Early Theories. Early astronomers believed that the sun, planets and stars orbited Earth (geocentric model) Developed by Aristotle

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Early Theories. Early astronomers believed that the sun, planets and stars orbited Earth (geocentric model) Developed by Aristotle"

Transcription

1 Planetary Motion

2

3 Early Theories Early astronomers believed that the sun, planets and stars orbited Earth (geocentric model) Developed by Aristotle

4 Stars appear to move around Earth

5

6

7 Observations showed that some planets like Mars appeared to go backwards at some times in their orbits (retrograde motion) To fix this problem, Ptolemy proposed the planets revolved on circles attached to the crystal spheres

8 Retrograde motion of Mars

9 Retrograde motion of Venus over a 44 day period

10 Mars moving around Earth on an epicycle

11 Sun-Centered Theory Copernicus developed the sun-centered model to predict the motion of the planets without using epicycles Planets orbited the sun in perfect circles with the stars furthest away

12 Heliocentric model

13 Earth and Moon seen from Messenger probe in orbit around Mercury

14 Mercury crossing in front of the Sun Mercury

15 Tycho Brahe made very careful measurements of planetary motion which were used to reform the calendar (from Julius Caesar s to the modern one) discovered a comet that was shown to be very far away, and not in the atmosphere where Aristotle said it would be

16 Galileo Galileo discovered 4 moons of Jupiter, mountains on the moon and sun spots which could not be explained by Aristotle s model Galileo was a strong supporter of the Copernican system and was punished for it

17 Jupiter with 4 moons discovered by Galileo

18

19 He discovered Venus had phases like the Moon which meant Venus went around the sun

20 Galileo discovered that the Sun had sunspots and that the sunspots moved across the surface This meant the sun wasn t perfect and that it rotated like the Earth

21 Galileo was the first person to see the rings of Saturn

22

23 Johannes Kepler used Brahe s observations to mathematically describe the motion of the planets He determine that all orbiting objects obeyed 3 basic laws

24 Kepler s 1 st Law Planets travel in ellipses with the sun at a special point called the focus The other focus is empty

25 the orbits of many planets are almost circles, we will assume circular orbits

26 Jupiter s Moons

27 Earth s Orbit is NOT quite circular January July Sun appears larger in January because Earth is a little closer

28 The positions of the Sun at the 2010 solstice dates are at the upper (June 21) and lower (December 21) extremes of the analemma curve. On the equinox dates (March 20, September 23) the Sun was along the curve half way between the solstices. The tilt of planet Earth's axis and the variation in speed as it moves around its elliptical orbit combine to produce the curve

29

30 Halley s Comet

31 2 nd Law The planet will sweep out equal areas in equal times This means the planet will move faster when it is closer to the sun

32

33 3 rd Law The further away from the sun, the slower the planet moves the cube of the average distance from the sun to a planet is proportional to the square of the orbital period T r 2 3 constant

34 T is the period of the orbit r is the radius of the orbit (NOT the radius of the planet)

35 Example Determine Kepler s constant for the Sun using Earth and Jupiter data. Earth T = 3.16 x 10 7 s r = 1.49 x m Jupiter T = 3.75 x 10 8 s r = 7.75 x m

36 Solution T Earth x10 r x 10 m 7 s 2 3 K = 3.02 x s 2 /m 3 K = 3.02 x s 2 /m 3 sun for Earth orbiting the sun for Jupiter orbiting the

37 the constant will be the same for every object orbiting the same focus T 2 r 3 for one object T 2 r 3 for another object

38 for elliptical orbits, the average distance is the semi-major axis

39

40

41 Example Calculate the period of revolution for the planet Mercury (orbital radius = 5.79 x m) using the data for Earth (orbital radius of 1.49 x m).

42 Solution 2 T 2 T Earth Mercury r 3 r 3 Earth Mercury 1 year 2 T x m. x m T 2 = year 2 T = year (less than 3 months) 3

43 the average distance of Earth to the sun is called an astronomical unit (symbol is AU) any combination of units can be used for Kepler s Third Law if the units on the left are the same as the units on the right

44 Example The asteroid Ceres has a period of 4.60 years. Determine the orbital radius of Ceres in AU. 2 T Earth 3 r Earth 2 T Ceres 3 r Ceres

45 T 2 R 3 R 3 of Ceres Ceres Earth T 2 Earth years 1 AU R Ceres years R AU3 Ceres R Ceres AU 3 T R R 3 of Ceres Ceres T 2 Earth 3 R Ceres years years R AU3 Ceres R Ceres R Ceres AU AU

46

47 What s a Planet? According to the International Astronomical Union, which sets definitions for planetary science, a planet is a celestial body that: Orbits the sun. Has enough mass to assume a nearly round shape. (due to gravity) Has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit.

