# Outline of College Physics OpenStax Book

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1 Outline of College Physics OpenStax Book Taken from the online version of the book Dec. 27, Electric Charge and Electric Field Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge Define electric charge, and describe how the two types of charge interact. Describe three common situations that generate static electricity. State the law of conservation of charge Conductors and Insulators Define conductor and insulator, explain the difference, and give examples of each. Describe three methods for charging an object. Explain what happens to an electric force as you move farther from the source. Define polarization Coulomb s Law State Coulomb s law in terms of how the electrostatic force changes with the distance between two objects. Calculate the electrostatic force between two charged point forces, such as electrons or protons. Compare the electrostatic force to the gravitational attraction for a proton and an electron; for a human and the Earth Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited Describe a force field and calculate the strength of an electric field due to a point charge. Calculate the force exerted on a test charge by an electric field. Explain the relationship between electrical force (F) on a test charge and electrical field strength Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges Calculate the total force (magnitude and direction) exerted on a test charge from more than one charge Describe an electric field diagram of a positive point charge; of a negative point charge with twice the magnitude of positive charge Draw the electric field lines between two points of the same charge; between two points of opposite charge. 1

2 18.6. Electric Forces in Biology Describe how a water molecule is polar. Explain electrostatic screening by a water molecule within a living cell Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium List the three properties of a conductor in electrostatic equilibrium. Explain the effect of an electric field on free charges in a conductor. Explain why no electric field may exist inside a conductor. Describe the electric field surrounding Earth. Explain what happens to an electric field applied to an irregular conductor. Describe how a lightning rod works. Explain how a metal car may protect passengers inside from the dangerous electric fields caused by a downed line touching the car Applications of Electrostatics Name several real-world applications of the study of electrostatics. 19. Electric Potential and Electric Field 19.1 Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference Define electric potential and electric potential energy. Describe the relationship between potential difference and electrical potential energy. Explain electron volt and its usage in submicroscopic process. Determine electric potential energy given potential difference and amount of charge Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field Describe the relationship between voltage and electric field. Derive an expression for the electric potential and electric field. Calculate electric field strength given distance and voltage Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge Explain point charges and express the equation for electric potential of a point charge. Distinguish between electric potential and electric field. Determine the electric potential of a point charge given charge and distance. 2

3 19.4 Equipotential Lines Explain equipotential lines and equipotential surfaces. Describe the action of grounding an electrical appliance. Compare electric field and equipotential lines Capacitors and Dielectrics Describe the action of a capacitor and define capacitance. Explain parallel plate capacitors and their capacitances. Discuss the process of increasing the capacitance of a dielectric. Determine capacitance given charge and voltage Capacitors in Series and Parallel Derive expressions for total capacitance in series and in parallel. Identify series and parallel parts in the combination of connection of capacitors. Calculate the effective capacitance in series and parallel given individual capacitances Energy Stored in Capacitors List some uses of capacitors. Express in equation form the energy stored in a capacitor. Explain the function of a defibrillator. 20. Electric Current, Resistance and Ohm s Law 20.1 Current Define electric current, ampere, and drift velocity Describe the direction of charge flow in conventional current. Use drift velocity to calculate current and vice versa Ohm s Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits Explain the origin of Ohm s law. Calculate voltages, currents, or resistances with Ohm s law. Explain what an ohmic material is. Describe a simple circuit. 3

4 20.3 Resistance and Resistivity Explain the concept of resistivity. Use resistivity to calculate the resistance of specified configurations of material. Use the thermal coefficient of resistivity to calculate the change of resistance with temperature Electric Power and Energy Calculate the power dissipated by a resistor and power supplied by a power supply. Calculate the cost of electricity under various circumstances Alternating Current versus Direct Current Explain the differences and similarities between AC and DC current. Calculate rms voltage, current, and average power. Explain why AC current is used for power transmission Electric Hazards and the Human Body Define thermal hazard, shock hazard, and short circuit. Explain what effects various levels of current have on the human body Nerve Conduction-Electrocardiograms Explain the process by which electric signals are transmitted along a neuron. Explain the effects myelin sheaths have on signal propagation. Explain what the features of an ECG signal indicate. 21. Circuits and DC Instruments 21.1 Resistors in Series and Parallel Draw a circuit with resistors in parallel and in series. Calculate the voltage drop of a current across a resistor using Ohm s law. Contrast the way total resistance is calculated for resistors in series and in parallel. Explain why total resistance of a parallel circuit is less than the smallest resistance of any of the resistors in that circuit. Calculate total resistance of a circuit that contains a mixture of resistors connected in series and in parallel. 4

