principles Reading: Systems Engineering and Process Control: 1.1

### Control Introduction. Gustaf Olsson IEA Lund University.

Control Introduction Gustaf Olsson IEA Lund University Gustaf.Olsson@iea.lth.se Lecture 3 Dec Nonlinear and linear systems Aeration, Growth rate, DO saturation Feedback control Cascade control Manipulated

### CONTROL MODE SETTINGS. The quality of control obtained from a particular system depends largely on the adj ustments made to the various mode

Instrumentation & Control - Course 136 CONTROL MODE SETTINGS The quality of control obtained from a particular system depends largely on the adj ustments made to the various mode settings. Many control

### 1. In Activity 1-1, part 3, how do you think graph a will differ from graph b? 3. Draw your graph for Prediction 2-1 below:

PRE-LAB PREPARATION SHEET FOR LAB 1: INTRODUCTION TO MOTION (Due at the beginning of Lab 1) Directions: Read over Lab 1 and then answer the following questions about the procedures. 1. In Activity 1-1,

### Improved Identification and Control of 2-by-2 MIMO System using Relay Feedback

CEAI, Vol.17, No.4 pp. 23-32, 2015 Printed in Romania Improved Identification and Control of 2-by-2 MIMO System using Relay Feedback D.Kalpana, T.Thyagarajan, R.Thenral Department of Instrumentation Engineering,

### Open Loop Tuning Rules

Open Loop Tuning Rules Based on approximate process models Process Reaction Curve: The process reaction curve is an approximate model of the process, assuming the process behaves as a first order plus

### PHY131H1F - Class 18. Torque of a quick push

Today: Today, Chapter 11: PHY131H1F - Class 18 Angular velocity and Angular acceleration vectors Torque and the Vector Cross Product Angular Momentum Conservation of Angular Momentum Gyroscopes and Precession

### Hydrostatics and Stability Dr. Hari V Warrior Department of Ocean Engineering and Naval Architecture Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Hydrostatics and Stability Dr. Hari V Warrior Department of Ocean Engineering and Naval Architecture Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Module No. # 01 Lecture No. # 09 Free Surface Effect In the

### Appendix A: Exercise Problems on Classical Feedback Control Theory (Chaps. 1 and 2)

Appendix A: Exercise Problems on Classical Feedback Control Theory (Chaps. 1 and 2) For all calculations in this book, you can use the MathCad software or any other mathematical software that you are familiar

### A Holistic Approach to the Application of Model Predictive Control to Batch Reactors

A Holistic Approach to the Application of Model Predictive Control to Batch Reactors A Singh*, P.G.R de Villiers**, P Rambalee***, G Gous J de Klerk, G Humphries * Lead Process Control Engineer, Anglo

### Analysis and Design of Control Systems in the Time Domain

Chapter 6 Analysis and Design of Control Systems in the Time Domain 6. Concepts of feedback control Given a system, we can classify it as an open loop or a closed loop depends on the usage of the feedback.

### The LR Series Circuit Tutorial Sheet 2 circuits with applied ramp voltages

The L Series Circuit Tutorial Sheet 2 circuits with applied ramp voltages Learning Outcomes, Background information, Prerequisites and how to load and run the accompanying applet are all dealt with either

### Spring 2006 Process Dynamics, Operations, and Control Lesson 5: Operability of Processes

5.0 context and direction In esson 4, we encountered instability. We think of stability as a mathematical property of our linear system models. Now we will embed this mathematical notion within the practical

### (Refer Slide Time: 01:17)

Heat and Mass Transfer Prof. S.P. Sukhatme Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture No. 7 Heat Conduction 4 Today we are going to look at some one dimensional

### Index Accumulation, 53 Accuracy: numerical integration, sensor, 383, Adaptive tuning: expert system, 528 gain scheduling, 518, 529, 709,

Accumulation, 53 Accuracy: numerical integration, 83-84 sensor, 383, 772-773 Adaptive tuning: expert system, 528 gain scheduling, 518, 529, 709, 715 input conversion, 519 reasons for, 512-517 relay auto-tuning,

### Cryogenic Engineering Prof. M. D. Atrey Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture No. #23 Gas Separation

Cryogenic Engineering Prof. M. D. Atrey Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture No. #23 Gas Separation So, welcome to the 23rd lecture, on Cryogenic Engineering,

### Control Lab. Thermal Plant. Chriss Grimholt

Control Lab Thermal Plant Chriss Grimholt Process System Engineering Department of Chemical Engineering Norwegian University of Science and Technology October 3, 23 C. Grimholt (NTNU) Thermal Plant October

### Solutions for Tutorial 3 Modelling of Dynamic Systems

Solutions for Tutorial 3 Modelling of Dynamic Systems 3.1 Mixer: Dynamic model of a CSTR is derived in textbook Example 3.1. From the model, we know that the outlet concentration of, C, can be affected

### CHBE320 LECTURE XI CONTROLLER DESIGN AND PID CONTOLLER TUNING. Professor Dae Ryook Yang

CHBE320 LECTURE XI CONTROLLER DESIGN AND PID CONTOLLER TUNING Professor Dae Ryook Yang Spring 2018 Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering 11-1 Road Map of the Lecture XI Controller Design and PID