48 Dwarf Planets Ceres, Pluto, Eris

49 Recently discovered Makemake is one of the largest objects known in the Kuiper Belt orbits the Sun only slightly further out than Pluto

50 Discovery images of Orcus. Credit: Vrown, Rabinowitz, and Trujillo

51 Practice P 275: 1, 2, 3 See table on p 274

History of Astronomy. PHYS 1411 Introduction to Astronomy. Tycho Brahe and Exploding Stars. Tycho Brahe ( ) Chapter 4. Renaissance Period

History of Astronomy. PHYS 1411 Introduction to Astronomy. Tycho Brahe and Exploding Stars. Tycho Brahe ( ) Chapter 4. Renaissance Period PHYS 1411 Introduction to Astronomy History of Astronomy Chapter 4 Renaissance Period Copernicus new (and correct) explanation for retrograde motion of the planets Copernicus new (and correct) explanation

More information

PHYS 155 Introductory Astronomy

PHYS 155 Introductory Astronomy PHYS 155 Introductory Astronomy - observing sessions: Sunday Thursday, 9pm, weather permitting http://www.phys.uconn.edu/observatory - Exam - Tuesday March 20, - Review Monday 6:30-9pm, PB 38 Marek Krasnansky

More information

Practice Test DeAnza College Astronomy 04 Test 1 Spring Quarter 2009

Practice Test DeAnza College Astronomy 04 Test 1 Spring Quarter 2009 Practice Test DeAnza College Astronomy 04 Test 1 Spring Quarter 2009 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Mark answer on Scantron.

More information

EXAM #2. ANSWERS ASTR , Spring 2008

EXAM #2. ANSWERS ASTR , Spring 2008 EXAM #2. ANSWERS ASTR 1101-001, Spring 2008 1. In Copernicus s heliocentric model of the universe, which of the following astronomical objects was placed in an orbit around the Earth? The Moon 2. In his

More information

Chapter 02 The Rise of Astronomy

Chapter 02 The Rise of Astronomy Chapter 02 The Rise of Astronomy Multiple Choice Questions 1. The moon appears larger when it rises than when it is high in the sky because A. You are closer to it when it rises (angular-size relation).

More information

Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets

Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets 1 Guiding Questions 1. How did ancient astronomers explain the motions of the planets? 2. Why did Copernicus think that the Earth and the other planets go around

More information

Motion in the Heavens

Motion in the Heavens Motion in the Heavens Most ancient cultures believed that the earth was the centre of the universe. Most felt that the planets, stars, moon and sun revolved around the earth. This is known as a geocentric

More information

Chapter 2. The Rise of Astronomy. Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Chapter 2. The Rise of Astronomy. Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 2 The Rise of Astronomy Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Periods of Western Astronomy Western astronomy divides into 4 periods Prehistoric

More information

Lecture 4: Kepler and Galileo. Astronomy 111 Wednesday September 6, 2017

Lecture 4: Kepler and Galileo. Astronomy 111 Wednesday September 6, 2017 Lecture 4: Kepler and Galileo Astronomy 111 Wednesday September 6, 2017 Reminders Online homework #2 due Monday at 3pm Johannes Kepler (1571-1630): German Was Tycho s assistant Used Tycho s data to discover

More information

Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System

Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System Lecture 13 Gravity in the Solar System Guiding Questions 1. How was the heliocentric model established? What are monumental steps in the history of the heliocentric model? 2. How do Kepler s three laws

More information

9/12/2010. The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature. 1. Gravity 2. Electromagnetism 3. The Strong Nuclear Force 4. The Weak Nuclear Force

9/12/2010. The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature. 1. Gravity 2. Electromagnetism 3. The Strong Nuclear Force 4. The Weak Nuclear Force The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature 1. Gravity 2. Electromagnetism 3. The Strong Nuclear Force 4. The Weak Nuclear Force The Universe is made of matter Gravity the force of attraction between matter

More information

Review of previous concepts!! Earth s orbit: Year, seasons, observed constellations, Polaris (North star), day/night lengths, equinoxes

Review of previous concepts!! Earth s orbit: Year, seasons, observed constellations, Polaris (North star), day/night lengths, equinoxes Review of previous concepts!! Earth s orbit: Year, seasons, observed constellations, Polaris (North star), day/night lengths, equinoxes Celestial poles, celestial equator, ecliptic, ecliptic plane (Fig

More information

Astronomy Lesson 8.1 Astronomy s Movers and Shakers

Astronomy Lesson 8.1 Astronomy s Movers and Shakers 8 Astronomers.notebook Astronomy Lesson 8.1 Astronomy s Movers and Shakers Aristotle 384 322 BCE Heavenly objects must move on circular paths at constant speeds. Earth is motionless at the center of the

