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2 Learning Goals p.1 By the end of this Unit 1: Part 1, sts should be able to: 1. I.20.3 translate information into a graph using 2 variables 2. Define and give examples of Earth's biodiversity. (1.1) 3. Summarize the characteristics that all living things share. (1.1) 4. Work well as a member of a group. 5. Summarize four major unifying themes in biology. (1.2) 6. Identify an example of each of the themes of biology. (1.2) Vocabulary for Vocab Quiz #1 Section 1.1: Biosphere Biodiversity Species Biology Organism Cell Metabolism DNA Section 1.2: System Ecosystem Homeostasis Evolution Adaptation Other: Independent variable Dependent variable

3 Experimental Variables S.20.2 p.2 Let s say that you are going to do an experiment to determine which of three fertilizers will help plants to grow the biggest. Before you would begin a test or investigation, you would need to think of all of the factors (besides the fertilizer) that might affect the outcomes of the experiment. These may include: plant type, amount of water, amount of sunlight, soil type, and temperature. These factors are called variables. A variable is something that can be measured or manipulated in an experiment. There are two types of variables that exist in most experiments: independent and dependent variables. Independent variables are factors that can be controlled or manipulated by the researcher. Dependent variables are factors that are measurable and change because of the independent variable. (The dependent variable depends on the independent variable.) Let s pick out the dependent and independent variables for this experiment! Independent Variable: Dependent Variable: Use your knowledge of dependent and independent variables identify each in the following situations: 1. We want to find out if the amount of time that students study is related to their quiz scores. i. Independent Variable: ii. Dependent Variable: 2. A teacher was curious if a money reward would influence performance on a test taken at the end of the course. Half the students were offered $5 for receiving an A on the test, the other half were not offered money. i. Independent Variable: ii. Dependent Variable: 3. A researcher hypothesizes that blondes really do have more fun. To test this hypothesis, she interviews a natural brunette who has recently become a blonde to determine if there is any change in the amount of fun she has. i. Independent Variable: ii. Dependent Variable:

4 p.3 4. Angelo wants to find out if the color of his mom's birdhouse is related to the number of birds that fly in and out of it. i. Independent Variable: ii. Dependent Variable: 5. A doctor is testing whether a new medication, Root-tastic will cause people to drink more root beer soda. To test this, she gives 100 people Root-tastic for one month and 100 people a placebo drug. i. Independent Variable: ii. Dependent Variable: 6. Carmen wants to know if the type of food she gives her dog Fido for breakfast affects how many times a day Fido barks. i. Independent Variable: ii. Dependent Variable: 7. A team of doctors asked for volunteers among families with children who report problems with motion sickness, and who drove for over an hour at least five days a week. All family members were asked to take a tablet of ground ginger, over-the-counter motion sickness medication, or a placebo one hour before riding in the car. The individuals then recorded the number of times that any family member experienced nausea or vomited while in the car. i. IV: ii. DV: 8. The hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from which ozone is formed come primarily from fossil-fuel-burning engines. Students at an urban school hypothesized that their school buses emit more hydrocarbons when engines idle for three minutes than they do by turning off their engines and then restarting them. i. IV: ii. DV: 9. Bonus: View the following graph and see if you can identify which axes contain which variable. I.13.2 i. IV: ii. DV: Generation Time (min) Generation Time of a Colony of Blue-Green Algae as a Function of it's Population Density at 38 degrees C Density (algae/cm2)

5 What are the Components of a Graph? I.13.2 p.4 Define the following: Data Dependent Variable Independent Variable Key Title X- axis Y-axis Now show where they would be found on the graph below:

6 Graphing Practice (I.20.3) on Biodiversity p.5 Earth has harbored life for at least 3.5 billion years. However, around 550 million years ago, biodiversity exploded. Biodiversity on Earth is very high, but very different from that of 550 million years ago. Scientists use the fossil record and current population counts to determine what kinds of organisms live and have lived on Earth. Scientists use geologic dating and other methods to track when groups of organisms appear and disappear over time. One set of well-tracked groups is groups of marine organisms. You will be graphing the diversity of marine organisms over time. The data can be found in the table to the right. Follow the steps that follow to ensure your success. Step 1: Choose the appropriate type of graph Line graph. Line graphs are used to track changes over short and long periods of time. When smaller changes exist, line graphs are better to use than bar graphs. Line graphs can also be used to compare changes over the same period of time for more than one group. Pie Chart. Pie charts are best to use when you are trying to compare parts of a whole. They do not show changes over time. Bar Graph. Bar graphs are used to compare things between different groups or to track changes over time. However, when trying to measure change over time, bar graphs are best when the changes are larger. 1) What would be the appropriate type of graph for showing how the diversitychanges over time? Step 2: Draw in the axes so that the entire or majority of the graph space is used 2) Draw your axes in on the graph paper provided for you on the page 7. See example mini-graph to the left. Step 3: Identify the variables and label the axes with units 3) How many variables are in this data table? Time (mya) 4) If you wanted to create a graph showing how diversity changes over time, what would be the: a. Independent Variable: b. Dependent Variable (depends on the IV): Diversity Value (well-resolved) Holt McDougal 2010

7 5) Label each axis on page 7. Refer to the data table on page 5 if needed. Include the units in parentheses after the variable. p.6 Step 4: Place a title at the top of the graph The title should be very descriptive of what the viewer will learn by reading the graph. This means that most often the title will include both the independent and dependent variable (or axes labels). 6) Write in a title on the graph for the variables you labeled. Step 5: Determine if a line break is necessary. If you are working with data that does not start with or near to a value of zero, a squiggle can be drawn between zero and the starting value. Typically the squiggle only takes up one box in the grid. This allows you to use the most graphing area possible. See mini-graph below. 7) Will a graph of diversity over time need a line break? Which variable? 8) Draw it in on your graph. Step 6: Determine the variable range Subtract the lowest data value from the highest data value for each variable. Range of time: = 541 million years 9) Determine the range for diversity: Step 7: Determine the number of lines available on each practice. On the graph to the right, there are 14 lines after the break on the X-axis and 5 lines on the Y-axis. 10) Count the number of lines available on your graph on p7. a. X-axis: b. Y-axis: Step 8: Determine the scale of the graph Determine the numerical value for each grid line so that almost all of the graph space is used. Take the range divided by the number of lines and round up your answer to the next highest half number or easy to work with number (e.g. 0,0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, etc.). For example, going up by 7 s is possible, but not easy. Instead, going up by 10 is close but much more manageable. X-axis: Range 541my = = million years per line round to: 25million years per line # of Lines 22 lines 11) Determine the scale for the Y-axis, diversity, for your graph. Show your work below: Y-axis: Range # of Lines = = round to:

8 Step 9: Number each axis p.7 12) Number your graph with the scale you figured out in the last step. Step 10: Determine the data points and plot them on the graph For example, the data table tells us that at time 0 the diversity value is This would be the data point (0,4166). To plot it you would find where a line extended from value 0 on the x-axis intersects a line from value 4166 on the y- axis. 13) Plot all of the data points on your graph Step 11: Draw the graph Bar graph: Shade in the box or boxes below each data point. Leaving a space between each bar and using different colors can make to graph easier to read. Line graph: Draw a curve or line that best fits the data points. Do not connect the points unless instructed to do so. To determine a line of best fit, look at the overall trend of the dots. If the trend is up and to the right, for example, arrange a strait edge up and to the right where about half of the points are above the line and half below. This allows you to make predictions even if you are not given one of the variables. 14) Draw in a line of best fit for your data. 15) Using your graph, what happens to the diversity of marine organisms as you go back in time? I.16.4