5 21.2 Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage Compare and contrast the voltage and the electromotive force of an electric power source. Describe what happens to the terminal voltage, current, and power delivered to a load as internal resistance of the voltage source increases (due to aging of batteries, for example). Explain why it is beneficial to use more than one voltage source connected in parallel Kirchhoff s Rules Analyze a complex circuit using Kirchhoff s rules, using the conventions for determining the correct signs of various terms DC Voltmeters and Ammeters Explain why a voltmeter must be connected in parallel with the circuit. Draw a diagram showing an ammeter correctly connected in a circuit. Describe how a galvanometer can be used as either a voltmeter or an ammeter. Find the resistance that must be placed in series with a galvanometer to allow it to be used as a voltmeter with a given reading. Explain why measuring the voltage or current in a circuit can never be exact Null Measurements Explain why a null measurement device is more accurate than a standard voltmeter or ammeter. Demonstrate how a Wheatstone bridge can be used to accurately calculate the resistance in a circuit Circuits containing resistors and capacitors Explain the importance of the time constant, τ, and calculate the time constant for a given resistance and capacitance. Explain why batteries in a flashlight gradually lose power and the light dims over time. Describe what happens to a graph of the voltage across a capacitor over time as it charges. Explain how a timing circuit works and list some applications. Calculate the necessary speed of a strobe flash needed to stop the movement of an object over a particular length. 5

6 22. Magnetism 22.1 Magnets Describe the difference between the north and south poles of a magnet. Describe how magnetic poles interact with each other Ferromagnets and Electromagnets Define ferromagnets. Describe the role of magnetic domains in magnetization. Explain the significance of the Curie temperature. Describe the relationship between electricity and magnetism Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines Define magnetic field and describe the magnetic field lines of various magnetic fields Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field Describe the effects of magnetic fields on moving charges. Use the right hand rule 1 to determine the velocity of a charge, the direction of the magnetic field, and the direction of the magnetic force on a moving charge. Calculate the magnetic force on a moving charge Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications Describe the effects of a magnetic field on a moving charge. Calculate the radius of curvature of the path of a charge that is moving in a magnetic field The Hall Effect Describe the Hall effect. Calculate the Hall emf across a current-carrying conductor Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor Describe the effects of a magnetic force on a current-carrying conductor. Calculate the magnetic force on a current-carrying conductor Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters Describe how motors and meters work in terms of torque on a current loop. Calculate the torque on a current-carrying loop in a magnetic field Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere s Law Calculate current that produces a magnetic field. 6

7 Use the right hand rule 2 to determine the direction of current or the direction of magnetic field loops Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors Describe the effects of the magnetic force between two conductors. Calculate the force between two parallel conductors More Applications of Magnetism Describe some applications of magnetism. 23. Electromagnetic Induction 23.1 Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux Calculate the flux of a uniform magnetic field through a loop of arbitrary orientation. Describe methods to produce an electromotive force (emf) with a magnetic field or magnet and a loop of wire Faraday s Law of Induction: Lenz s Law Calculate emf, current, and magnetic fields using Faraday s Law. Explain the physical results of Lenz s Law Motional Emf Calculate emf, force, magnetic field, and work due to the motion of an object in a magnetic field Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping Explain the magnitude and direction of an induced eddy current, and the effect this will have on the object it is induced in. Describe several applications of magnetic damping Electric Generators Calculate the emf induced in a generator. Calculate the peak emf which can be induced in a particular generator system Back Emf Explain what back emf is and how it is induced Transformers Explain how a transformer works. Calculate voltage, current, and/or number of turns given the other quantities Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices Explain how various modern safety features in electric circuits work, with an emphasis on how induction is employed. 7