More information

Gravitation Part I. Ptolemy, Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler

Gravitation Part I. Ptolemy, Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler Gravitation Part I. Ptolemy, Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler Celestial motions The stars: Uniform daily motion about the celestial poles (rising and setting). The Sun: Daily motion around the celestial

More information

Evidence that the Earth does not move: Greek Astronomy. Aristotelian Cosmology: Motions of the Planets. Ptolemy s Geocentric Model 2-1

Evidence that the Earth does not move: Greek Astronomy. Aristotelian Cosmology: Motions of the Planets. Ptolemy s Geocentric Model 2-1 Greek Astronomy Aristotelian Cosmology: Evidence that the Earth does not move: 1. Stars do not exhibit parallax: 2-1 At the center of the universe is the Earth: Changeable and imperfect. Above the Earth

More information

1. The Moon appears larger when it rises than when it is high in the sky because

1. The Moon appears larger when it rises than when it is high in the sky because 2-1 Copyright 2016 All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of 1. The Moon appears larger when it rises than when it is high in the sky because A. you are

More information

Space Notes Covers Objectives 1 & 2

Space Notes Covers Objectives 1 & 2 Space Notes Covers Objectives 1 & 2 Space Introduction Space Introduction Video Celestial Bodies Refers to a natural object out in space 1) Stars 2) Comets 3) Moons 4) Planets 5) Asteroids Constellations

More information

Test Bank for Life in the Universe, Third Edition Chapter 2: The Science of Life in the Universe

Test Bank for Life in the Universe, Third Edition Chapter 2: The Science of Life in the Universe 1. The possibility of extraterrestrial life was first considered A) after the invention of the telescope B) only during the past few decades C) many thousands of years ago during ancient times D) at the

More information

Astronomy- The Original Science

Astronomy- The Original Science Astronomy- The Original Science Imagine that it is 5,000 years ago. Clocks and modern calendars have not been invented. How would you tell time or know what day it is? One way to tell the time is to study

More information

Planetary Orbits: Kepler s Laws 1/18/07

Planetary Orbits: Kepler s Laws 1/18/07 Planetary Orbits: Kepler s Laws Announcements The correct link for the course webpage http://www.lpl.arizona.edu/undergrad/classes/spring2007/giacalone_206-2 The first homework due Jan 25 (available for

More information

How big is the Universe and where are we in it?

How big is the Universe and where are we in it? Announcements Results of clicker questions from Monday are on ICON. First homework is graded on ICON. Next homework due one minute before midnight on Tuesday, September 6. Labs start this week. All lab

More information

Tycho Brahe

Tycho Brahe Tycho Brahe 1546-1601 At the time of Shakespeare and Elizabeth I and Champlain Lost part of his nose in a duel over who was the best mathematician At 27 he measured the distance of a supernova and a comet

More information

The Solar System. Name Test Date Hour

The Solar System. Name Test Date Hour Name Test Date Hour Astronomy#3 - Notebook The Solar System LEARNING TARGETS I can describe the objects that make up our solar system. I can identify the inner and outer planets. I can explain the difference

More information

Gravity. Newton s Law of Gravitation Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion Gravitational Fields

Gravity. Newton s Law of Gravitation Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion Gravitational Fields Gravity Newton s Law of Gravitation Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion Gravitational Fields Simulation Synchronous Rotation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ozib_l eg75q Sun-Earth-Moon System https://vimeo.com/16015937

More information

Earth Science, 11e. Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 21. Early history of astronomy. Early history of astronomy. Early history of astronomy

Earth Science, 11e. Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 21. Early history of astronomy. Early history of astronomy. Early history of astronomy 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 21 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors

More information

October 19, NOTES Solar System Data Table.notebook. Which page in the ESRT???? million km million. average.

October 19, NOTES Solar System Data Table.notebook. Which page in the ESRT???? million km million. average. Celestial Object: Naturally occurring object that exists in space. NOT spacecraft or man-made satellites Which page in the ESRT???? Mean = average Units = million km How can we find this using the Solar

More information

Notes: The Solar System

Notes: The Solar System Notes: The Solar System The Formation of the Solar System 1. A gas cloud collapses under the influence of gravity. 2. Solids condense at the center, forming a protostar. 3. A falttened disk of matter surrounds

More information

The Solar System LEARNING TARGETS. Scientific Language. Name Test Date Hour

The Solar System LEARNING TARGETS. Scientific Language. Name Test Date Hour Name Test Date Hour Astronomy#3 - Notebook The Solar System LEARNING TARGETS I can describe the objects that make up our solar system. I can identify the inner and outer planets. I can explain the difference

