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4 The Scientific Revolution In the 1500s and 1600s the Scientific Revolution changed the way Europeans looked at the world. People began to make conclusions based on experimentation and observation, instead of merely accepting traditional ideas.

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6 Geocentric Theory (earth as center of the universe) Aristotle and Ptolemy (ancient Greeks) God created the Universe Earth (people) at the center

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8 Copernicus (1492): new theory Brahe (1500s): observation Kepler (1600s): mathematical proof Galileo (1600s): publication of proof (telescope)

9 Copernicus was a Polish astronomer. In his 1543 book, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. Copernicus made two conclusions: 1. The universe is heliocentric, or sun-centered. 2. The Earth is merely one of several planets revolving around the sun.

10 Copernicus came to these conclusions using mathematical formulas. The Copernican conception of the universe marked the start of modern science and astronomy.

11 Then, in the late 1500s, the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe provided evidence that supported Copernicus heliocentric theory. Brahe set up an astronomical observatory. Every night for years he carefully observed the sky, accumulating data about the movement of the stars and planets.

12 After Brahe s death, his assistant, the German astronomer and mathematician Johannes Kepler, used Brahe s data to calculate the orbits of the planets revolving around the sun. Kepler s calculations supported Copernicus heliocentric theory. His calculations also showed that the planets moved in oval shaped/ elliptical orbits, and not perfect circles, as Ptolemy and Copernicus believed.

13 Who is so threatened by all of this?

14 Who is so threatened by all of this? The Church. Catholics AND Protestants.

15 Who is so threatened by all of this? The Church. Why?

16 What is going to fuel this revolution?

17 What is going to fuel this revolution? Scientific Research Travel Inventions/Technology Printing Press

18 The Scientific Method By the early 1600s, a new approach to science had emerged, known as the Scientific Method. Scientific Method painstaking method used to confirm findings and to prove or disprove a hypothesis. Scientists observed nature, made hypotheses, or educated guesses, and then tested these hypotheses through experiments. Unlike earlier approaches, the scientific method did not rely on the classical thinkers or the Church, but depended upon a step-by-step process of observation and experimentation.

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20 Galileo assembled the first telescope which allowed him to see mountains on the moon and fiery spots on the sun. He also observed four moons revolving around Jupiter exactly the way Copernicus said the Earth rotated around the sun. Galileo also discovered that objects fall at the same speed regardless of weight. Galileo Galilei was an Italian astronomer who built upon the scientific foundations laid by Copernicus and Kepler.

21 The Church came against Galileo. When threatened with death before the Inquisition in 1633, Galileo recanted his beliefs. Galileo was put under house arrest, and was not allowed to publish his ideas. Galileo s discoveries caused an uproar. Other scholars came against him because like Copernicus, Galileo was contradicting Ptolemy.

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23 The Scientific Method Newton Sir Isaac Newton was an English scholar who built upon the work of Copernicus and Galileo. Newton was the most influential scientist of the Scientific Revolution. He used math to prove the existence of gravity - a force that kept planets in their orbits around the sun, and also caused objects to fall towards the earth.

24 The Scientific Method Newton Newton published his scientific ideas in his book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. He discovered laws of light and color, and formulated the laws of motion: 1. A body at rest stays at rest 2. Acceleration is caused by force 3. For every action there is an equal opposite reaction He invented calculus: a method of mathematical analysis.

25 The Scientific Method Francis Bacon was an English philosopher who wrote Advancement of Learning. Bacon popularized the scientific method and used it with philosophy and knowledge. Bacon argued that truth could not be known at the beginning of a question, but only at the end after a long process of investigation. Francis Bacon

26 The Scientific Method René Descartes Descartes was a French scientist, mathematician, and philosopher. Descartes emphasized human reasoning as the best road to understanding. Like Bacon, Descartes also believed that truth was only found after a long process of studying and investigation. I think, therefore I am

27 Other Scientific Advances Chemistry Robert Boyle In the 1600s Robert Boyle distinguished between individual elements and chemical compounds. Boyle also explained the effect of temperature and pressure on gases.

28 Robert Boyle s first air pump

29 Other Scientific Advances Medicine Andreas Vesalius In 1543 Andreas Vesalius published On the Structure of the Human Body. Vesalius book was the first accurate and detailed book on human anatomy.

30 Medieval human anatomy drawing before Vesalius

31 Drawings done by Vesalius

32 Other Scientific Advances Medicine William Harvey An English scholar who described the circulation of blood for the first time. He showed how the heart served as a pump to force blood through veins and arteries.

33 Other Scientific Advances Medicine Ambroise Paré French physician Ambroise Paré developed a new and more effective ointment for preventing infection. Paré also developed a technique for closing wounds and stitches.

34 Other Scientific Advances Medicine Anton von Leeuwenhoek A Dutch inventor who perfected the microscope and became the first human to see cells and microorganisms.

35 Results?

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