8 23.9 Inductance Calculate the inductance of an inductor. Calculate the energy stored in an inductor. Calculate the emf generated in an inductor RL Circuits Calculate the current in an RL circuit after a specified number of characteristic time steps. Calculate the characteristic time of an RL circuit. Sketch the current in an RL circuit over time Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive Sketch voltage and current versus time in simple inductive, capacitive, and resistive circuits. Calculate inductive and capacitive reactance. Calculate current and/or voltage in simple inductive, capacitive, and resistive circuits RLC Series AC Circuits Calculate the impedance, phase angle, resonant frequency, power, power factor, voltage, and/or current in a RLC series circuit. Draw the circuit diagram for an RLC series circuit. Explain the significance of the resonant frequency. 24. Electromagnetic Radiation 24.1 Maxwell s Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed Restate Maxwell s equations Production of Electromagnetic Waves Describe the electric and magnetic waves as they move out from a source, such as an AC generator. Explain the mathematical relationship between the magnetic field strength and the electrical field strength. Calculate the maximum strength of the magnetic field in an electromagnetic wave, given the maximum electric field strength. 8

9 24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum List three rules of thumb that apply to the different frequencies along the electromagnetic spectrum. Explain why the higher the frequency, the shorter the wavelength of an electromagnetic wave. Draw a simplified electromagnetic spectrum, indicating the relative positions, frequencies, and spacing of the different types of radiation bands. List and explain the different methods by which electromagnetic waves are produced across the spectrum Energy in Electromagnetic Waves Explain how the energy and amplitude of an electromagnetic wave are related. Given its power output and the heating area, calculate the intensity of a microwave oven s electromagnetic field, as well as its peak electric and magnetic field strengths. 25. Geometric Optics 25.1 The Ray Aspect of Light List the ways by which light travels from a source to another location The Law of Reflection Explain reflection of light from polished and rough surfaces The Law of Refraction Determine the index of refraction, given the speed of light in a medium Total Internal Reflection Explain the phenomenon of total internal reflection. Describe the workings and uses of fiber optics. Analyze the reason for the sparkle of diamonds Dispersion: The Rainbow and Prisms Explain the phenomenon of dispersion and discuss its advantages and disadvantages Image Formation by Lenses List the rules for ray tracing for thin lenses. Illustrate the formation of images using the technique of ray tracing. Determine power of a lens given the focal length. 9

10 25.7 Image Formation by Mirrors Illustrate image formation in a flat mirror. Explain with ray diagrams the formation of an image using spherical mirrors. Determine focal length and magnification given radius of curvature, distance of object and image. 26. Vision and Optical Instruments 26.1 Physics of the Eye Explain image formation by the eye. Explain why peripheral images lack detail and color. Define refractive indices. Analyze the accommodation of the eye for distant and near vision Vision Correction Identify and discuss common vision defects. Explain nearsightedness and farsightedness corrections. Explain laser vision correction Color and Color Vision Explain the simple theory of color vision. Outline the coloring properties of light sources. Describe the retinex theory of color vision Microscopes Investigate different types of microscopes. Learn how an image is formed in a compound microscope Telescopes Outline the invention of a telescope. Describe the working of a telescope Aberrations Describe optical aberration. 10

11 27. Wave Optics 27.1 The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference Discuss the wave character of light. Identify the changes when light enters a medium Huygens s Principle: Diffraction Discuss the propagation of transverse waves. Discuss Huygens s principle. Explain the bending of light Young s Double Slit Experiment Explain the phenomena of interference. Define constructive interference for a double slit and destructive interference for a double slit Multiple Slit Diffraction Discuss the pattern obtained from diffraction grating. Explain diffraction grating effects Single Slit Diffraction Discuss the single slit diffraction pattern Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion Discuss the Rayleigh criterion Thin Film Interference Discuss the rainbow formation by thin films Polarization Discuss the meaning of polarization. Discuss the property of optical activity of certain materials *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light 11

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