More information

Today. Planetary Motion. Tycho Brahe s Observations. Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion. Laws of Motion. in physics

Today. Planetary Motion. Tycho Brahe s Observations. Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion. Laws of Motion. in physics Planetary Motion Today Tycho Brahe s Observations Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion Laws of Motion in physics Page from 1640 text in the KSL rare book collection That the Earth may be a Planet the seeming

More information

Lecture #4: Plan. Early Ideas of the Heavens (cont d): Geocentric Universe Heliocentric Universe

Lecture #4: Plan. Early Ideas of the Heavens (cont d): Geocentric Universe Heliocentric Universe Lecture #4: Plan Early Ideas of the Heavens (cont d): Shape & size of the Earth Size & distance of Moon & Sun Geocentric Universe Heliocentric Universe Shape of the Earth Aristotle (Greece, 384 322 B.C.)

More information

Observational Astronomy - Lecture 4 Orbits, Motions, Kepler s and Newton s Laws

Observational Astronomy - Lecture 4 Orbits, Motions, Kepler s and Newton s Laws Observational Astronomy - Lecture 4 Orbits, Motions, Kepler s and Newton s Laws Craig Lage New York University - Department of Physics craig.lage@nyu.edu February 24, 2014 1 / 21 Tycho Brahe s Equatorial

More information

Chapter. Origin of Modern Astronomy

Chapter. Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter Origin of Modern Astronomy 22.1 Early Astronomy Ancient Greeks Astronomy is the science that studies the universe. It includes the observation and interpretation of celestial bodies and phenomena.

More information

Exam #1 Study Guide (Note this is not all the information you need to know for the test, these are just SOME of the main points)

Exam #1 Study Guide (Note this is not all the information you need to know for the test, these are just SOME of the main points) Exam #1 Study Guide (Note this is not all the information you need to know for the test, these are just SOME of the main points) Moon Phases Moon is always ½ illuminated by the Sun, and the sunlit side

More information

Chapter 2 The Science of Life in the Universe

Chapter 2 The Science of Life in the Universe In ancient times phenomena in the sky were not understood! Chapter 2 The Science of Life in the Universe The Ancient Greeks The Scientific Method Our ideas must always be consistent with our observations!

More information

UNIT 1: EARTH AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM.

UNIT 1: EARTH AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM. UNIT 1: EARTH AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM. 1) A BRIEF HISTORY Theories of the Universe In the second century BC, the astronomer Ptolemy proposed that the Earth was the centre of the Universe, and that the Sun,

More information

Name Period Date Earth and Space Science. Solar System Review

Name Period Date Earth and Space Science. Solar System Review Name Period Date Earth and Space Science Solar System Review 1. is the spinning a planetary object on its axis. 2. is the backward motion of planets. 3. The is a unit less number between 0 and 1 that describes

More information

Planetary Mechanics:

Planetary Mechanics: Planetary Mechanics: Satellites A satellite is an object or a body that revolves around another body due to the gravitational attraction to the greater mass. Ex: The planets are natural satellites of the

More information

DeAnza College Winter First Midterm Exam MAKE ALL MARKS DARK AND COMPLETE.

DeAnza College Winter First Midterm Exam MAKE ALL MARKS DARK AND COMPLETE. FAMILY NAME : (Please PRINT!) GIVEN NAME : (Please PRINT!) Signature: ASTRONOMY 4 DeAnza College Winter 2018 First Midterm Exam MAKE ALL MARKS DARK AND COMPLETE. Instructions: 1. On your Parscore sheet

More information

THE SUN AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM

THE SUN AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM Chapter 26 THE SUN AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM CHAPTER 26 SECTION 26.1: THE SUN S SIZE, HEAT, AND STRUCTURE Objectives: What is the Sun s structure and source of energy? Key Vocabulary: Fusion Photosphere Corona

More information

UNIT 3: Chapter 8: The Solar System (pages )

UNIT 3: Chapter 8: The Solar System (pages ) CORNELL NOTES Directions: You must create a minimum of 5 questions in this column per page (average). Use these to study your notes and prepare for tests and quizzes. Notes will be turned in to your teacher

More information

Origin of the Oceans I. Solar System? Copernicus. Our Solar System

Origin of the Oceans I. Solar System? Copernicus. Our Solar System Origin of the Oceans I Our Solar System Solar System? To begin our study of the oceans, we must understand why they exist. Fundamental to this question is whether every planet has oceans, and, if not,

More information

3) During retrograde motion a planet appears to be A) dimmer than usual. B) the same brightness as usual C) brighter than usual.

