Unit 3 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

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2 Florida Benchmarks SC.8.N.1.4 Explain how hypotheses are valuable if they lead to further investigations, even if they turn out not to be supported by the data. SC.8.N.1.5 Analyze the methods used to develop a scientific explanation as seen in different fields of science. SC.8.N.1.6 Understand that scientific investigations involve the collection of relevant empirical evidence, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses, predictions, explanations and models to make sense of the collected evidence.

3 Florida Benchmarks SC.8.N.1.6 Understand that scientific investigations involve the collection of relevant empirical evidence, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses, predictions, explanations and models to make sense of the collected evidence. SC.8.N.2.2 Discuss what characterizes science and its methods.

4 Florida Benchmarks SC.8.E.5.4 Explore the Law of Universal Gravitation by explaining the role that gravity plays in the formation of planets, stars, and solar systems and in determining their motions. LA The student will organize information to show understanding (e.g., representing main ideas within text through charting, mapping, paraphrasing, summarizing, or comparing/ contrasting).

5 Gravity What is gravity? Gravity is a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses and the distances between them. Every object in the universe pulls on every other object.

6 What is gravity? Objects with greater masses have a greater force of attraction than objects with lesser masses have. Objects that are close together have a greater force of attraction than objects that are far apart have. Gravity is the weakest force in nature, yet it is one of the most important forces in the universe.

7 What is gravity? Gravity accounts for the formation of planets, stars, and galaxies. Gravity also keeps smaller bodies in orbit around larger bodies. An orbit is the path that a body follows as it travels around another body in space.

8 What are Kepler s laws? The 16th century Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus changed our view of the solar system. He discovered that the motions of the planets could best be explained if the planets orbited the sun. Like astronomers before him, Copernicus thought that the planets followed circular paths around the sun.

9 What are Kepler s laws? Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe used special instruments to accurately measure planetary motions over a period of 20 years. Using Tycho s data, Johannes Kepler discovered what we call Kepler s laws of planetary motion.

10 What are Kepler s laws? Upon plotting the orbit of Mars, Kepler saw that it was a deformed circle. After eight years of work, he realized that it was an ellipse. Kepler then proposed that each of the planets has an elliptical orbit, with the sun at one focus of the ellipse. This is Kepler s first law.

11 What are Kepler s laws? When an object follows an elliptical orbit around the sun, there is one point, called aphelion, where the object is farthest from the sun. There is also a point, called perihelion, where the object is closest to the sun. Today, we know that the orbits of the planets are only slightly elliptical, but the orbits of objects such as Pluto and comets are highly elliptical.

12 What are Kepler s laws? Kepler found that a planet moves slower at aphelion, sweeping out a narrow sector on the ellipse. Conversely, a planet moves faster at perihelion, sweeping out a thick sector on the ellipse. As a planet moves around its orbit, it sweeps out equal areas in equal times. This is Kepler s second law.

13 What are Kepler s laws? Kepler also looked at how long it took for the planets to orbit the sun and at the sizes of their orbits. He discovered that the square of the orbital period is proportional to the cube of the planet s distance from the sun. This principle is Kepler s third law.

14 What is the law of universal gravitation? Using Kepler s laws, Sir Isaac Newton became the first scientist to mathematically describe how the force of gravity behaves. He reasoned that gravity is the force that accounts for both the fall of an apple from a tree and the movement of the moon around Earth. In 1687, Newton formulated the law of universal gravitation.

15 What is the law of universal gravitation? The law of universal gravitation states that all objects in the universe attract each other through gravitational force. The strength of this force depends on the product of the masses of the objects. Gravitational force is also inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the objects.

16 How does gravity affect planetary motion? If a ball is attached to a string and is swung around, it moves in a circular path. The inward force that causes an object to move in a circular path is called centripetal force. If the string breaks, the ball will move off in a straight line. When the string is intact, the centripetal force prevents the ball from flying off.

17 How does gravity affect planetary motion? When planets orbit the sun, a force similar to centripetal force prevents them from moving out of their orbits and into a straight line. The sun s gravity is the force that keeps the planets moving in orbit around the sun.

18 Collapse How did the solar system form? The formation of the solar system is thought to have begun 4.6 billion years ago when a cloud of gas and dust collapsed. This kind of cloud, from which solar systems form, is called a solar nebula. In a solar nebula, the inward pull of gravity is balanced by the outward push of gas pressure in the cloud.

19 How did the solar system form? Scientists think that an outside force, perhaps the explosion of a nearby star, caused the nebula to compress and contract under its own gravity. The solar system formed in a single region of the nebula, perhaps several light-years across. The sun probably formed from a region that had a mass that was slightly greater than today s mass of the sun and planets.

20 How did the solar system form? As a region of the solar nebula collapsed, gravity pulled most of the mass toward the center of the nebula. As the nebula contracted, it began to rotate with increasing speed and flattened out into a disk. This disk, called a protostellar disk, is where the central star, our sun, formed.

21 How did the solar system form? As the protostellar disk continued to contract, most of the matter ended up in the center of the disk. Friction from matter that fell into the disk heated its center to millions of degrees, resulting in the fusion of hydrogen atoms into helium atoms. The process of fusion released large amounts of energy, the gas and dust stopped collapsing, and the sun was born.

22 How did the solar system form? As the sun was forming, dust grains collided and stuck together to form dust granules, which increased in size to form meter-sized bodies. Collisions between these bodies formed larger bodies, called planetesimals, from which planets formed. The protostellar disk became the protoplanetary disk in which the planets formed.

23 How did the solar system form? The inner part of the protoplanetary disk was so hot that only rocks and metals were in solid form. The collisions of rocky planetesimals in the inner disk led to the formation of rocky, metallic planets. We call these inner planets the terrestrial planets.

24 How did the solar system form? In the cold, outer disk, massive planets made of icy and rocky planetesimals may have formed. The gravity of these planets was so strong that they captured gas and other matter as they grew. Therefore, these outer planets have rocky or metallic cores and deep atmospheres of gas and ice, and they are called the gas giant planets.

25 How did the solar system form?

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