# Tuning PI controllers in non-linear uncertain closed-loop systems with interval analysis

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1 Tuning PI controllers in non-linear uncertain closed-loop systems with interval analysis J. Alexandre dit Sandretto, A. Chapoutot and O. Mullier U2IS, ENSTA ParisTech SYNCOP April 11, 2015

2 Closed-loop control systems r(t) e(t) u(t) Control y(t) Physics Control is a continuous-time PI controller t e(t) = r(t) y(t), u(t) = K p e(t) + K i e(τ)dτ Physics is defined by non-linear ODEs 0 ẋ = f (x(t), u(t)), y(t) = g(x(t)) What is tuning a PI controller? Find values for K p and K i such that a given specification is satisfied. 2 / 17

3 Specification of PID Controllers PID controller: requirements based on closed-loop response We observe the output of the plant 1 Overshoot: Less than 10% Steady-state error: Less than 2% Settling time: Less than 10s Rise time: Less than 2s Note: such properties come from the asymptotic behavior (well defined for linear case) of the system. 3 / 17

4 Classical tuning methods for PID controllers 1 Ziegler-Nichols closed-loop method, based on simulations: deactivate the I and the D part of the PID controller; increase K p until a value K u where the output of the physics oscillates with a constant amplitude and a period T u ; look into the Ziegler-Nichols table to set the values of K p, K i and K d. For example, K p = 0.6K u, K i = 2K p /T u and K d = K p T u /8. Taking into account uncertainties? Models of physics are not well known during the design ẋ = f (x(t), u(t), p) with p P bounded. Consequence to apply Ziegler-Nichols method, Monte-Carlo simulation should be used. Remark: for linear systems, better PID tuning methods exists as Pole Placement. 4 / 17

5 Classical tuning methods for PID controllers 2 Special case for linear closed-loop (with uncertainties) systems r(t) e(t) u(t) C(s, K) y(t) P(s) C(s, K) and P(s, p) are the transfer functions of the controller and the uncertain physics C(s, K) the closed-loop transfer function is H(s, K) = 1 C(s, K)P(s) Tuning with interval analysis [Bondia et ali, 2004] With uncertain physics that is P(s, p) with p P; Define a specification M(jω) and a interval ω of frequencies; Find K K such that H(jω, K, p) M(jω) for all ω ω 5 / 17

6 Our approach Hypotheses: uncertain non-linear closed-loop control system; only PI controllers are considered in this work; Only specification based settling-time is considered { y(t end ) [r α%, r + α%], 100 α > 0 ẏ(t end ) [ ɛ, ɛ], ɛ > 0 Our method Embed PI controller into the non-linear physics; Searching for valid parameters using interval analysis tools inclusion functions paving validated numerical integration 6 / 17

7 Inclusion functions based affine arithmetic Extension of interval arithmetic to reduce the dependency issue. [a, b] [c, d] =[a d, b c] x = [0, 1] x x = [ 1, 1] Main idea: parametric variables w.r.t. a set of noise symbols ε i with ε i [ 1, 1]. x =x 0 + x 1 ε 1 + x 3 ε 3 y =y 0 + y 1 ε 1 + y 2 ε 2 This representation encodes the linear relation between noise symbols and variables and allows for precise linear transformation. What is a noise symbol? Initial uncertainty: [a, b] a+b + b a ε 2 2 Non-linear operations and round-off errors. 7 / 17

8 Paving Methods used to represent complex sets S with inner boxes i.e. set of boxes included in S outer boxes i.e. set of boxes that does not belong to S the frontier i.e. set of boxes we do not know Example, a ring S = {(x, y) x 2 + y 2 [1, 2]} over [ 2, 2] [ 2, 2] Remark: involving bisection algorithm and so complexity is exponential in the size of the state space. 8 / 17

9 Solution of uncertain non-linear ODEs Challenge Define method to compute reachable set of continuous dynamical systems: ẋ = f (x, p), especially when f is non-linear. Current direction Modified numerical integration methods to deal with sets of values and nonlinear dynamics: explicit and implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Example Exact solution of ẋ = f (x, p) with x(0) X. Safe approximation at discrete time instants. Safe approximation between time instants. 9 / 17

10 Example of flow-pipe with validated Runge-Kutta ẋ0 ẋ 1 ẋ 2 = 1 x x 3 1 x sin (d x 0 ) with d [2.78, 2.79] Simulation for 10 seconds with x 1 (0) = x 2 (0) = x 3 (0) = 0 The last step is x(10) = ([10, 10], [ , ], [ , ]) T 10 / 17

11 REMAINDER closed-loop control systems r(t) e(t) u(t) Control y(t) Physics Control is a continuous-time PI controller t e(t) = r(t) y(t), u(t) = K p e(t) + K i e(τ)dτ Physics is defined by uncertain non-linear ODEs 0 ẋ = f (x(t), u(t), p), y(t) = g(x(t)) Our goal Find values for K p and K i such that a given specification is satisfied. 11 / 17

12 Case study A cruise control system two formulations: with uncertain linear dynamics; uncertain non-linear dynamics m the mass of the vehicle v = u bv m 2 u bv 0.5ρCdAv v = m u the control force defined by a PI controller bv is the rolling resistance F drag = 0.5ρCdAv 2 is the aerodynamic drag (ρ the air density, CdA the drag coefficient depending of the vehicle area) 12 / 17

13 Case study settings and algorithm Embedding the PI Controller into the differential equations: Starting point u = K p (v set v) + K i (v set v)ds, with v set the desired speed Transforming int err = (v set v)ds into differential form int err dt = v set v Main steps of the algorithm v = K p(v set v) + K i int err bv m Pick an interval values for K p and K i Simulate the closed-loop systems with K p and K i if specification is not satisfied: bisect (up to minimal size) intervals and run simulation with smaller intervals if specification is satisfied try other values of K p and K i 13 / 17

14 Case study paving results Result of paving for both cases with K p [1, 4000] and K i [1, 120] v set = 10, t end = 15, α = 2% and ɛ = 0.2 and minimal size=1 (Reminder: y(t end ) [r α%, r + α%] and ẏ(t end ) [ ɛ, ɛ]) Linear case (CPU 10 minutes) Non-linear case (CPU 80 minutes) 14 / 17

15 Case study a quick verification 1 (linear case) Taking a particular set of parameters K p = 1400 and K i = 35 in validated parameter state 15 / 17

16 Case study a quick verification 2 (linear case) Taking a particular set of parameters K p = 900 and K i = 40 in rejected parameter state 16 / 17

17 Conclusion Extension of interval analysis tools for non-linear closed-loop control systems using validated integration; to find all the valid parameters (paving) with respect to given specification. Future work Consider more examples; Consider PID controllers; Consider discrete-time PID controller; Extended the specification considered to overshoot and rising time; Consider other controllers (ideas?). 17 / 17

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