3) During retrograde motion a planet appears to be A) dimmer than usual. B) the same brightness as usual C) brighter than usual. Descriptive Astronomy (ASTR 108) Exam 1 B February 17, 2010 Name: In each of the following multiple choice questions, select the best possible answer. In the line on the scan sheet corresponding to the

More information

HNRS 227 Fall 2006 Chapter 13. What is Pluto? What is a Planet? There are two broad categories of planets: Terrestrial and Jovian

HNRS 227 Fall 2006 Chapter 13. What is Pluto? What is a Planet? There are two broad categories of planets: Terrestrial and Jovian Key Points of Chapter 13 HNRS 227 Fall 2006 Chapter 13 The Solar System presented by Prof. Geller 24 October 2006 Planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Dwarf Planets Pluto,

More information

Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 21

Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 21 Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 21 Early history of astronomy Ancient Greeks Used philosophical arguments to explain natural phenomena Also used some observa:onal data (looking at the night sky) Ancient

More information

Test 1 Review Chapter 1 Our place in the universe

Test 1 Review Chapter 1 Our place in the universe Test 1 Review Bring Gator 1 ID card Bring pencil #2 with eraser No use of calculator or any electronic device during the exam We provide the scantrons Formulas will be projected on the screen You can use

More information

Universal Gravitation

Universal Gravitation Universal Gravitation Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and key figure in the 17th century Scientific revolution. He is best known for his laws of planetary

More information

You should have finished reading Chapter 3, and started on chapter 4 for next week.

You should have finished reading Chapter 3, and started on chapter 4 for next week. Announcements Homework due on Sunday at 11:45pm. Thank your classmate! You should have finished reading Chapter 3, and started on chapter 4 for next week. Don t forget your out of class planetarium show

More information

Observing the Solar System 20-1

Observing the Solar System 20-1 Observing the Solar System 20-1 Ancient Observations The ancient Greeks observed the sky and noticed that the moon, sun, and stars seemed to move in a circle around the Earth. It seemed that the Earth

More information

Read each slide then use the red or some underlined words to complete the organizer.

Read each slide then use the red or some underlined words to complete the organizer. Read each slide then use the red or some underlined words to complete the organizer. 1B Did it start as a bang! 1B The Expanding Universe A. The Big Bang Theory: Idea that all matter began in an infinitely

More information

1. thought the earth was at the center of the solar system and the planets move on small circles that move on bigger circles

1. thought the earth was at the center of the solar system and the planets move on small circles that move on bigger circles Earth Science Chapter 20: Observing the Solar System Match the observations or discoveries with the correct scientist. Answers may be used more than once. Answers that cannot be read will be counted as

More information

The Sun. - this is the visible surface of the Sun. The gases here are very still hot, but much cooler than inside about 6,000 C.

The Sun. - this is the visible surface of the Sun. The gases here are very still hot, but much cooler than inside about 6,000 C. Name: The Sun The Sun is an average sized. Earth, Mars, Jupiter and Uranus are. A star is the only object in space that makes its own. This includes and. The sun is about million miles from Earth. This

More information

Chapter 3 The Solar System

Chapter 3 The Solar System Name: Date: Period: Chapter 3 The Solar System Section 1 Observing the Solar System (pp. 72-77) Key Concepts What are the geocentric and heliocentric systems? How did Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler contribute

More information

7.4 Universal Gravitation

7.4 Universal Gravitation Circular Motion Velocity is a vector quantity, which means that it involves both speed (magnitude) and direction. Therefore an object traveling at a constant speed can still accelerate if the direction

More information

ASTRONOMY CURRICULUM Unit 1: Introduction to Astronomy

ASTRONOMY CURRICULUM Unit 1: Introduction to Astronomy Chariho Regional School District - Science Curriculum September, 2016 ASTRONOMY CURRICULUM Unit 1: Introduction to Astronomy OVERVIEW Summary Students will be introduced to the overarching concept of astronomy.

More information

If Earth had no tilt, what else would happen?

If Earth had no tilt, what else would happen? A more in depth explanation from last week: If Earth had no tilt, what else would happen? The equator would be much hotter due to the direct sunlight which would lead to a lower survival rate and little

More information

Greeks watched the stars move across the sky and noticed five stars that wandered around and did not follow the paths of the normal stars.

