1 29 g, 18% Potato chips 32 g, 23% 2 30 g, 18% Sugar cookies 35 g, 30% 3 28 g, 19% Mouse food 27 g, 18%

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1 1. When testing the benefits of a new fertilizer on the growth of tomato plants, the control group should include which of the following? A Tomato plants grown in soil with no fertilizer B Tomato plants grown in soil with the original type of fertilizer C Tomato plants grown in a different type of soil with the new fertilizer D Tomato plants of different varieties grown in soil with the new fertilizer 2. A drug company tested a new medication before putting it on the commercial market. Pills without medication were given to 500 test subjects in group A, and pills with medication were given to subjects in group B. In this experiment, the individuals in group A served as the A dependent variable. B control. C hypothesis. D independent variable 3. A group of students wants to study the effects of junk food on weight gain and percentage of body fat. They perform their experiment on three adult male mice of similar mass and fat percentage. Each mouse receives regular, balanced mouse food for two meals per day. For the third meal per day, each mouse gets either potato chips, a sugar cookie, or more mouse food. The calories each mouse receives per day is kept the same. The table below reveals their results. The Effects of Junk Food on Weight Gain and Fat Percentage Mouse Beginning Mass & Diet Ending Mass & Fat % Fat % 1 29 g, 18% Potato chips 32 g, 23% 2 30 g, 18% Sugar cookies 35 g, 30% 3 28 g, 19% Mouse food 27 g, 18% Which of the following should the students do to make their conclusion more scientifically valid? A They should test additional mice with different types of junk food. B They should use both male and female mice in their experiment. C They should test more than one mouse for each type of diet. D They should monitor and record the amount of exercise each mouse gets per day. 4. Students investigate how soil ph affects the height of tomato plants. Each of six tomato plants receives the same amount of light each day and is planted in the same size pot and given the same amount of water. Each plant is planted in soil with a different ph. What is the dependent variable in the investigation? A The size of the pot in which the plants are grown B The ph of the soil in which the plants are grown C The amount of water given to the tomato plants D The height to which the tomato plants grow

2 5. In a biology lab, students conducted a seed-germinating experiment. They wrapped seeds in paper towels soaked in different solutions. The paper towels were placed in separate Petri dishes and kept at a constant temperature. The setup of the experiment is represented in the table below. Seed-Germinating Experiment Group Solution Type of Number Temperature Number of Days Seed of Seeds (in o C) 1 Tap water Radish % detergent Lettuce % detergent Bean After 7 days, the students counted the number of seeds that had germinated. Which change in procedure would improve the experiment? A Using one type of seed for all three solutions B Decreasing the number of seeds in each paper towel C Storing the seeds in each Petri dish at different temperatures D Increasing the number of days the seeds are exposed to the solutions 6. The tiny water flea, Daphnia, is placed in a Petri dish under a dissecting microscope. Two minutes after the light has been turned on, the heartbeat is counted for 15 seconds at two-minute intervals. After ten minutes, the Daphnia is removed from the dish and returned to a specimen jar. What question is this experiment designed to test? A What is the effect of light on the movement of Daphnia? B What is the effect of increasing heat on the heart rate of Daphnia? C How is the circulation of Daphnia affected when placed in a Petri dish? D How is the heart rate of Daphnia affected by different amounts of water? 7. A marine food web is shown below. Which statement accurately describes a relationship in the food web? A The fish is a predator. B The crab is a producer. C The shrimp is a decomposer. D The algae is a primary consumer.