### Laboratory Exercise 1 DC servo

Laboratory Exercise DC servo Per-Olof Källén ø 0,8 POWER SAT. OVL.RESET POS.RESET Moment Reference ø 0,5 ø 0,5 ø 0,5 ø 0,65 ø 0,65 Int ø 0,8 ø 0,8 Σ k Js + d ø 0,8 s ø 0 8 Off Off ø 0,8 Ext. Int. + x0,

### SRI VENKATESWARA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

COURSE DELIVERY PLAN - THEORY Page 1 of 7 Department of Chemical Engineering B.E/B.Tech/M.E/M.Tech : Chemical Engineering Regulation:2013 PG Specialisation : NA Sub. Code / Sub. Name : CH 6605 - Process

### K c < K u K c = K u K c > K u step 4 Calculate and implement PID parameters using the the Ziegler-Nichols tuning tables: 30

1.5 QUANTITIVE PID TUNING METHODS Tuning PID parameters is not a trivial task in general. Various tuning methods have been proposed for dierent model descriptions and performance criteria. 1.5.1 CONTINUOUS

### Transient response of RC and RL circuits ENGR 40M lecture notes July 26, 2017 Chuan-Zheng Lee, Stanford University

Transient response of C and L circuits ENG 40M lecture notes July 26, 2017 Chuan-Zheng Lee, Stanford University esistor capacitor (C) and resistor inductor (L) circuits are the two types of first-order

### Systems Engineering/Process Control L1

Systems Engineering/Process Control L1 What is Systems Engineering/Process Control? Graphical system representations Fundamental control principles Reading: Systems Engineering and Process Control: 1.1

### EXAMINATION INFORMATION PAGE Written examination

EXAMINATION INFORMATION PAGE Written examination Course code: Course name: PEF3006 Process Control Examination date: 30 November 2018 Examination time from/to: 09:00-13:00 Total hours: 4 Responsible course

### This is the 15th lecture of this course in which we begin a new topic, Excess Carriers. This topic will be covered in two lectures.

Solid State Devices Dr. S. Karmalkar Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture - 15 Excess Carriers This is the 15th lecture of this course

### Introduction to Feedback Control

Introduction to Feedback Control Control System Design Why Control? Open-Loop vs Closed-Loop (Feedback) Why Use Feedback Control? Closed-Loop Control System Structure Elements of a Feedback Control System

### Chapter 1 Basic Characteristics of Control Systems and their Representation Process and Instrument Diagrams

Chapter 1 Basic Characteristics of Control Systems and their Representation Process and Instrument Diagrams We need ways to describe process control systems. We will learn several ways in this course.

### Chapter 5. Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes

Chapter 5 Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes Conservation Principles for Control volumes The conservation of mass and the conservation of energy principles for open systems (or control volumes)

### Investigation #2 TEMPERATURE VS. HEAT. Part I

Name: Investigation #2 Partner(s): TEMPERATURE VS. HEAT These investigations are designed to help you distinguish between two commonly confused concepts in introductory physics. These two concepts, temperature

### Dynamic Behavior. Chapter 5

1 Dynamic Behavior In analyzing process dynamic and process control systems, it is important to know how the process responds to changes in the process inputs. A number of standard types of input changes

### Class 27: Block Diagrams

Class 7: Block Diagrams Dynamic Behavior and Stability of Closed-Loop Control Systems We no ant to consider the dynamic behavior of processes that are operated using feedback control. The combination of

### LECTURE 8 Fundamental Models of Pulse-Width Modulated DC-DC Converters: f(d)

1 ECTURE 8 Fundamental Models of Pulse-Width Modulated DC-DC Converters: f(d) I. Quasi-Static Approximation A. inear Models/ Small Signals/ Quasistatic I V C dt Amp-Sec/Farad V I dt Volt-Sec/Henry 1. Switched

### Uniform Circular Motion

Uniform Circular Motion Introduction Earlier we defined acceleration as being the change in velocity with time: = Until now we have only talked about changes in the magnitude of the acceleration: the speeding

### Control Loop Investigations

Control Loop Investigations Peter Thomas Control Specialists Ltd ExperTune User Conference Austin Texas April 2007 www.controlspecialists.co.uk Control Loop Investigations Bridging the gap between Industrial

### EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems

1 / 17 EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Section 7: McMaster University Winter 2018 2 / 17 Outline 1 4 / 17 Cascade compensation Throughout this lecture we consider the case of H(s) = 1. We

### Today we begin the first technical topic related directly to the course that is: Equilibrium Carrier Concentration.

Solid State Devices Dr. S. Karmalkar Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture - 3 Equilibrium and Carrier Concentration Today we begin the

### B1-1. Closed-loop control. Chapter 1. Fundamentals of closed-loop control technology. Festo Didactic Process Control System

B1-1 Chapter 1 Fundamentals of closed-loop control technology B1-2 This chapter outlines the differences between closed-loop and openloop control and gives an introduction to closed-loop control technology.