Fundamental Principles of Process Control

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1 Fundamental Principles of Process Control

2 Motivation for Process Control Safety First: people, environment, equipment The Profit Motive: meeting final product specs minimizing waste production minimizing environmental impact minimizing energy use maximizing overall production rate

3 Loose Control Costs Money Examples P ro ces s : G rav i ty D rai n ed T an k M o r e P M r o r f e i t a P b r l o e f io t a b l e O p e r a t i o n process variable C o n t ro l l er: M an u al M o d e operating constraint T im e (m in s) poor control means large variability, so the process must be operated in a less profitable region It takes more material to make a product thicker, so greatest profit is to operate as close to the minimum thickness constraint as possible without going under It takes more processing to remove impurities, so greatest profit is to operate as close to the maximum impurities constraint as you can without going over

4 Tight Control = Most Profitable Operation P ro ces s : G ra v i t y D ra i n ed T a n k M o r e P M r o f r ie t a P b l r e o O f i t p a b l e O p e r a t i o n process variable C o n t ro l l e r: M a n u a l M o d e operating constraint tight control permits operation near the constraint, which means more profit T im e ( m in s) A well controlled process has less variability in the measured process variable, so the process can be operated close to the profitable constraint

5 Profitability of the Process Can Be Improved by Reducing Variability in the Control Loop $ Loop variabilit y Loop t uned Increased product ion or qualit y

6 Standard Deviation: Controller Performance Benchmark st dev = st dev = set point

7 Terminology for Home Heating Control Control Objective = Set Point (SP) System Output (Y) PID: Measured Process Variable (PV) MPC: Controlled Variable (CV) System Input (U) PID: Controller Output (CO or OP) MPC: Manipulated Variable (MV) Disturbances (D) set point thermostat controller TC TT temperature sensor/transmitter heat loss (disturbance) control signal fuel flow 7 valve furnace Copyright 2007 by Control Station, Inc. All Rights Reserved

8 Automatic Control is Measurement Computation Action Is house cooler than set point? ( T Setpoint T house > 0 ) Action open fuel valve Is house warmer than set point? ( T Setpoint T House < 0 ) Action close fuel valve

9 Components of a Control Loop Home heating control block diagram controller error controller output signal manipulated fuel flow to furnace house temperature Set Point + - Thermostat Fuel Valve Home Heating Process house temperature measurement signal Heat Loss Disturbance Temperature Sensor/Transmitter

10 General Control Loop Block Diagram Set Point controller error + - controller output manipulated process variable measured process variable Final Controller Control Process Element Disturbance feedback signal Measurement Sensor/Transmitter

11 Thought Experiment: Cruise Control in a Car Control Objective: maintain car velocity Measured Process Variable (PV): car velocity ( click rate from transmission rotation) Manipulated Variable: pedal angle, flow of gas to engine Controller Output (CO): signal to actuator that adjusts gas flow Set point (SP): desired car velocity Disturbances (D): hills, wind, curves, passing trucks... 11

12 Cruise Control Block Diagram controller error e(t) = (SP PV) controller output, CO signal to gas pedal manipulated gas flow rate to car engine car speed set point, SP (desired speed) + - Cruise Controller Gas Pedal Control Element Car Speed Process measured click rate PV signal disturbances (hills, wind, etc.) Copyright 2007 by Control Station, Inc. All Rights Reserved Magnet and Coil Sensor 12

13 The PID Controller Kc OP OPbias Kce( t) e( t) dt Kc D PV t where: OP = controller output signal (also seen as CO in PPC) OP bias = controller bias or null value PV = measured process variable SP = set point e(t) = controller error = SP PV Kc = controller gain (a tuning parameter) = controller reset time (a tuning parameter) = controller derivative action (a tuning parameter) I I D is in denominator so smaller values provide a larger weighting to the integral term and have units of time and are always positive I D I

14 Example: Heated Tank T i w i Controlled variable: T o Feedback Measure T 0 Control voltage to heater Q Heater TT T o w o VC

15 Example: Heated Tank T i w i Controlled variable: T o Feedback Measure T 0 Control voltage to heater TT Q Heater T o w o Feedforward Measure T i Control voltage to heater VC

16 Other Definitions Final Control Element Usually a valve or pump Electricity (to heat or cool) Solenoid valve (open or shut) SISO Single input, single output Nomenclature FC LT Flow (to be controlled) Controller Level (of liquid) Transmitted (or sensor)

17 In-Class Activity

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