Greeks watched the stars move across the sky and noticed five stars that wandered around and did not follow the paths of the normal stars. Chapter 23 Our Solar System Our Solar System Historical Astronomy Wandering Stars Greeks watched the stars move across the sky and noticed five stars that wandered around and did not follow the paths of

More information

1UNIT. The Universe. What do you remember? Key language. Content objectives

1UNIT. The Universe. What do you remember? Key language. Content objectives 1UNIT The Universe What do you remember? What are the points of light in this photo? What is the difference between a star and a planet? a moon and a comet? Content objectives In this unit, you will Learn

More information

KEPLER S LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION

KEPLER S LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION KEPLER S LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION In the early 1600s, Johannes Kepler culminated his analysis of the extensive data taken by Tycho Brahe and published his three laws of planetary motion, which we know

More information

Ast ch 4-5 practice Test Multiple Choice

Ast ch 4-5 practice Test Multiple Choice Ast ch 4-5 practice Test Multiple Choice 1. The distance from Alexandria to Syene is about 500 miles. On the summer solstice the sun is directly overhead at noon in Syene. At Alexandria on the summer solstice,

More information

Astronomy Section 2 Solar System Test

Astronomy Section 2 Solar System Test is really cool! 1. The diagram below shows one model of a portion of the universe. Astronomy Section 2 Solar System Test 4. Which arrangement of the Sun, the Moon, and Earth results in the highest high

More information

Coriolis Effect - the apparent curved paths of projectiles, winds, and ocean currents

Coriolis Effect - the apparent curved paths of projectiles, winds, and ocean currents Regents Earth Science Unit 5: Astronomy Models of the Universe Earliest models of the universe were based on the idea that the Sun, Moon, and planets all orbit the Earth models needed to explain how the

More information

What was once so mysterious about planetary motion in our sky? We see apparent retrograde motion when we pass by a planet

What was once so mysterious about planetary motion in our sky? We see apparent retrograde motion when we pass by a planet What was once so mysterious about planetary motion in our sky? Planets usually move slightly eastward from night to night relative to the stars. You cannot see this motion on a single night. But sometimes

More information

The Birth of Astronomy. Lecture 3 1/24/2018

The Birth of Astronomy. Lecture 3 1/24/2018 The Birth of Astronomy Lecture 3 1/24/2018 Fundamental Questions of Astronomy (life?) What is the shape of the Earth? How big is the planet we live on? Why do the stars move across the sky? Where is Earth

More information

Chapter 16 Astronomy Study Guide. VOCABULARY WORDS TO KNOW geocentric system meteorite meteoroid

Chapter 16 Astronomy Study Guide. VOCABULARY WORDS TO KNOW geocentric system meteorite meteoroid NAME: Period: asteroid asteroid belt comet ellipse force Galilean moons gas giants Chapter 16 Astronomy Study Guide VOCABULARY WORDS TO KNOW geocentric system meteorite gravity meteoroid greenhouse effect

More information

Benefit of astronomy to ancient cultures

Benefit of astronomy to ancient cultures Benefit of astronomy to ancient cultures Usefulness as a tool to predict the weather (seasons) Usefulness as a tool to tell time (sundials) Central Africa (6500 B.C.) Alignments Many ancient cultures built

More information

Unit: Planetary Science

Unit: Planetary Science Orbital Motion Kepler s Laws GETTING AN ACCOUNT: 1) go to www.explorelearning.com 2) click on Enroll in a class (top right hand area of screen). 3) Where it says Enter class Code enter the number: MLTWD2YAZH

More information

Satellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity

Satellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity OpenStax-CNX module: m444 Satellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License.0 Abstract

More information

The Copernican System: A Detailed Synopsis

The Copernican System: A Detailed Synopsis Oglethorpe Journal of Undergraduate Research Volume 5 Issue 1 Article 2 April 2015 The Copernican System: A Detailed Synopsis John Cramer Dr. jcramer@oglethorpe.edu Follow this and additional works at:

More information

By; Jarrick Serdar, Michael Broberg, Trevor Grey, Cameron Kearl, Claire DeCoste, and Kristian Fors

By; Jarrick Serdar, Michael Broberg, Trevor Grey, Cameron Kearl, Claire DeCoste, and Kristian Fors By; Jarrick Serdar, Michael Broberg, Trevor Grey, Cameron Kearl, Claire DeCoste, and Kristian Fors What is gravity? Gravity is defined as the force of attraction by which terrestrial bodies tend to fall

More information

Astronomy 104: Stellar Astronomy

Astronomy 104: Stellar Astronomy Astronomy 104: Stellar Astronomy Lecture 5: Observing is the key... Brahe and Kepler Spring Semester 2013 Dr. Matt Craig 1 For next time: Read Slater and Freedman 3-5 and 3-6 if you haven't already. Focus

More information

Not Your Parents Solar System! Dr. Frank Summers Space Telescope Science Institute July 11, 2013

Not Your Parents Solar System! Dr. Frank Summers Space Telescope Science Institute July 11, 2013 Not Your Parents Solar System! Dr. Frank Summers Space Telescope Science Institute July 11, 2013 Your Ancient Ancestors Solar System Earth Moon Mercury Venus Sun Mars Jupiter Saturn Claudius Ptolemy

More information

Unit 12 Lesson 1 What Objects Are Part of the Solar System?