9 More Graphin Practice Now, I know you re wondering what happens to the levels of oceanic oxygen over this same time period. Create a graph using this technique outlined below to answer this question. If you get stuck, refer back to the extended explanation. Step 1: Choose the appropriate type of graph Step 2: Draw in the axes so that the entire or majority of the graph space is used Step 3: Identify the variables and label the axes with units Step 4: Place a title at the top of the graph Step 5: Determine if a line break is necessary. Step 6: Determine the variable range Step 7: Determine the number of lines available on each practice. Step 8: Determine the scale of the graph Step 9: Number each axis Step 10: Determine the data points and plot them on the graph Step 11: Draw the graph p.8 Time (mya) Atmospheric Oxygen (%) Pearson Prentice Hall ) So what happens to the level of atmospheric oxygen over time? I.16.4

10 Insert 1.2 Power Notes Venn here p.9

11 Insert section 1.2 Study Guide (2pgs) p.10

12 Insert section 1.2 Study Guide (2pgs) p.11

13 Review 1.1, IV & DV, Graphing, 1.2, I.20.3 p List the four major characteristics of living things with supporting details and examples: Charactersitcs Shared By Organisms Details/Examples 2. What is the difference between a dependent and independent variable? 3. Identify the independent variable and the dependent variable in the following scenarios: S.20.2 a. Humans can experience toxic symptoms when concentrations of mercury (Hg) in the blood exceed 200 parts per billion (ppb). Frequent consumption of seafood high in Hg can lead to high Hg in the blood. A research group proposed that sea creatures that live in colder water acquire greater amounts of Hg than those that reside in warmer waters. i. IV: ii. DV: b. The ash produced by an erupting volcano can be more harmful than the lava itself. Ash can be deposited over a distance of many miles over a period of several years, causing numerous health and environmental concerns. A scientist hypothesizes that ash particle diameter would affect how far the ash particles traveled after a volcanic eruption. i. IV: ii. DV: 4. Define biodiversity: 5. Give at least two examples of the biodiversity within the insect family: a. b.

14 6. Which of the following is the best example of biodiversity? A. In Sri Lanka, over 30 species of tree frog are in danger of becoming extinct. B. Atlantic salmon may swim 500 mile against a river current just to spawn. C. Sequoia National Park has more than 1200 plant species. D. Birds have feathers with different colors. p Translate the following information into a graph. Refer to p8 to make sure you have followed ALL the steps for graphing and include ALL important info. a. Sophie went to the garden store and noticed there were several types of potting soil mixes that she could buy in order to plant her tomato seedlings. Instead of spending a lot of money on one, she asked for a sample of each of the 4 mixes so she could test which soil produced the greatest amount of plant growth after 3 weeks. She gathered the data to the right. I.20.3 Type of Soil Acid-loving plant mix All-purpose mix Seed starting mix Seedling mix Plant Growth (cm) Dr. M.S. Fradin and Dr. J.F. Day tested 16 types of insect repellents on 5 men and 10 women volunteers. The volunteers put their arms into a test cage that contained 10 hungry female mosquitoes and the researchers recorded the time until the first bite. The scientists hypothesize that the most effective insect repellents will be those that contain the chemical called DEET. S.20.2 (Modified from a. What is the independent variable in this scenario? i. What axis of a graph should the independent variable be written on? b. What is the dependent variable? i. What axis should the dependent variable be on?

15 c. Use the graph below to answer the following questions: I.13.2 i. Add a title: p.14 ii. Write in the correct label for the X-axis. I.13.2 iii. Would you reject or accept the scientists hypothesis? E.20.1 Why? 9. Fill in the following table around the word SYSTEM: Definition: Example: Write a potential quiz question: 10. Give a unique example of how structure and function are related in an organism: 11. Which is an example of homeostasis? A. A snake s blood is the same temperature in hot weather and in cold weather. B. A turtle sits in the sun on warm days and in the shade on cool days. C. A polar bear catches fish with its front paws. D. A human sweats in hot weather and shivers in cold weather. 12. Evidence shows that hippos and whales are closely related organisms. How might evolution and adaptation account for similarities and differences between them? Use at least 2 complete sentences.

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