# Chapter 18. Direct Current Circuits -II

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1 Chapter 18 Direct Current Circuits -II

2 So far A circuit consists of three-four elements: Electromotive force/power supply/battery capacitors, resistors inductors Analyzed circuits with capacitors or resistors alone in simple parallel (potential is the same) or series combination. Parallel Series R -1 = R R -1 2 R = R 1 +R 2 C = C 1 +C 2 C -1 = C C -1 2

3 Some (Take a look first) examples

4 y = R/R y-2 = y/(1+y) Or y 2-2y-2 = 0 y= 1+ 3 = 2.73

5

6 Clicker quiz If R 1 <R 2 <R 3, and if these resistors are connected in series, which one dissipates the greatest power? 1. R 1 2. R 2 3. R 3 4. all dissipate the same power

7 Clicker quiz If R 1 <R 2 <R 3, and if these resistors are connected in series, which one dissipates the greatest power? 1. R 1 2. R 2 3. R 3 4. all dissipate the same power In series, the current is the same and P = I 2 R

8 Gustav Kirchhoff Invented spectroscopy with Robert Bunsen Formulated rules about radiation

9 Kirchhoff s Rules There are ways in which resistors can be connected so that the circuits formed cannot be reduced to a single equivalent resistor Two rules, called Kirchhoff s Rules can be used Two rules, called Kirchhoff s Rules can be used instead

10 Statement of Kirchhoff s Rules Junction Rule The sum of the currents entering any junction must equal the sum of the currents leaving that junction Loop Rule A statement of the nature of a steady state. Also conservation of charge. No pile up of charges The sum of the potential differences across all the elements around any closed circuit loop must be zero A statement of Conservation of Energy

11 More About the Junction Rule I 1 = I 2 + I 3 From Conservation of Charge Diagram b shows a mechanical analog

12 Loop Rule A statement of Conservation of Energy To apply Kirchhoff s Rules, Assign symbols and directions to the currents in all branches of the circuit If the direction of a current is incorrect, the answer will be negative, but have the correct magnitude Choose a direction to transverse the loops Record voltage rises and drops

13 More About the Loop Rule Traveling around the loop from a to b In a, the resistor is transversed in the direction of the current, the potential across the resistor is IR In b, the resistor is transversed in the direction opposite of the current, the potential across the resistor is +IR

14 In c, the source of emf is transversed in the direction of the emf (from to +), the change in the electric potential is +ε In d, the source of emf is transversed in the direction opposite of the emf (from + to -), the change in the electric potential is -ε Loop Rule, final

15 Junction Equations from Kirchhoff s Rules Use the junction rule as often as needed, so long as, each time you write an equation, you include in it a current that has not been used in a previous junction rule equation In general, the number of times the junction rule can be used is one fewer than the number of junction points in the circuit

16 Loop Equations from Kirchhoff s Rules The loop rule can be used as often as needed so long as a new circuit element (resistor or battery) or a new current appears in each new equation You need as many independent equations as you have unknowns

17 Problem-Solving Strategy Kirchhoff s Rules Draw the circuit diagram and assign labels and symbols to all known and unknown quantities Assign directions to the currents. Apply the junction rule to any junction in the circuit Apply the loop rule to as many loops as are needed to solve for the unknowns Solve the equations simultaneously for the unknown quantities Check your answers

18 Problem = = + = + = I I I I I I I I I Junctions A and D Loop ABCDA = I I = + = I I I I Loop FABCDEF I 1 = 3.5 A, I 2 = 2.5 A, I 3 = 1A

19 RC Circuits When a direct current circuit contains capacitors and resistors, the current will vary with time When the circuit is completed, the capacitor starts to charge The capacitor continues to charge until it reaches its maximum charge (Q = Cε) Once the capacitor is fully charged, the current in the circuit is zero

20 Charging Capacitor in an RC Circuit The charge on the capacitor varies with time q = Q(1 e -t/rc ) The time constant, τ=rc The time constant represents the time required for the charge to increase from zero to 63.2% of its maximum

21 Notes on Time Constant In a circuit with a large time constant, the capacitor charges very slowly The capacitor charges very quickly if there is a small time constant After t = 10 τ, the capacitor is over 99.99% charged

22 Discharging Capacitor in an RC When a charged capacitor is placed in the circuit, it can be discharged q = Qe -t/rc The charge decreases exponentially At t = τ= RC, the charge decreases to Qmax In other words, in one time constant, the capacitor loses 63.2% of its initial charge Circuit

23 Household Circuits The utility company distributes electric power to individual houses with a pair of wires Electrical devices in the house are connected in parallel with those wires The potential difference between the wires is about 120V

24 Household Circuits, cont. A meter and a circuit breaker are connected in series with the wire entering the house Wires and circuit breakers are selected to meet the demands of the circuit If the current exceeds the rating of the circuit breaker, the breaker acts as a switch and opens the circuit Household circuits actually use alternating current and voltage

25 Circuit Breaker Details Current passes through a bimetallic strip The top bends to the left when excessive current heats it Bar drops enough to open the circuit Many circuit breakers use electromagnets instead

26 240-V Connections Heavy-duty appliances may require 240 V to operate The power company provides another wire at 120 V below ground potential

27 Electrical Safety Electric shock can result in fatal burns Electric shock can cause the muscles of vital organs (such as the heart) to malfunction The degree of damage depends on The magnitude of the current The length of time it acts The part of the body through which it passes

28 Effects of Various Currents 5 ma or less Can cause a sensation of shock Generally little or no damage 10 ma Hand muscles contract May be unable to let go of a live wire 100 ma If passes through the body for just a few seconds, can be fatal

29 Ground Wire Electrical equipment manufacturers use electrical cords that have a third wire, called a case ground Prevents shocks

30 Ground Fault Interrupts (GFI) Special power outlets Used in hazardous areas Designed to protect people from electrical shock Senses currents (of about 5 ma or greater) leaking to ground Shuts off the current when above this level

31 Res-Monster What is i? All V = 10 Volts and all R = 4 Ohms

32 j k What is i? All V = 10 Volts and all R = 4 Ohms? What is j? What is k?

33 j k What is i? All V = 10 Volts and all R = 4 Ohms

34 R = 4Ω, V = 4 V, what is the current through R? R =

35 R = 4Ω, V = 4 V, what is the current through R? R =

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