Unit 12 Lesson 1 What Objects Are Part of the Solar System? Unit 12 Lesson 1 What Objects Are Part of the Solar System? The Solar System Earth, other planets, and the moon are part of a solar system. A solar system is made up of a star and the planets and other

More information

It Might Be a Planet If...

It Might Be a Planet If... It Might Be a Planet If... What is a planet? Until recently, there was no exact definition. There were historically six planets. Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto were discovered after the invention of the telescope.

More information

AST 2010 Descriptive Astronomy Study Guide Exam I

AST 2010 Descriptive Astronomy Study Guide Exam I AST 2010 Descriptive Astronomy Study Guide Exam I Wayne State University 1 Introduction and overview Identify the most significant structures in the universe: Earth, planets, Sun, solar system, stars,

More information

Starting from closest to the Sun, name the orbiting planets in order.

Starting from closest to the Sun, name the orbiting planets in order. Chapter 9 Section 1: Our Solar System Solar System: The solar system includes the sun, planets and many smaller structures. A planet and its moon(s) make up smaller systems in the solar system. Scientist

More information

The Scientific Method

The Scientific Method Chapter 1 The Scientific Method http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/physical/bookpage/ Chapter 1 Outline: Main Ideas Scientists make science work The Scientific Method Science is a process Exploring Nature An

More information

outline 1. in the beginning. The Big Bang 2. galaxies -- different types 3. stars -- life cycle 4. the solar system -- sun and planets

outline 1. in the beginning. The Big Bang 2. galaxies -- different types 3. stars -- life cycle 4. the solar system -- sun and planets Earth s Place in the Universe outline 1. in the beginning. The Big Bang 2. galaxies -- different types 3. stars -- life cycle 4. the solar system -- sun and planets the big bang the universe is expanding

More information

Reading Preview. Models of the Universe What is a geocentric model?

Reading Preview. Models of the Universe What is a geocentric model? Section 1 Observing the Solar System 1 Observing the Solar System Objectives After this lesson, students will be able to J.3.1.1 Identify the geocentric and heliocentric systems. J.3.1.2 Recognize how

More information

Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy

Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy 3.1 The Ancient Roots of Science Our goals for learning: In what ways do all humans employ scientific thinking? How did astronomical observations benefit ancient societies?

More information

Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion. Lecture 5 January 30, 2014

Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion. Lecture 5 January 30, 2014 Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion Lecture 5 January 30, 2014 Parallax If distance is measured in parsecs then d = 1 PA Where PA is the parallax angle, in arcsec NOTE: The distance from the Sun to the Earth

More information

Motions of the Planets ASTR 2110 Sarazin

Motions of the Planets ASTR 2110 Sarazin Motions of the Planets ASTR 2110 Sarazin Motion of Planets Retrograde Motion Inferior Planets: Mercury, Venus Always near Sun on Sky Retrograde motion when very close to Sun on sky (Every other time) Superior

More information

The Scientific Method

The Scientific Method The Scientific Method Objectives: 1. Outline the scientific method. 2. Explain why the scientific method has been more successful than other approaches to understanding the universe. 3. Distinguish between

More information

Kepler s Laws. Determining one point on Mars orbit

Kepler s Laws. Determining one point on Mars orbit Kepler s Laws Hwk1: max is 28 If you want a question regraded, write a note on the front & give me the paper. Figure added to Homework 2 See link on syllabus Read pages in Galileo s Starry Messenger for

More information

4. Gravitation & Planetary Motion. Mars Motion: 2005 to 2006

4. Gravitation & Planetary Motion. Mars Motion: 2005 to 2006 4. Gravitation & Planetary Motion Geocentric models of ancient times Heliocentric model of Copernicus Telescopic observations of Galileo Galilei Systematic observations of Tycho Brahe Three planetary laws

More information

Survey of the Solar System. The Sun Giant Planets Terrestrial Planets Minor Planets Satellite/Ring Systems

Survey of the Solar System. The Sun Giant Planets Terrestrial Planets Minor Planets Satellite/Ring Systems Survey of the Solar System The Sun Giant Planets Terrestrial Planets Minor Planets Satellite/Ring Systems Definition of a dwarf planet 1. Orbits the sun 2. Is large enough to have become round due to the

More information

What is a Revolution? A Revolution is a complete change, or an overthrow of a government, a social system, etc.