3 8. Researchers conducted a seven year study of a rabbit population and its predators in an ecosystem. During the first two-and-a-half years of the study, the rabbit population rose steadily then declined to the lowest level in the fourth year. The rabbit population rose again during the last three years of the study. Which of the following graphs show how the population of rabbit predators would be expected to change during the same period in the ecosystem? 9. Which of the following groups of ecological terms is in order, from simplest to most complex? A species, population, community, biome, biosphere, ecosystem B species, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere C population, species, community, ecosystem, biosphere, biome D biosphere, biome, ecosystem, community, population, species 10. Which biome is characterized by the presence of trees that lose their leaves in the fall? A coniferous forest B deciduous forest C rain forest D tropical forest 11. Animals that have thick fur and are able to store large amounts of fat MOST likely live in a A savannah or tundra. B rainforest or temperate forest. C coniferous forest or tundra. D desert or tropical rain forest. 12. Animals like the kangaroo rat have the ability to obtain water through the metabolism of food. This adaptation helps the kangaroo rat survive in which biome? A desert B grassland C deciduous forest D tropical rainforest

4 13. Which biome contains plants that are adapted to areas that have infertile soils and receive constant amounts of precipitation? A tropical rainforest B deciduous forest C savanna D taiga 14. Why are there so few plants that live at the ground level in a tropical rainforest? A The forest floor contains many decomposers. B Sunlight is blocked by tall, leaf covered plants. C Rainfall is absorbed by the flat, broad tree leaves. D The temperature is extremely low most of the year. 15. Cacti in desert biomes have adapted to tolerate a wide range of which environmental condition? A temperature B precipitation C length of day D soil nutrient levels 16. Some scientists were studying the plants and animals found in the tundra. The scientists noticed that during the winter the number of a specific species of bird increased. Which of the following questions could these scientists NOT answer through experimentation? A Do the bids migrate during the summer? B Does the death rate increase during the summer? C Is there an increase in hatchlings during the winter? D Are the birds satisfied with food sources during the winter? 17. Oxpeckers are a type of bird that feed on pests like the ticks and flies found on animals like zebras and giraffes. The oxpeckers also help keep wounds on animals clean and free from maggots, thereby reducing the chance of infection. This interaction is an example of what type of relationship? A predation B parasitism C mutualism D commensalisms 18. The little brown bat has populations in the millions in some caves. These mammals consume insects that are harmful to corn and cotton. It is estimated that a community of a million bats consumes 10 tons of insects each night. As the population of bats increases, it would be expected that crop production in nearby areas would A show a minimal response. B remain constant. C be cut in half. D steadily increase.

5 19. Elk are members of the deer family. These herbivores move in herds from the high mountain pastures to the lower valleys and wooded areas throughout the seasons. Their fur color ranges from gray to dark brown which allows them to blend into the dense wooded areas. Natural enemies of the elk include bears, cougars, wolves, and coyotes. The graph below shows how the number of elk in an area has changed over time. Based on the data, one student concludes that an elk predator was introduced into the area during this time period. Which of the following is a likely alternate explanation for the change in the elk population? A Elk prey increased in the area. B Elk parasites decreased in the area. C The temperature of the area increased. D The amount of plants in the area decreased. 20. A scientist plants two rows of corn for experimentation. She puts fertilizer on row 1 but does not put fertilizer on row 2. Both rows receive the same amount of water and light. She checks the growth of the corn over the course of 5 months. What is a constant variable in this experiment? A. plant growth C. corn with fertilizer B. corn without fertilizer D. amount of water 21. The dependent variable in the above experiment is A. plant growth C. corn with fertilizer B. corn without fertilizer D. amount of water 22. A student decided to set up an experiment to see if detergent affects the growth of seeds. He sets up 10 seed pots. Five of the seed pots will receive a small amount of detergent in the soil and will be placed in the sun. The other 5 seed pots will not receive detergent and will be placed in the shade. All 10 seed pots will receive the same amount of water, the same number of seeds, and the same type of seeds. He grows the seeds for two months and charts the growth every 2 days. What is wrong with his experiment the biggest problem? A. More than one variable is being tested. C. There is no way of measuring the outcome. B. The student should use larger pots. D. The student should use different seeds. 23. A scientific study showed that the depth at which algae were found in a lake varied from day to day. On clear days, the algae were found as much as 6 meters deep but were only 1 meter deep on cloudy days. Which hypothesis best explains these observations? A. If nitrogen concentration is high, then algae will not grow as deeply. B. If there is more rainfall, then algae will grow more deeply in the water. C. If there is more light, then algae will grow more deeply in the water. D. If there is less wind, then algae will not grow as deeply.

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