What is a Revolution? A Revolution is a complete change, or an overthrow of a government, a social system, etc. CW10 p374 Vocab What is a Revolution? A Revolution is a complete change, or an overthrow of a government, a social system, etc. The Scientific Revolution In the 1500s and 1600s the Scientific Revolution

More information

Johannes Kepler ( ) German Mathematician and Astronomer Passionately convinced of the rightness of the Copernican view. Set out to prove it!

Johannes Kepler ( ) German Mathematician and Astronomer Passionately convinced of the rightness of the Copernican view. Set out to prove it! Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) German Mathematician and Astronomer Passionately convinced of the rightness of the Copernican view. Set out to prove it! Kepler s Life Work Kepler sought a unifying principle

More information

Evolution of the Solar System

Evolution of the Solar System DATE DUE: Name: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 Section: Evolution of the Solar System Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer or option. Use GEOLOGIC vocabulary where

More information

Chapter 4. The Origin of Modern Astronomy

Chapter 4. The Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 4 The Origin of Modern Astronomy Earliest Evidence 15,000 Year old Lunar Calendar Displays Moon Going Through various phases. Location: Lascaux in France The Biggest Mystery Human civilization

More information

Patterns in the Solar System (Chapter 18)

Patterns in the Solar System (Chapter 18) GEOLOGY 306 Laboratory Instructor: TERRY J. BOROUGHS NAME: Patterns in the Solar System (Chapter 18) For this assignment you will require: a calculator, colored pencils, a metric ruler, and meter stick.

More information

Next Homework Due. Feb. 20

Next Homework Due. Feb. 20 This week: Chapter 2 Required: Guided Discovery (p.44-47) Required: Astro. Toolbox 2-1 Optional: Astro. Toolbox 2-2, 2-3 Next Homework Due. Feb. 20 Office Hours: Monday, 3-4 Did you see the Lunar Eclipse?

More information

Ancient Astronomy. Lectures 5-6. Course website:

Ancient Astronomy. Lectures 5-6. Course website: Ancient Astronomy Lectures 5-6 Course website: www.scs.fsu.edu/~dduke/lectures Lectures 5-6 Almagest Books 9 13 geocentric vs. heliocentric point of view the wandering stars, or planets the two anomalies

More information

Ch 22 Origin of Modern Astronomy Notes Ch 22.1 Early Astronomers Astronomy Astrology A. Ancient Greece B. Two Basic Theories Existed:

Ch 22 Origin of Modern Astronomy Notes Ch 22.1 Early Astronomers Astronomy Astrology A. Ancient Greece B. Two Basic Theories Existed: Ch 22 Origin of Modern Astronomy Notes Ch 22.1 Early Astronomers Astronomy: The science that studies the universe, dealing with properties of objects in space. Astrology: A belief that the positions of

More information

A tour along the road to modern science

A tour along the road to modern science A tour along the road to modern science What are the hallmarks of science? What is the scientific method? What is a scientific paradigm shift? Here, we use historical perspective to learn that science

More information

Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion. Lecture 5 January 24, 2013

Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion. Lecture 5 January 24, 2013 Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion Lecture 5 January 24, 2013 Team Extra Credit Two teams: Io & Genius Every class (that is not an exam/exam review) will have a question asked to a random member of each team

More information

Chapter 3 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. The Science of Astronomy Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 3 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. The Science of Astronomy Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 3 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition The Science of Astronomy 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The Science of Astronomy 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 3.1 The Ancient Roots of Science Our

More information

The Science of Astronomy - Copernicus, Tycho, and Kepler. Reminder to take out your clicker and turn it on!

The Science of Astronomy - Copernicus, Tycho, and Kepler. Reminder to take out your clicker and turn it on! The Science of Astronomy - Copernicus, Tycho, and Kepler Reminder to take out your clicker and turn it on! Attendance Quiz Are you here today? Here! (a) yes (b) no (c) here? hear? hear, hear! Clicker Registration

More information

Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due on Tuesday, Jan. 19, 2016

Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due on Tuesday, Jan. 19, 2016 Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due on Tuesday, Jan. 19, 2016 Why are celestial motions and forces important? They explain the world around us.

More information

The Origin of Modern Astronomy. Nicolai Copernicus ( )

The Origin of Modern Astronomy. Nicolai Copernicus ( ) The Origin of Modern Astronomy Nicolai Copernicus (1473-1543) Goals for Today Complete our study of the Moon: lunar phases, the Sun-Earth-Moon geometry, and the eclipses Tides and their origin Earth's

More information

NAME: Log onto YouTube and search for jocrisci channel.

NAME: Log onto YouTube and search for jocrisci channel. NAME: Log onto YouTube and search for jocrisci channel. EARTH MOTIONS (Video 10.1) 1. Define rotation, how long it takes, which direction it happens, the proof it happens, and the result. 2. Define revolution,

More information